1.0.0[][src]Enum core::option::Option

pub enum Option<T> {
    None,
    Some(T),
}

The Option type. See the module level documentation for more.

Variants

None

No value

Some(T)

Some value T

Methods

impl<T> Option<T>[src]

#[must_use = "if you intended to assert that this has a value, consider `.unwrap()` instead"] pub fn is_some(&self) -> bool[src]

Returns true if the option is a Some value.

Examples

let x: Option<u32> = Some(2);
assert_eq!(x.is_some(), true);

let x: Option<u32> = None;
assert_eq!(x.is_some(), false);Run

#[must_use = "if you intended to assert that this doesn\'t have a value, consider `.and_then(|| panic!(\"`Option` had a value when expected `None`\"))` instead"] pub fn is_none(&self) -> bool[src]

Returns true if the option is a None value.

Examples

let x: Option<u32> = Some(2);
assert_eq!(x.is_none(), false);

let x: Option<u32> = None;
assert_eq!(x.is_none(), true);Run

#[must_use] pub fn contains<U>(&self, x: &U) -> bool where
    U: PartialEq<T>, 
[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (option_result_contains #62358)

Returns true if the option is a Some value containing the given value.

Examples

#![feature(option_result_contains)]

let x: Option<u32> = Some(2);
assert_eq!(x.contains(&2), true);

let x: Option<u32> = Some(3);
assert_eq!(x.contains(&2), false);

let x: Option<u32> = None;
assert_eq!(x.contains(&2), false);Run

pub fn as_ref(&self) -> Option<&T>[src]

Converts from &Option<T> to Option<&T>.

Examples

Converts an Option<String> into an Option<usize>, preserving the original. The map method takes the self argument by value, consuming the original, so this technique uses as_ref to first take an Option to a reference to the value inside the original.

let text: Option<String> = Some("Hello, world!".to_string());
// First, cast `Option<String>` to `Option<&String>` with `as_ref`,
// then consume *that* with `map`, leaving `text` on the stack.
let text_length: Option<usize> = text.as_ref().map(|s| s.len());
println!("still can print text: {:?}", text);Run

pub fn as_mut(&mut self) -> Option<&mut T>[src]

Converts from &mut Option<T> to Option<&mut T>.

Examples

let mut x = Some(2);
match x.as_mut() {
    Some(v) => *v = 42,
    None => {},
}
assert_eq!(x, Some(42));Run

pub fn as_pin_ref<'a>(self: Pin<&'a Option<T>>) -> Option<Pin<&'a T>>1.33.0[src]

Converts from Pin<&Option<T>> to Option<Pin<&T>>.

pub fn as_pin_mut<'a>(self: Pin<&'a mut Option<T>>) -> Option<Pin<&'a mut T>>1.33.0[src]

Converts from Pin<&mut Option<T>> to Option<Pin<&mut T>>.

pub fn expect(self, msg: &str) -> T[src]

Unwraps an option, yielding the content of a Some.

Panics

Panics if the value is a None with a custom panic message provided by msg.

Examples

let x = Some("value");
assert_eq!(x.expect("the world is ending"), "value");Run
let x: Option<&str> = None;
x.expect("the world is ending"); // panics with `the world is ending`Run

pub fn unwrap(self) -> T[src]

Moves the value v out of the Option<T> if it is Some(v).

In general, because this function may panic, its use is discouraged. Instead, prefer to use pattern matching and handle the None case explicitly.

Panics

Panics if the self value equals None.

Examples

let x = Some("air");
assert_eq!(x.unwrap(), "air");Run
let x: Option<&str> = None;
assert_eq!(x.unwrap(), "air"); // failsRun

pub fn unwrap_or(self, def: T) -> T[src]

Returns the contained value or a default.

Arguments passed to unwrap_or are eagerly evaluated; if you are passing the result of a function call, it is recommended to use unwrap_or_else, which is lazily evaluated.

Examples

assert_eq!(Some("car").unwrap_or("bike"), "car");
assert_eq!(None.unwrap_or("bike"), "bike");Run

pub fn unwrap_or_else<F: FnOnce() -> T>(self, f: F) -> T[src]

Returns the contained value or computes it from a closure.

Examples

let k = 10;
assert_eq!(Some(4).unwrap_or_else(|| 2 * k), 4);
assert_eq!(None.unwrap_or_else(|| 2 * k), 20);Run

pub fn map<U, F: FnOnce(T) -> U>(self, f: F) -> Option<U>[src]

Maps an Option<T> to Option<U> by applying a function to a contained value.

Examples

Converts an Option<String> into an Option<usize>, consuming the original:

let maybe_some_string = Some(String::from("Hello, World!"));
// `Option::map` takes self *by value*, consuming `maybe_some_string`
let maybe_some_len = maybe_some_string.map(|s| s.len());

assert_eq!(maybe_some_len, Some(13));Run

pub fn map_or<U, F: FnOnce(T) -> U>(self, default: U, f: F) -> U[src]

Applies a function to the contained value (if any), or returns the provided default (if not).

Examples

let x = Some("foo");
assert_eq!(x.map_or(42, |v| v.len()), 3);

let x: Option<&str> = None;
assert_eq!(x.map_or(42, |v| v.len()), 42);Run

pub fn map_or_else<U, D: FnOnce() -> U, F: FnOnce(T) -> U>(
    self,
    default: D,
    f: F
) -> U
[src]

Applies a function to the contained value (if any), or computes a default (if not).

Examples

let k = 21;

let x = Some("foo");
assert_eq!(x.map_or_else(|| 2 * k, |v| v.len()), 3);

let x: Option<&str> = None;
assert_eq!(x.map_or_else(|| 2 * k, |v| v.len()), 42);Run

pub fn ok_or<E>(self, err: E) -> Result<T, E>[src]

Transforms the Option<T> into a Result<T, E>, mapping Some(v) to Ok(v) and None to Err(err).

Arguments passed to ok_or are eagerly evaluated; if you are passing the result of a function call, it is recommended to use ok_or_else, which is lazily evaluated.

Examples

let x = Some("foo");
assert_eq!(x.ok_or(0), Ok("foo"));

let x: Option<&str> = None;
assert_eq!(x.ok_or(0), Err(0));Run

pub fn ok_or_else<E, F: FnOnce() -> E>(self, err: F) -> Result<T, E>[src]

Transforms the Option<T> into a Result<T, E>, mapping Some(v) to Ok(v) and None to Err(err()).

Examples

let x = Some("foo");
assert_eq!(x.ok_or_else(|| 0), Ok("foo"));

let x: Option<&str> = None;
assert_eq!(x.ok_or_else(|| 0), Err(0));Run

Important traits for Iter<'a, A>
pub fn iter(&self) -> Iter<T>[src]

Returns an iterator over the possibly contained value.

Examples

let x = Some(4);
assert_eq!(x.iter().next(), Some(&4));

let x: Option<u32> = None;
assert_eq!(x.iter().next(), None);Run

Important traits for IterMut<'a, A>
pub fn iter_mut(&mut self) -> IterMut<T>[src]

Returns a mutable iterator over the possibly contained value.

Examples

let mut x = Some(4);
match x.iter_mut().next() {
    Some(v) => *v = 42,
    None => {},
}
assert_eq!(x, Some(42));

let mut x: Option<u32> = None;
assert_eq!(x.iter_mut().next(), None);Run

pub fn and<U>(self, optb: Option<U>) -> Option<U>[src]

Returns None if the option is None, otherwise returns optb.

Examples

let x = Some(2);
let y: Option<&str> = None;
assert_eq!(x.and(y), None);

let x: Option<u32> = None;
let y = Some("foo");
assert_eq!(x.and(y), None);

let x = Some(2);
let y = Some("foo");
assert_eq!(x.and(y), Some("foo"));

let x: Option<u32> = None;
let y: Option<&str> = None;
assert_eq!(x.and(y), None);Run

pub fn and_then<U, F: FnOnce(T) -> Option<U>>(self, f: F) -> Option<U>[src]

Returns None if the option is None, otherwise calls f with the wrapped value and returns the result.

Some languages call this operation flatmap.

Examples

fn sq(x: u32) -> Option<u32> { Some(x * x) }
fn nope(_: u32) -> Option<u32> { None }

assert_eq!(Some(2).and_then(sq).and_then(sq), Some(16));
assert_eq!(Some(2).and_then(sq).and_then(nope), None);
assert_eq!(Some(2).and_then(nope).and_then(sq), None);
assert_eq!(None.and_then(sq).and_then(sq), None);Run

pub fn filter<P: FnOnce(&T) -> bool>(self, predicate: P) -> Self1.27.0[src]

Returns None if the option is None, otherwise calls predicate with the wrapped value and returns:

  • Some(t) if predicate returns true (where t is the wrapped value), and
  • None if predicate returns false.

This function works similar to Iterator::filter(). You can imagine the Option<T> being an iterator over one or zero elements. filter() lets you decide which elements to keep.

Examples

fn is_even(n: &i32) -> bool {
    n % 2 == 0
}

assert_eq!(None.filter(is_even), None);
assert_eq!(Some(3).filter(is_even), None);
assert_eq!(Some(4).filter(is_even), Some(4));Run

pub fn or(self, optb: Option<T>) -> Option<T>[src]

Returns the option if it contains a value, otherwise returns optb.

Arguments passed to or are eagerly evaluated; if you are passing the result of a function call, it is recommended to use or_else, which is lazily evaluated.

Examples

let x = Some(2);
let y = None;
assert_eq!(x.or(y), Some(2));

let x = None;
let y = Some(100);
assert_eq!(x.or(y), Some(100));

let x = Some(2);
let y = Some(100);
assert_eq!(x.or(y), Some(2));

let x: Option<u32> = None;
let y = None;
assert_eq!(x.or(y), None);Run

pub fn or_else<F: FnOnce() -> Option<T>>(self, f: F) -> Option<T>[src]

Returns the option if it contains a value, otherwise calls f and returns the result.

Examples

fn nobody() -> Option<&'static str> { None }
fn vikings() -> Option<&'static str> { Some("vikings") }

assert_eq!(Some("barbarians").or_else(vikings), Some("barbarians"));
assert_eq!(None.or_else(vikings), Some("vikings"));
assert_eq!(None.or_else(nobody), None);Run

pub fn xor(self, optb: Option<T>) -> Option<T>1.37.0[src]

Returns Some if exactly one of self, optb is Some, otherwise returns None.

Examples

let x = Some(2);
let y: Option<u32> = None;
assert_eq!(x.xor(y), Some(2));

let x: Option<u32> = None;
let y = Some(2);
assert_eq!(x.xor(y), Some(2));

let x = Some(2);
let y = Some(2);
assert_eq!(x.xor(y), None);

let x: Option<u32> = None;
let y: Option<u32> = None;
assert_eq!(x.xor(y), None);Run

pub fn get_or_insert(&mut self, v: T) -> &mut T1.20.0[src]

Inserts v into the option if it is None, then returns a mutable reference to the contained value.

Examples

let mut x = None;

{
    let y: &mut u32 = x.get_or_insert(5);
    assert_eq!(y, &5);

    *y = 7;
}

assert_eq!(x, Some(7));Run

pub fn get_or_insert_with<F: FnOnce() -> T>(&mut self, f: F) -> &mut T1.20.0[src]

Inserts a value computed from f into the option if it is None, then returns a mutable reference to the contained value.

Examples

let mut x = None;

{
    let y: &mut u32 = x.get_or_insert_with(|| 5);
    assert_eq!(y, &5);

    *y = 7;
}

assert_eq!(x, Some(7));Run

pub fn take(&mut self) -> Option<T>[src]

Takes the value out of the option, leaving a None in its place.

Examples

let mut x = Some(2);
let y = x.take();
assert_eq!(x, None);
assert_eq!(y, Some(2));

let mut x: Option<u32> = None;
let y = x.take();
assert_eq!(x, None);
assert_eq!(y, None);Run

pub fn replace(&mut self, value: T) -> Option<T>1.31.0[src]

Replaces the actual value in the option by the value given in parameter, returning the old value if present, leaving a Some in its place without deinitializing either one.

Examples

let mut x = Some(2);
let old = x.replace(5);
assert_eq!(x, Some(5));
assert_eq!(old, Some(2));

let mut x = None;
let old = x.replace(3);
assert_eq!(x, Some(3));
assert_eq!(old, None);Run

impl<'_, T: Copy> Option<&'_ T>[src]

pub fn copied(self) -> Option<T>1.35.0[src]

Maps an Option<&T> to an Option<T> by copying the contents of the option.

Examples

let x = 12;
let opt_x = Some(&x);
assert_eq!(opt_x, Some(&12));
let copied = opt_x.copied();
assert_eq!(copied, Some(12));Run

impl<'_, T: Copy> Option<&'_ mut T>[src]

pub fn copied(self) -> Option<T>1.35.0[src]

Maps an Option<&mut T> to an Option<T> by copying the contents of the option.

Examples

let mut x = 12;
let opt_x = Some(&mut x);
assert_eq!(opt_x, Some(&mut 12));
let copied = opt_x.copied();
assert_eq!(copied, Some(12));Run

impl<'_, T: Clone> Option<&'_ T>[src]

pub fn cloned(self) -> Option<T>[src]

Maps an Option<&T> to an Option<T> by cloning the contents of the option.

Examples

let x = 12;
let opt_x = Some(&x);
assert_eq!(opt_x, Some(&12));
let cloned = opt_x.cloned();
assert_eq!(cloned, Some(12));Run

impl<'_, T: Clone> Option<&'_ mut T>[src]

pub fn cloned(self) -> Option<T>1.26.0[src]

Maps an Option<&mut T> to an Option<T> by cloning the contents of the option.

Examples

let mut x = 12;
let opt_x = Some(&mut x);
assert_eq!(opt_x, Some(&mut 12));
let cloned = opt_x.cloned();
assert_eq!(cloned, Some(12));Run

impl<T: Default> Option<T>[src]

pub fn unwrap_or_default(self) -> T[src]

Returns the contained value or a default

Consumes the self argument then, if Some, returns the contained value, otherwise if None, returns the default value for that type.

Examples

Converts a string to an integer, turning poorly-formed strings into 0 (the default value for integers). parse converts a string to any other type that implements FromStr, returning None on error.

let good_year_from_input = "1909";
let bad_year_from_input = "190blarg";
let good_year = good_year_from_input.parse().ok().unwrap_or_default();
let bad_year = bad_year_from_input.parse().ok().unwrap_or_default();

assert_eq!(1909, good_year);
assert_eq!(0, bad_year);Run

impl<T: Deref> Option<T>[src]

pub fn deref(&self) -> Option<&T::Target>[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (inner_deref #50264)

newly added

Converts from &Option<T> to Option<&T::Target>.

Leaves the original Option in-place, creating a new one with a reference to the original one, additionally coercing the contents via Deref.

impl<T, E> Option<Result<T, E>>[src]

pub fn transpose(self) -> Result<Option<T>, E>1.33.0[src]

Transposes an Option of a Result into a Result of an Option.

None will be mapped to Ok(None). Some(Ok(_)) and Some(Err(_)) will be mapped to Ok(Some(_)) and Err(_).

Examples

#[derive(Debug, Eq, PartialEq)]
struct SomeErr;

let x: Result<Option<i32>, SomeErr> = Ok(Some(5));
let y: Option<Result<i32, SomeErr>> = Some(Ok(5));
assert_eq!(x, y.transpose());Run

impl<T> Option<Option<T>>[src]

pub fn flatten(self) -> Option<T>[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (option_flattening #60258)

Converts from Option<Option<T>> to Option<T>

Examples

Basic usage:

#![feature(option_flattening)]
let x: Option<Option<u32>> = Some(Some(6));
assert_eq!(Some(6), x.flatten());

let x: Option<Option<u32>> = Some(None);
assert_eq!(None, x.flatten());

let x: Option<Option<u32>> = None;
assert_eq!(None, x.flatten());Run

Flattening once only removes one level of nesting:

#![feature(option_flattening)]
let x: Option<Option<Option<u32>>> = Some(Some(Some(6)));
assert_eq!(Some(Some(6)), x.flatten());
assert_eq!(Some(6), x.flatten().flatten());Run

Trait Implementations

impl<T: Copy> Copy for Option<T>[src]

impl<T> Try for Option<T>[src]

type Ok = T

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (try_trait #42327)

The type of this value when viewed as successful.

type Error = NoneError

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (try_trait #42327)

The type of this value when viewed as failed.

impl<T: PartialEq> PartialEq<Option<T>> for Option<T>[src]

impl<T: Eq> Eq for Option<T>[src]

impl<T: Ord> Ord for Option<T>[src]

fn max(self, other: Self) -> Self where
    Self: Sized
1.21.0[src]

Compares and returns the maximum of two values. Read more

fn min(self, other: Self) -> Self where
    Self: Sized
1.21.0[src]

Compares and returns the minimum of two values. Read more

fn clamp(self, min: Self, max: Self) -> Self where
    Self: Sized
[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (clamp #44095)

Restrict a value to a certain interval. Read more

impl<T: PartialOrd> PartialOrd<Option<T>> for Option<T>[src]

impl<T: Clone> Clone for Option<T>[src]

impl<T> Default for Option<T>[src]

fn default() -> Option<T>[src]

Returns None.

impl<T> From<T> for Option<T>1.12.0[src]

impl<'a, T> From<&'a Option<T>> for Option<&'a T>1.30.0[src]

impl<'a, T> From<&'a mut Option<T>> for Option<&'a mut T>1.30.0[src]

impl<A, V: FromIterator<A>> FromIterator<Option<A>> for Option<V>[src]

fn from_iter<I: IntoIterator<Item = Option<A>>>(iter: I) -> Option<V>[src]

Takes each element in the Iterator: if it is None, no further elements are taken, and the None is returned. Should no None occur, a container with the values of each Option is returned.

Examples

Here is an example which increments every integer in a vector. We use the checked variant of add that returns None when the calculation would result in an overflow.

let items = vec![0_u16, 1, 2];

let res: Option<Vec<u16>> = items
    .iter()
    .map(|x| x.checked_add(1))
    .collect();

assert_eq!(res, Some(vec![1, 2, 3]));Run

As you can see, this will return the expected, valid items.

Here is another example that tries to subtract one from another list of integers, this time checking for underflow:

let items = vec![2_u16, 1, 0];

let res: Option<Vec<u16>> = items
    .iter()
    .map(|x| x.checked_sub(1))
    .collect();

assert_eq!(res, None);Run

Since the last element is zero, it would underflow. Thus, the resulting value is None.

Here is a variation on the previous example, showing that no further elements are taken from iter after the first None.

let items = vec![3_u16, 2, 1, 10];

let mut shared = 0;

let res: Option<Vec<u16>> = items
    .iter()
    .map(|x| { shared += x; x.checked_sub(2) })
    .collect();

assert_eq!(res, None);
assert_eq!(shared, 6);Run

Since the third element caused an underflow, no further elements were taken, so the final value of shared is 6 (= 3 + 2 + 1), not 16.

impl<T> IntoIterator for Option<T>[src]

type Item = T

The type of the elements being iterated over.

type IntoIter = IntoIter<T>

Which kind of iterator are we turning this into?

Important traits for IntoIter<A>
fn into_iter(self) -> IntoIter<T>[src]

Returns a consuming iterator over the possibly contained value.

Examples

let x = Some("string");
let v: Vec<&str> = x.into_iter().collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["string"]);

let x = None;
let v: Vec<&str> = x.into_iter().collect();
assert!(v.is_empty());Run

impl<'a, T> IntoIterator for &'a Option<T>1.4.0[src]

type Item = &'a T

The type of the elements being iterated over.

type IntoIter = Iter<'a, T>

Which kind of iterator are we turning this into?

impl<'a, T> IntoIterator for &'a mut Option<T>1.4.0[src]

type Item = &'a mut T

The type of the elements being iterated over.

type IntoIter = IterMut<'a, T>

Which kind of iterator are we turning this into?

impl<T, U> Sum<Option<U>> for Option<T> where
    T: Sum<U>, 
1.37.0[src]

fn sum<I>(iter: I) -> Option<T> where
    I: Iterator<Item = Option<U>>, 
[src]

Takes each element in the Iterator: if it is a None, no further elements are taken, and the None is returned. Should no None occur, the sum of all elements is returned.

Examples

This sums up the position of the character 'a' in a vector of strings, if a word did not have the character 'a' the operation returns None:

let words = vec!["have", "a", "great", "day"];
let total: Option<usize> = words.iter().map(|w| w.find('a')).sum();
assert_eq!(total, Some(5));Run

impl<T, U> Product<Option<U>> for Option<T> where
    T: Product<U>, 
1.37.0[src]

fn product<I>(iter: I) -> Option<T> where
    I: Iterator<Item = Option<U>>, 
[src]

Takes each element in the Iterator: if it is a None, no further elements are taken, and the None is returned. Should no None occur, the product of all elements is returned.

impl<T: Hash> Hash for Option<T>[src]

fn hash_slice<H: Hasher>(data: &[Self], state: &mut H) where
    Self: Sized
1.3.0[src]

Feeds a slice of this type into the given [Hasher]. Read more

impl<T: Debug> Debug for Option<T>[src]

Auto Trait Implementations

impl<T> Send for Option<T> where
    T: Send

impl<T> Sync for Option<T> where
    T: Sync

impl<T> Unpin for Option<T> where
    T: Unpin

Blanket Implementations

impl<T, U> Into<U> for T where
    U: From<T>, 
[src]

impl<T> From<T> for T[src]

impl<T, U> TryInto<U> for T where
    U: TryFrom<T>, 
[src]

type Error = <U as TryFrom<T>>::Error

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

impl<T, U> TryFrom<U> for T where
    U: Into<T>, 
[src]

type Error = Infallible

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

impl<T> Borrow<T> for T where
    T: ?Sized
[src]

impl<T> BorrowMut<T> for T where
    T: ?Sized
[src]

impl<T> Any for T where
    T: 'static + ?Sized
[src]