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use crate::base::ExtCtxt;
use crate::mbe::macro_parser::{MatchedNonterminal, MatchedSeq, MatchedTokenTree, NamedMatch};
use crate::mbe::{self, MetaVarExpr};
use rustc_ast::mut_visit::{self, MutVisitor};
use rustc_ast::token::{self, Delimiter, Token, TokenKind};
use rustc_ast::tokenstream::{DelimSpan, Spacing, TokenStream, TokenTree};
use rustc_data_structures::fx::FxHashMap;
use rustc_errors::{pluralize, PResult};
use rustc_errors::{DiagnosticBuilder, ErrorGuaranteed};
use rustc_span::hygiene::{LocalExpnId, Transparency};
use rustc_span::symbol::{sym, Ident, MacroRulesNormalizedIdent};
use rustc_span::Span;

use smallvec::{smallvec, SmallVec};
use std::mem;

// A Marker adds the given mark to the syntax context.
struct Marker(LocalExpnId, Transparency);

impl MutVisitor for Marker {
    const VISIT_TOKENS: bool = true;

    fn visit_span(&mut self, span: &mut Span) {
        *span = span.apply_mark(self.0.to_expn_id(), self.1)
    }
}

/// An iterator over the token trees in a delimited token tree (`{ ... }`) or a sequence (`$(...)`).
enum Frame<'a> {
    Delimited { tts: &'a [mbe::TokenTree], idx: usize, delim: Delimiter, span: DelimSpan },
    Sequence { tts: &'a [mbe::TokenTree], idx: usize, sep: Option<Token> },
}

impl<'a> Frame<'a> {
    /// Construct a new frame around the delimited set of tokens.
    fn new(src: &'a mbe::Delimited, span: DelimSpan) -> Frame<'a> {
        Frame::Delimited { tts: &src.tts, idx: 0, delim: src.delim, span }
    }
}

impl<'a> Iterator for Frame<'a> {
    type Item = &'a mbe::TokenTree;

    fn next(&mut self) -> Option<&'a mbe::TokenTree> {
        match self {
            Frame::Delimited { tts, ref mut idx, .. }
            | Frame::Sequence { tts, ref mut idx, .. } => {
                let res = tts.get(*idx);
                *idx += 1;
                res
            }
        }
    }
}

/// This can do Macro-By-Example transcription.
/// - `interp` is a map of meta-variables to the tokens (non-terminals) they matched in the
///   invocation. We are assuming we already know there is a match.
/// - `src` is the RHS of the MBE, that is, the "example" we are filling in.
///
/// For example,
///
/// ```rust
/// macro_rules! foo {
///     ($id:ident) => { println!("{}", stringify!($id)); }
/// }
///
/// foo!(bar);
/// ```
///
/// `interp` would contain `$id => bar` and `src` would contain `println!("{}", stringify!($id));`.
///
/// `transcribe` would return a `TokenStream` containing `println!("{}", stringify!(bar));`.
///
/// Along the way, we do some additional error checking.
pub(super) fn transcribe<'a>(
    cx: &ExtCtxt<'a>,
    interp: &FxHashMap<MacroRulesNormalizedIdent, NamedMatch>,
    src: &mbe::Delimited,
    src_span: DelimSpan,
    transparency: Transparency,
) -> PResult<'a, TokenStream> {
    // Nothing for us to transcribe...
    if src.tts.is_empty() {
        return Ok(TokenStream::default());
    }

    // We descend into the RHS (`src`), expanding things as we go. This stack contains the things
    // we have yet to expand/are still expanding. We start the stack off with the whole RHS.
    let mut stack: SmallVec<[Frame<'_>; 1]> = smallvec![Frame::new(&src, src_span)];

    // As we descend in the RHS, we will need to be able to match nested sequences of matchers.
    // `repeats` keeps track of where we are in matching at each level, with the last element being
    // the most deeply nested sequence. This is used as a stack.
    let mut repeats = Vec::new();

    // `result` contains resulting token stream from the TokenTree we just finished processing. At
    // the end, this will contain the full result of transcription, but at arbitrary points during
    // `transcribe`, `result` will contain subsets of the final result.
    //
    // Specifically, as we descend into each TokenTree, we will push the existing results onto the
    // `result_stack` and clear `results`. We will then produce the results of transcribing the
    // TokenTree into `results`. Then, as we unwind back out of the `TokenTree`, we will pop the
    // `result_stack` and append `results` too it to produce the new `results` up to that point.
    //
    // Thus, if we try to pop the `result_stack` and it is empty, we have reached the top-level
    // again, and we are done transcribing.
    let mut result: Vec<TokenTree> = Vec::new();
    let mut result_stack = Vec::new();
    let mut marker = Marker(cx.current_expansion.id, transparency);

    loop {
        // Look at the last frame on the stack.
        // If it still has a TokenTree we have not looked at yet, use that tree.
        let Some(tree) = stack.last_mut().unwrap().next() else {
            // This else-case never produces a value for `tree` (it `continue`s or `return`s).

            // Otherwise, if we have just reached the end of a sequence and we can keep repeating,
            // go back to the beginning of the sequence.
            if let Frame::Sequence { idx, sep, .. } = stack.last_mut().unwrap() {
                let (repeat_idx, repeat_len) = repeats.last_mut().unwrap();
                *repeat_idx += 1;
                if repeat_idx < repeat_len {
                    *idx = 0;
                    if let Some(sep) = sep {
                        result.push(TokenTree::Token(sep.clone(), Spacing::Alone));
                    }
                    continue;
                }
            }

            // We are done with the top of the stack. Pop it. Depending on what it was, we do
            // different things. Note that the outermost item must be the delimited, wrapped RHS
            // that was passed in originally to `transcribe`.
            match stack.pop().unwrap() {
                // Done with a sequence. Pop from repeats.
                Frame::Sequence { .. } => {
                    repeats.pop();
                }

                // We are done processing a Delimited. If this is the top-level delimited, we are
                // done. Otherwise, we unwind the result_stack to append what we have produced to
                // any previous results.
                Frame::Delimited { delim, span, .. } => {
                    if result_stack.is_empty() {
                        // No results left to compute! We are back at the top-level.
                        return Ok(TokenStream::new(result));
                    }

                    // Step back into the parent Delimited.
                    let tree = TokenTree::Delimited(span, delim, TokenStream::new(result));
                    result = result_stack.pop().unwrap();
                    result.push(tree);
                }
            }
            continue;
        };

        // At this point, we know we are in the middle of a TokenTree (the last one on `stack`).
        // `tree` contains the next `TokenTree` to be processed.
        match tree {
            // We are descending into a sequence. We first make sure that the matchers in the RHS
            // and the matches in `interp` have the same shape. Otherwise, either the caller or the
            // macro writer has made a mistake.
            seq @ mbe::TokenTree::Sequence(_, delimited) => {
                match lockstep_iter_size(&seq, interp, &repeats) {
                    LockstepIterSize::Unconstrained => {
                        return Err(cx.struct_span_err(
                            seq.span(), /* blame macro writer */
                            "attempted to repeat an expression containing no syntax variables \
                             matched as repeating at this depth",
                        ));
                    }

                    LockstepIterSize::Contradiction(msg) => {
                        // FIXME: this really ought to be caught at macro definition time... It
                        // happens when two meta-variables are used in the same repetition in a
                        // sequence, but they come from different sequence matchers and repeat
                        // different amounts.
                        return Err(cx.struct_span_err(seq.span(), &msg));
                    }

                    LockstepIterSize::Constraint(len, _) => {
                        // We do this to avoid an extra clone above. We know that this is a
                        // sequence already.
                        let mbe::TokenTree::Sequence(sp, seq) = seq else {
                            unreachable!()
                        };

                        // Is the repetition empty?
                        if len == 0 {
                            if seq.kleene.op == mbe::KleeneOp::OneOrMore {
                                // FIXME: this really ought to be caught at macro definition
                                // time... It happens when the Kleene operator in the matcher and
                                // the body for the same meta-variable do not match.
                                return Err(cx.struct_span_err(
                                    sp.entire(),
                                    "this must repeat at least once",
                                ));
                            }
                        } else {
                            // 0 is the initial counter (we have done 0 repetitions so far). `len`
                            // is the total number of repetitions we should generate.
                            repeats.push((0, len));

                            // The first time we encounter the sequence we push it to the stack. It
                            // then gets reused (see the beginning of the loop) until we are done
                            // repeating.
                            stack.push(Frame::Sequence {
                                idx: 0,
                                sep: seq.separator.clone(),
                                tts: &delimited.tts,
                            });
                        }
                    }
                }
            }

            // Replace the meta-var with the matched token tree from the invocation.
            mbe::TokenTree::MetaVar(mut sp, mut original_ident) => {
                // Find the matched nonterminal from the macro invocation, and use it to replace
                // the meta-var.
                let ident = MacroRulesNormalizedIdent::new(original_ident);
                if let Some(cur_matched) = lookup_cur_matched(ident, interp, &repeats) {
                    match cur_matched {
                        MatchedTokenTree(ref tt) => {
                            // `tt`s are emitted into the output stream directly as "raw tokens",
                            // without wrapping them into groups.
                            let token = tt.clone();
                            result.push(token);
                        }
                        MatchedNonterminal(ref nt) => {
                            // Other variables are emitted into the output stream as groups with
                            // `Delimiter::Invisible` to maintain parsing priorities.
                            // `Interpolated` is currently used for such groups in rustc parser.
                            marker.visit_span(&mut sp);
                            let token = TokenTree::token_alone(token::Interpolated(nt.clone()), sp);
                            result.push(token);
                        }
                        MatchedSeq(..) => {
                            // We were unable to descend far enough. This is an error.
                            return Err(cx.struct_span_err(
                                sp, /* blame the macro writer */
                                &format!("variable '{}' is still repeating at this depth", ident),
                            ));
                        }
                    }
                } else {
                    // If we aren't able to match the meta-var, we push it back into the result but
                    // with modified syntax context. (I believe this supports nested macros).
                    marker.visit_span(&mut sp);
                    marker.visit_ident(&mut original_ident);
                    result.push(TokenTree::token_alone(token::Dollar, sp));
                    result.push(TokenTree::Token(
                        Token::from_ast_ident(original_ident),
                        Spacing::Alone,
                    ));
                }
            }

            // Replace meta-variable expressions with the result of their expansion.
            mbe::TokenTree::MetaVarExpr(sp, expr) => {
                transcribe_metavar_expr(cx, expr, interp, &mut marker, &repeats, &mut result, &sp)?;
            }

            // If we are entering a new delimiter, we push its contents to the `stack` to be
            // processed, and we push all of the currently produced results to the `result_stack`.
            // We will produce all of the results of the inside of the `Delimited` and then we will
            // jump back out of the Delimited, pop the result_stack and add the new results back to
            // the previous results (from outside the Delimited).
            mbe::TokenTree::Delimited(mut span, delimited) => {
                mut_visit::visit_delim_span(&mut span, &mut marker);
                stack.push(Frame::Delimited {
                    tts: &delimited.tts,
                    delim: delimited.delim,
                    idx: 0,
                    span,
                });
                result_stack.push(mem::take(&mut result));
            }

            // Nothing much to do here. Just push the token to the result, being careful to
            // preserve syntax context.
            mbe::TokenTree::Token(token) => {
                let mut token = token.clone();
                mut_visit::visit_token(&mut token, &mut marker);
                let tt = TokenTree::Token(token, Spacing::Alone);
                result.push(tt);
            }

            // There should be no meta-var declarations in the invocation of a macro.
            mbe::TokenTree::MetaVarDecl(..) => panic!("unexpected `TokenTree::MetaVarDecl"),
        }
    }
}

/// Lookup the meta-var named `ident` and return the matched token tree from the invocation using
/// the set of matches `interpolations`.
///
/// See the definition of `repeats` in the `transcribe` function. `repeats` is used to descend
/// into the right place in nested matchers. If we attempt to descend too far, the macro writer has
/// made a mistake, and we return `None`.
fn lookup_cur_matched<'a>(
    ident: MacroRulesNormalizedIdent,
    interpolations: &'a FxHashMap<MacroRulesNormalizedIdent, NamedMatch>,
    repeats: &[(usize, usize)],
) -> Option<&'a NamedMatch> {
    interpolations.get(&ident).map(|matched| {
        let mut matched = matched;
        for &(idx, _) in repeats {
            match matched {
                MatchedTokenTree(_) | MatchedNonterminal(_) => break,
                MatchedSeq(ref ads) => matched = ads.get(idx).unwrap(),
            }
        }

        matched
    })
}

/// An accumulator over a TokenTree to be used with `fold`. During transcription, we need to make
/// sure that the size of each sequence and all of its nested sequences are the same as the sizes
/// of all the matched (nested) sequences in the macro invocation. If they don't match, somebody
/// has made a mistake (either the macro writer or caller).
#[derive(Clone)]
enum LockstepIterSize {
    /// No constraints on length of matcher. This is true for any TokenTree variants except a
    /// `MetaVar` with an actual `MatchedSeq` (as opposed to a `MatchedNonterminal`).
    Unconstrained,

    /// A `MetaVar` with an actual `MatchedSeq`. The length of the match and the name of the
    /// meta-var are returned.
    Constraint(usize, MacroRulesNormalizedIdent),

    /// Two `Constraint`s on the same sequence had different lengths. This is an error.
    Contradiction(String),
}

impl LockstepIterSize {
    /// Find incompatibilities in matcher/invocation sizes.
    /// - `Unconstrained` is compatible with everything.
    /// - `Contradiction` is incompatible with everything.
    /// - `Constraint(len)` is only compatible with other constraints of the same length.
    fn with(self, other: LockstepIterSize) -> LockstepIterSize {
        match self {
            LockstepIterSize::Unconstrained => other,
            LockstepIterSize::Contradiction(_) => self,
            LockstepIterSize::Constraint(l_len, ref l_id) => match other {
                LockstepIterSize::Unconstrained => self,
                LockstepIterSize::Contradiction(_) => other,
                LockstepIterSize::Constraint(r_len, _) if l_len == r_len => self,
                LockstepIterSize::Constraint(r_len, r_id) => {
                    let msg = format!(
                        "meta-variable `{}` repeats {} time{}, but `{}` repeats {} time{}",
                        l_id,
                        l_len,
                        pluralize!(l_len),
                        r_id,
                        r_len,
                        pluralize!(r_len),
                    );
                    LockstepIterSize::Contradiction(msg)
                }
            },
        }
    }
}

/// Given a `tree`, make sure that all sequences have the same length as the matches for the
/// appropriate meta-vars in `interpolations`.
///
/// Note that if `repeats` does not match the exact correct depth of a meta-var,
/// `lookup_cur_matched` will return `None`, which is why this still works even in the presence of
/// multiple nested matcher sequences.
///
/// Example: `$($($x $y)+*);+` -- we need to make sure that `x` and `y` repeat the same amount as
/// each other at the given depth when the macro was invoked. If they don't it might mean they were
/// declared at unequal depths or there was a compile bug. For example, if we have 3 repetitions of
/// the outer sequence and 4 repetitions of the inner sequence for `x`, we should have the same for
/// `y`; otherwise, we can't transcribe them both at the given depth.
fn lockstep_iter_size(
    tree: &mbe::TokenTree,
    interpolations: &FxHashMap<MacroRulesNormalizedIdent, NamedMatch>,
    repeats: &[(usize, usize)],
) -> LockstepIterSize {
    use mbe::TokenTree;
    match *tree {
        TokenTree::Delimited(_, ref delimited) => {
            delimited.tts.iter().fold(LockstepIterSize::Unconstrained, |size, tt| {
                size.with(lockstep_iter_size(tt, interpolations, repeats))
            })
        }
        TokenTree::Sequence(_, ref seq) => {
            seq.tts.iter().fold(LockstepIterSize::Unconstrained, |size, tt| {
                size.with(lockstep_iter_size(tt, interpolations, repeats))
            })
        }
        TokenTree::MetaVar(_, name) | TokenTree::MetaVarDecl(_, name, _) => {
            let name = MacroRulesNormalizedIdent::new(name);
            match lookup_cur_matched(name, interpolations, repeats) {
                Some(matched) => match matched {
                    MatchedTokenTree(_) | MatchedNonterminal(_) => LockstepIterSize::Unconstrained,
                    MatchedSeq(ref ads) => LockstepIterSize::Constraint(ads.len(), name),
                },
                _ => LockstepIterSize::Unconstrained,
            }
        }
        TokenTree::MetaVarExpr(_, ref expr) => {
            let default_rslt = LockstepIterSize::Unconstrained;
            let Some(ident) = expr.ident() else { return default_rslt; };
            let name = MacroRulesNormalizedIdent::new(ident);
            match lookup_cur_matched(name, interpolations, repeats) {
                Some(MatchedSeq(ref ads)) => {
                    default_rslt.with(LockstepIterSize::Constraint(ads.len(), name))
                }
                _ => default_rslt,
            }
        }
        TokenTree::Token(..) => LockstepIterSize::Unconstrained,
    }
}

/// Used solely by the `count` meta-variable expression, counts the outer-most repetitions at a
/// given optional nested depth.
///
/// For example, a macro parameter of `$( { $( $foo:ident ),* } )*` called with `{ a, b } { c }`:
///
/// * `[ $( ${count(foo)} ),* ]` will return [2, 1] with a, b = 2 and c = 1
/// * `[ $( ${count(foo, 0)} ),* ]` will be the same as `[ $( ${count(foo)} ),* ]`
/// * `[ $( ${count(foo, 1)} ),* ]` will return an error because `${count(foo, 1)}` is
///   declared inside a single repetition and the index `1` implies two nested repetitions.
fn count_repetitions<'a>(
    cx: &ExtCtxt<'a>,
    depth_opt: Option<usize>,
    mut matched: &NamedMatch,
    repeats: &[(usize, usize)],
    sp: &DelimSpan,
) -> PResult<'a, usize> {
    // Recursively count the number of matches in `matched` at given depth
    // (or at the top-level of `matched` if no depth is given).
    fn count<'a>(
        cx: &ExtCtxt<'a>,
        declared_lhs_depth: usize,
        depth_opt: Option<usize>,
        matched: &NamedMatch,
        sp: &DelimSpan,
    ) -> PResult<'a, usize> {
        match matched {
            MatchedTokenTree(_) | MatchedNonterminal(_) => {
                if declared_lhs_depth == 0 {
                    return Err(cx.struct_span_err(
                        sp.entire(),
                        "`count` can not be placed inside the inner-most repetition",
                    ));
                }
                match depth_opt {
                    None => Ok(1),
                    Some(_) => Err(out_of_bounds_err(cx, declared_lhs_depth, sp.entire(), "count")),
                }
            }
            MatchedSeq(ref named_matches) => {
                let new_declared_lhs_depth = declared_lhs_depth + 1;
                match depth_opt {
                    None => named_matches
                        .iter()
                        .map(|elem| count(cx, new_declared_lhs_depth, None, elem, sp))
                        .sum(),
                    Some(0) => Ok(named_matches.len()),
                    Some(depth) => named_matches
                        .iter()
                        .map(|elem| count(cx, new_declared_lhs_depth, Some(depth - 1), elem, sp))
                        .sum(),
                }
            }
        }
    }
    // `repeats` records all of the nested levels at which we are currently
    // matching meta-variables. The meta-var-expr `count($x)` only counts
    // matches that occur in this "subtree" of the `NamedMatch` where we
    // are currently transcribing, so we need to descend to that subtree
    // before we start counting. `matched` contains the various levels of the
    // tree as we descend, and its final value is the subtree we are currently at.
    for &(idx, _) in repeats {
        if let MatchedSeq(ref ads) = matched {
            matched = &ads[idx];
        }
    }
    count(cx, 0, depth_opt, matched, sp)
}

/// Returns a `NamedMatch` item declared on the LHS given an arbitrary [Ident]
fn matched_from_ident<'ctx, 'interp, 'rslt>(
    cx: &ExtCtxt<'ctx>,
    ident: Ident,
    interp: &'interp FxHashMap<MacroRulesNormalizedIdent, NamedMatch>,
) -> PResult<'ctx, &'rslt NamedMatch>
where
    'interp: 'rslt,
{
    let span = ident.span;
    let key = MacroRulesNormalizedIdent::new(ident);
    interp.get(&key).ok_or_else(|| {
        cx.struct_span_err(
            span,
            &format!("variable `{}` is not recognized in meta-variable expression", key),
        )
    })
}

/// Used by meta-variable expressions when an user input is out of the actual declared bounds. For
/// example, index(999999) in an repetition of only three elements.
fn out_of_bounds_err<'a>(
    cx: &ExtCtxt<'a>,
    max: usize,
    span: Span,
    ty: &str,
) -> DiagnosticBuilder<'a, ErrorGuaranteed> {
    let msg = if max == 0 {
        format!(
            "meta-variable expression `{ty}` with depth parameter \
             must be called inside of a macro repetition"
        )
    } else {
        format!(
            "depth parameter on meta-variable expression `{ty}` \
             must be less than {max}"
        )
    };
    cx.struct_span_err(span, &msg)
}

fn transcribe_metavar_expr<'a>(
    cx: &ExtCtxt<'a>,
    expr: &MetaVarExpr,
    interp: &FxHashMap<MacroRulesNormalizedIdent, NamedMatch>,
    marker: &mut Marker,
    repeats: &[(usize, usize)],
    result: &mut Vec<TokenTree>,
    sp: &DelimSpan,
) -> PResult<'a, ()> {
    let mut visited_span = || {
        let mut span = sp.entire();
        marker.visit_span(&mut span);
        span
    };
    match *expr {
        MetaVarExpr::Count(original_ident, depth_opt) => {
            let matched = matched_from_ident(cx, original_ident, interp)?;
            let count = count_repetitions(cx, depth_opt, matched, &repeats, sp)?;
            let tt = TokenTree::token_alone(
                TokenKind::lit(token::Integer, sym::integer(count), None),
                visited_span(),
            );
            result.push(tt);
        }
        MetaVarExpr::Ignore(original_ident) => {
            // Used to ensure that `original_ident` is present in the LHS
            let _ = matched_from_ident(cx, original_ident, interp)?;
        }
        MetaVarExpr::Index(depth) => match repeats.iter().nth_back(depth) {
            Some((index, _)) => {
                result.push(TokenTree::token_alone(
                    TokenKind::lit(token::Integer, sym::integer(*index), None),
                    visited_span(),
                ));
            }
            None => return Err(out_of_bounds_err(cx, repeats.len(), sp.entire(), "index")),
        },
        MetaVarExpr::Length(depth) => match repeats.iter().nth_back(depth) {
            Some((_, length)) => {
                result.push(TokenTree::token_alone(
                    TokenKind::lit(token::Integer, sym::integer(*length), None),
                    visited_span(),
                ));
            }
            None => return Err(out_of_bounds_err(cx, repeats.len(), sp.entire(), "length")),
        },
    }
    Ok(())
}