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use std::borrow::{Borrow, Cow};
use std::cmp;
use std::fmt::{self, Write};
use std::iter;
use std::ops::Bound;
use std::ops::Deref;

use rustc_index::Idx;
use tracing::debug;

use crate::{
    Abi, AbiAndPrefAlign, Align, FieldsShape, IndexSlice, IndexVec, Integer, LayoutS, Niche,
    NonZeroUsize, Primitive, ReprOptions, Scalar, Size, StructKind, TagEncoding, TargetDataLayout,
    Variants, WrappingRange,
};

// A variant is absent if it's uninhabited and only has ZST fields.
// Present uninhabited variants only require space for their fields,
// but *not* an encoding of the discriminant (e.g., a tag value).
// See issue #49298 for more details on the need to leave space
// for non-ZST uninhabited data (mostly partial initialization).
fn absent<'a, FieldIdx, VariantIdx, F>(fields: &IndexSlice<FieldIdx, F>) -> bool
where
    FieldIdx: Idx,
    VariantIdx: Idx,
    F: Deref<Target = &'a LayoutS<FieldIdx, VariantIdx>> + fmt::Debug,
{
    let uninhabited = fields.iter().any(|f| f.abi.is_uninhabited());
    // We cannot ignore alignment; that might lead us to entirely discard a variant and
    // produce an enum that is less aligned than it should be!
    let is_1zst = fields.iter().all(|f| f.is_1zst());
    uninhabited && is_1zst
}

pub trait LayoutCalculator {
    type TargetDataLayoutRef: Borrow<TargetDataLayout>;

    fn delayed_bug(&self, txt: impl Into<Cow<'static, str>>);
    fn current_data_layout(&self) -> Self::TargetDataLayoutRef;

    fn scalar_pair<FieldIdx: Idx, VariantIdx: Idx>(
        &self,
        a: Scalar,
        b: Scalar,
    ) -> LayoutS<FieldIdx, VariantIdx> {
        let dl = self.current_data_layout();
        let dl = dl.borrow();
        let b_align = b.align(dl);
        let align = a.align(dl).max(b_align).max(dl.aggregate_align);
        let b_offset = a.size(dl).align_to(b_align.abi);
        let size = (b_offset + b.size(dl)).align_to(align.abi);

        // HACK(nox): We iter on `b` and then `a` because `max_by_key`
        // returns the last maximum.
        let largest_niche = Niche::from_scalar(dl, b_offset, b)
            .into_iter()
            .chain(Niche::from_scalar(dl, Size::ZERO, a))
            .max_by_key(|niche| niche.available(dl));

        LayoutS {
            variants: Variants::Single { index: VariantIdx::new(0) },
            fields: FieldsShape::Arbitrary {
                offsets: [Size::ZERO, b_offset].into(),
                memory_index: [0, 1].into(),
            },
            abi: Abi::ScalarPair(a, b),
            largest_niche,
            align,
            size,
            max_repr_align: None,
            unadjusted_abi_align: align.abi,
        }
    }

    fn univariant<
        'a,
        FieldIdx: Idx,
        VariantIdx: Idx,
        F: Deref<Target = &'a LayoutS<FieldIdx, VariantIdx>> + fmt::Debug,
    >(
        &self,
        dl: &TargetDataLayout,
        fields: &IndexSlice<FieldIdx, F>,
        repr: &ReprOptions,
        kind: StructKind,
    ) -> Option<LayoutS<FieldIdx, VariantIdx>> {
        let layout = univariant(self, dl, fields, repr, kind, NicheBias::Start);
        // Enums prefer niches close to the beginning or the end of the variants so that other
        // (smaller) data-carrying variants can be packed into the space after/before the niche.
        // If the default field ordering does not give us a niche at the front then we do a second
        // run and bias niches to the right and then check which one is closer to one of the
        // struct's edges.
        if let Some(layout) = &layout {
            // Don't try to calculate an end-biased layout for unsizable structs,
            // otherwise we could end up with different layouts for
            // Foo<Type> and Foo<dyn Trait> which would break unsizing.
            if !matches!(kind, StructKind::MaybeUnsized) {
                if let Some(niche) = layout.largest_niche {
                    let head_space = niche.offset.bytes();
                    let niche_len = niche.value.size(dl).bytes();
                    let tail_space = layout.size.bytes() - head_space - niche_len;

                    // This may end up doing redundant work if the niche is already in the last
                    // field (e.g. a trailing bool) and there is tail padding. But it's non-trivial
                    // to get the unpadded size so we try anyway.
                    if fields.len() > 1 && head_space != 0 && tail_space > 0 {
                        let alt_layout = univariant(self, dl, fields, repr, kind, NicheBias::End)
                            .expect("alt layout should always work");
                        let alt_niche = alt_layout
                            .largest_niche
                            .expect("alt layout should have a niche like the regular one");
                        let alt_head_space = alt_niche.offset.bytes();
                        let alt_niche_len = alt_niche.value.size(dl).bytes();
                        let alt_tail_space =
                            alt_layout.size.bytes() - alt_head_space - alt_niche_len;

                        debug_assert_eq!(layout.size.bytes(), alt_layout.size.bytes());

                        let prefer_alt_layout =
                            alt_head_space > head_space && alt_head_space > tail_space;

                        debug!(
                            "sz: {}, default_niche_at: {}+{}, default_tail_space: {}, alt_niche_at/head_space: {}+{}, alt_tail: {}, num_fields: {}, better: {}\n\
                            layout: {}\n\
                            alt_layout: {}\n",
                            layout.size.bytes(),
                            head_space,
                            niche_len,
                            tail_space,
                            alt_head_space,
                            alt_niche_len,
                            alt_tail_space,
                            layout.fields.count(),
                            prefer_alt_layout,
                            format_field_niches(layout, fields, dl),
                            format_field_niches(&alt_layout, fields, dl),
                        );

                        if prefer_alt_layout {
                            return Some(alt_layout);
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        layout
    }

    fn layout_of_never_type<FieldIdx: Idx, VariantIdx: Idx>(
        &self,
    ) -> LayoutS<FieldIdx, VariantIdx> {
        let dl = self.current_data_layout();
        let dl = dl.borrow();
        LayoutS {
            variants: Variants::Single { index: VariantIdx::new(0) },
            fields: FieldsShape::Primitive,
            abi: Abi::Uninhabited,
            largest_niche: None,
            align: dl.i8_align,
            size: Size::ZERO,
            max_repr_align: None,
            unadjusted_abi_align: dl.i8_align.abi,
        }
    }

    fn layout_of_struct_or_enum<
        'a,
        FieldIdx: Idx,
        VariantIdx: Idx,
        F: Deref<Target = &'a LayoutS<FieldIdx, VariantIdx>> + fmt::Debug,
    >(
        &self,
        repr: &ReprOptions,
        variants: &IndexSlice<VariantIdx, IndexVec<FieldIdx, F>>,
        is_enum: bool,
        is_unsafe_cell: bool,
        scalar_valid_range: (Bound<u128>, Bound<u128>),
        discr_range_of_repr: impl Fn(i128, i128) -> (Integer, bool),
        discriminants: impl Iterator<Item = (VariantIdx, i128)>,
        dont_niche_optimize_enum: bool,
        always_sized: bool,
    ) -> Option<LayoutS<FieldIdx, VariantIdx>> {
        let dl = self.current_data_layout();
        let dl = dl.borrow();

        let (present_first, present_second) = {
            let mut present_variants = variants
                .iter_enumerated()
                .filter_map(|(i, v)| if absent(v) { None } else { Some(i) });
            (present_variants.next(), present_variants.next())
        };
        let present_first = match present_first {
            Some(present_first) => present_first,
            // Uninhabited because it has no variants, or only absent ones.
            None if is_enum => {
                return Some(self.layout_of_never_type());
            }
            // If it's a struct, still compute a layout so that we can still compute the
            // field offsets.
            None => VariantIdx::new(0),
        };

        // take the struct path if it is an actual struct
        if !is_enum ||
            // or for optimizing univariant enums
            (present_second.is_none() && !repr.inhibit_enum_layout_opt())
        {
            layout_of_struct(
                self,
                repr,
                variants,
                is_enum,
                is_unsafe_cell,
                scalar_valid_range,
                always_sized,
                dl,
                present_first,
            )
        } else {
            // At this point, we have handled all unions and
            // structs. (We have also handled univariant enums
            // that allow representation optimization.)
            assert!(is_enum);
            layout_of_enum(
                self,
                repr,
                variants,
                discr_range_of_repr,
                discriminants,
                dont_niche_optimize_enum,
                dl,
            )
        }
    }

    fn layout_of_union<
        'a,
        FieldIdx: Idx,
        VariantIdx: Idx,
        F: Deref<Target = &'a LayoutS<FieldIdx, VariantIdx>> + fmt::Debug,
    >(
        &self,
        repr: &ReprOptions,
        variants: &IndexSlice<VariantIdx, IndexVec<FieldIdx, F>>,
    ) -> Option<LayoutS<FieldIdx, VariantIdx>> {
        let dl = self.current_data_layout();
        let dl = dl.borrow();
        let mut align = if repr.pack.is_some() { dl.i8_align } else { dl.aggregate_align };
        let mut max_repr_align = repr.align;

        // If all the non-ZST fields have the same ABI and union ABI optimizations aren't
        // disabled, we can use that common ABI for the union as a whole.
        struct AbiMismatch;
        let mut common_non_zst_abi_and_align = if repr.inhibits_union_abi_opt() {
            // Can't optimize
            Err(AbiMismatch)
        } else {
            Ok(None)
        };

        let mut size = Size::ZERO;
        let only_variant = &variants[VariantIdx::new(0)];
        for field in only_variant {
            if field.is_unsized() {
                self.delayed_bug("unsized field in union".to_string());
            }

            align = align.max(field.align);
            max_repr_align = max_repr_align.max(field.max_repr_align);
            size = cmp::max(size, field.size);

            if field.is_zst() {
                // Nothing more to do for ZST fields
                continue;
            }

            if let Ok(common) = common_non_zst_abi_and_align {
                // Discard valid range information and allow undef
                let field_abi = field.abi.to_union();

                if let Some((common_abi, common_align)) = common {
                    if common_abi != field_abi {
                        // Different fields have different ABI: disable opt
                        common_non_zst_abi_and_align = Err(AbiMismatch);
                    } else {
                        // Fields with the same non-Aggregate ABI should also
                        // have the same alignment
                        if !matches!(common_abi, Abi::Aggregate { .. }) {
                            assert_eq!(
                                common_align, field.align.abi,
                                "non-Aggregate field with matching ABI but differing alignment"
                            );
                        }
                    }
                } else {
                    // First non-ZST field: record its ABI and alignment
                    common_non_zst_abi_and_align = Ok(Some((field_abi, field.align.abi)));
                }
            }
        }

        if let Some(pack) = repr.pack {
            align = align.min(AbiAndPrefAlign::new(pack));
        }
        // The unadjusted ABI alignment does not include repr(align), but does include repr(pack).
        // See documentation on `LayoutS::unadjusted_abi_align`.
        let unadjusted_abi_align = align.abi;
        if let Some(repr_align) = repr.align {
            align = align.max(AbiAndPrefAlign::new(repr_align));
        }
        // `align` must not be modified after this, or `unadjusted_abi_align` could be inaccurate.
        let align = align;

        // If all non-ZST fields have the same ABI, we may forward that ABI
        // for the union as a whole, unless otherwise inhibited.
        let abi = match common_non_zst_abi_and_align {
            Err(AbiMismatch) | Ok(None) => Abi::Aggregate { sized: true },
            Ok(Some((abi, _))) => {
                if abi.inherent_align(dl).map(|a| a.abi) != Some(align.abi) {
                    // Mismatched alignment (e.g. union is #[repr(packed)]): disable opt
                    Abi::Aggregate { sized: true }
                } else {
                    abi
                }
            }
        };

        Some(LayoutS {
            variants: Variants::Single { index: VariantIdx::new(0) },
            fields: FieldsShape::Union(NonZeroUsize::new(only_variant.len())?),
            abi,
            largest_niche: None,
            align,
            size: size.align_to(align.abi),
            max_repr_align,
            unadjusted_abi_align,
        })
    }
}

/// single-variant enums are just structs, if you think about it
fn layout_of_struct<'a, LC, FieldIdx: Idx, VariantIdx: Idx, F>(
    layout_calc: &LC,
    repr: &ReprOptions,
    variants: &IndexSlice<VariantIdx, IndexVec<FieldIdx, F>>,
    is_enum: bool,
    is_unsafe_cell: bool,
    scalar_valid_range: (Bound<u128>, Bound<u128>),
    always_sized: bool,
    dl: &TargetDataLayout,
    present_first: VariantIdx,
) -> Option<LayoutS<FieldIdx, VariantIdx>>
where
    LC: LayoutCalculator + ?Sized,
    F: Deref<Target = &'a LayoutS<FieldIdx, VariantIdx>> + fmt::Debug,
{
    // Struct, or univariant enum equivalent to a struct.
    // (Typechecking will reject discriminant-sizing attrs.)

    let v = present_first;
    let kind = if is_enum || variants[v].is_empty() || always_sized {
        StructKind::AlwaysSized
    } else {
        StructKind::MaybeUnsized
    };

    let mut st = layout_calc.univariant(dl, &variants[v], repr, kind)?;
    st.variants = Variants::Single { index: v };

    if is_unsafe_cell {
        let hide_niches = |scalar: &mut _| match scalar {
            Scalar::Initialized { value, valid_range } => {
                *valid_range = WrappingRange::full(value.size(dl))
            }
            // Already doesn't have any niches
            Scalar::Union { .. } => {}
        };
        match &mut st.abi {
            Abi::Uninhabited => {}
            Abi::Scalar(scalar) => hide_niches(scalar),
            Abi::ScalarPair(a, b) => {
                hide_niches(a);
                hide_niches(b);
            }
            Abi::Vector { element, count: _ } => hide_niches(element),
            Abi::Aggregate { sized: _ } => {}
        }
        st.largest_niche = None;
        return Some(st);
    }

    let (start, end) = scalar_valid_range;
    match st.abi {
        Abi::Scalar(ref mut scalar) | Abi::ScalarPair(ref mut scalar, _) => {
            // Enlarging validity ranges would result in missed
            // optimizations, *not* wrongly assuming the inner
            // value is valid. e.g. unions already enlarge validity ranges,
            // because the values may be uninitialized.
            //
            // Because of that we only check that the start and end
            // of the range is representable with this scalar type.

            let max_value = scalar.size(dl).unsigned_int_max();
            if let Bound::Included(start) = start {
                // FIXME(eddyb) this might be incorrect - it doesn't
                // account for wrap-around (end < start) ranges.
                assert!(start <= max_value, "{start} > {max_value}");
                scalar.valid_range_mut().start = start;
            }
            if let Bound::Included(end) = end {
                // FIXME(eddyb) this might be incorrect - it doesn't
                // account for wrap-around (end < start) ranges.
                assert!(end <= max_value, "{end} > {max_value}");
                scalar.valid_range_mut().end = end;
            }

            // Update `largest_niche` if we have introduced a larger niche.
            let niche = Niche::from_scalar(dl, Size::ZERO, *scalar);
            if let Some(niche) = niche {
                match st.largest_niche {
                    Some(largest_niche) => {
                        // Replace the existing niche even if they're equal,
                        // because this one is at a lower offset.
                        if largest_niche.available(dl) <= niche.available(dl) {
                            st.largest_niche = Some(niche);
                        }
                    }
                    None => st.largest_niche = Some(niche),
                }
            }
        }
        _ => assert!(
            start == Bound::Unbounded && end == Bound::Unbounded,
            "nonscalar layout for layout_scalar_valid_range type: {st:#?}",
        ),
    }

    Some(st)
}

fn layout_of_enum<'a, LC, FieldIdx: Idx, VariantIdx: Idx, F>(
    layout_calc: &LC,
    repr: &ReprOptions,
    variants: &IndexSlice<VariantIdx, IndexVec<FieldIdx, F>>,
    discr_range_of_repr: impl Fn(i128, i128) -> (Integer, bool),
    discriminants: impl Iterator<Item = (VariantIdx, i128)>,
    dont_niche_optimize_enum: bool,
    dl: &TargetDataLayout,
) -> Option<LayoutS<FieldIdx, VariantIdx>>
where
    LC: LayoutCalculator + ?Sized,
    F: Deref<Target = &'a LayoutS<FieldIdx, VariantIdx>> + fmt::Debug,
{
    // Until we've decided whether to use the tagged or
    // niche filling LayoutS, we don't want to intern the
    // variant layouts, so we can't store them in the
    // overall LayoutS. Store the overall LayoutS
    // and the variant LayoutSs here until then.
    struct TmpLayout<FieldIdx: Idx, VariantIdx: Idx> {
        layout: LayoutS<FieldIdx, VariantIdx>,
        variants: IndexVec<VariantIdx, LayoutS<FieldIdx, VariantIdx>>,
    }

    let calculate_niche_filling_layout = || -> Option<TmpLayout<FieldIdx, VariantIdx>> {
        if dont_niche_optimize_enum {
            return None;
        }

        if variants.len() < 2 {
            return None;
        }

        let mut align = dl.aggregate_align;
        let mut max_repr_align = repr.align;
        let mut unadjusted_abi_align = align.abi;

        let mut variant_layouts = variants
            .iter_enumerated()
            .map(|(j, v)| {
                let mut st = layout_calc.univariant(dl, v, repr, StructKind::AlwaysSized)?;
                st.variants = Variants::Single { index: j };

                align = align.max(st.align);
                max_repr_align = max_repr_align.max(st.max_repr_align);
                unadjusted_abi_align = unadjusted_abi_align.max(st.unadjusted_abi_align);

                Some(st)
            })
            .collect::<Option<IndexVec<VariantIdx, _>>>()?;

        let largest_variant_index = variant_layouts
            .iter_enumerated()
            .max_by_key(|(_i, layout)| layout.size.bytes())
            .map(|(i, _layout)| i)?;

        let all_indices = variants.indices();
        let needs_disc =
            |index: VariantIdx| index != largest_variant_index && !absent(&variants[index]);
        let niche_variants = all_indices.clone().find(|v| needs_disc(*v)).unwrap()
            ..=all_indices.rev().find(|v| needs_disc(*v)).unwrap();

        let count =
            (niche_variants.end().index() as u128 - niche_variants.start().index() as u128) + 1;

        // Find the field with the largest niche
        let (field_index, niche, (niche_start, niche_scalar)) = variants[largest_variant_index]
            .iter()
            .enumerate()
            .filter_map(|(j, field)| Some((j, field.largest_niche?)))
            .max_by_key(|(_, niche)| niche.available(dl))
            .and_then(|(j, niche)| Some((j, niche, niche.reserve(dl, count)?)))?;
        let niche_offset =
            niche.offset + variant_layouts[largest_variant_index].fields.offset(field_index);
        let niche_size = niche.value.size(dl);
        let size = variant_layouts[largest_variant_index].size.align_to(align.abi);

        let all_variants_fit = variant_layouts.iter_enumerated_mut().all(|(i, layout)| {
            if i == largest_variant_index {
                return true;
            }

            layout.largest_niche = None;

            if layout.size <= niche_offset {
                // This variant will fit before the niche.
                return true;
            }

            // Determine if it'll fit after the niche.
            let this_align = layout.align.abi;
            let this_offset = (niche_offset + niche_size).align_to(this_align);

            if this_offset + layout.size > size {
                return false;
            }

            // It'll fit, but we need to make some adjustments.
            match layout.fields {
                FieldsShape::Arbitrary { ref mut offsets, .. } => {
                    for offset in offsets.iter_mut() {
                        *offset += this_offset;
                    }
                }
                FieldsShape::Primitive | FieldsShape::Array { .. } | FieldsShape::Union(..) => {
                    panic!("Layout of fields should be Arbitrary for variants")
                }
            }

            // It can't be a Scalar or ScalarPair because the offset isn't 0.
            if !layout.abi.is_uninhabited() {
                layout.abi = Abi::Aggregate { sized: true };
            }
            layout.size += this_offset;

            true
        });

        if !all_variants_fit {
            return None;
        }

        let largest_niche = Niche::from_scalar(dl, niche_offset, niche_scalar);

        let others_zst = variant_layouts
            .iter_enumerated()
            .all(|(i, layout)| i == largest_variant_index || layout.size == Size::ZERO);
        let same_size = size == variant_layouts[largest_variant_index].size;
        let same_align = align == variant_layouts[largest_variant_index].align;

        let abi = if variant_layouts.iter().all(|v| v.abi.is_uninhabited()) {
            Abi::Uninhabited
        } else if same_size && same_align && others_zst {
            match variant_layouts[largest_variant_index].abi {
                // When the total alignment and size match, we can use the
                // same ABI as the scalar variant with the reserved niche.
                Abi::Scalar(_) => Abi::Scalar(niche_scalar),
                Abi::ScalarPair(first, second) => {
                    // Only the niche is guaranteed to be initialised,
                    // so use union layouts for the other primitive.
                    if niche_offset == Size::ZERO {
                        Abi::ScalarPair(niche_scalar, second.to_union())
                    } else {
                        Abi::ScalarPair(first.to_union(), niche_scalar)
                    }
                }
                _ => Abi::Aggregate { sized: true },
            }
        } else {
            Abi::Aggregate { sized: true }
        };

        let layout = LayoutS {
            variants: Variants::Multiple {
                tag: niche_scalar,
                tag_encoding: TagEncoding::Niche {
                    untagged_variant: largest_variant_index,
                    niche_variants,
                    niche_start,
                },
                tag_field: 0,
                variants: IndexVec::new(),
            },
            fields: FieldsShape::Arbitrary {
                offsets: [niche_offset].into(),
                memory_index: [0].into(),
            },
            abi,
            largest_niche,
            size,
            align,
            max_repr_align,
            unadjusted_abi_align,
        };

        Some(TmpLayout { layout, variants: variant_layouts })
    };

    let niche_filling_layout = calculate_niche_filling_layout();

    let (mut min, mut max) = (i128::MAX, i128::MIN);
    let discr_type = repr.discr_type();
    let bits = Integer::from_attr(dl, discr_type).size().bits();
    for (i, mut val) in discriminants {
        if variants[i].iter().any(|f| f.abi.is_uninhabited()) {
            continue;
        }
        if discr_type.is_signed() {
            // sign extend the raw representation to be an i128
            val = (val << (128 - bits)) >> (128 - bits);
        }
        if val < min {
            min = val;
        }
        if val > max {
            max = val;
        }
    }
    // We might have no inhabited variants, so pretend there's at least one.
    if (min, max) == (i128::MAX, i128::MIN) {
        min = 0;
        max = 0;
    }
    assert!(min <= max, "discriminant range is {min}...{max}");
    let (min_ity, signed) = discr_range_of_repr(min, max); //Integer::repr_discr(tcx, ty, &repr, min, max);

    let mut align = dl.aggregate_align;
    let mut max_repr_align = repr.align;
    let mut unadjusted_abi_align = align.abi;

    let mut size = Size::ZERO;

    // We're interested in the smallest alignment, so start large.
    let mut start_align = Align::from_bytes(256).unwrap();
    assert_eq!(Integer::for_align(dl, start_align), None);

    // repr(C) on an enum tells us to make a (tag, union) layout,
    // so we need to grow the prefix alignment to be at least
    // the alignment of the union. (This value is used both for
    // determining the alignment of the overall enum, and the
    // determining the alignment of the payload after the tag.)
    let mut prefix_align = min_ity.align(dl).abi;
    if repr.c() {
        for fields in variants {
            for field in fields {
                prefix_align = prefix_align.max(field.align.abi);
            }
        }
    }

    // Create the set of structs that represent each variant.
    let mut layout_variants = variants
        .iter_enumerated()
        .map(|(i, field_layouts)| {
            let mut st = layout_calc.univariant(
                dl,
                field_layouts,
                repr,
                StructKind::Prefixed(min_ity.size(), prefix_align),
            )?;
            st.variants = Variants::Single { index: i };
            // Find the first field we can't move later
            // to make room for a larger discriminant.
            for field_idx in st.fields.index_by_increasing_offset() {
                let field = &field_layouts[FieldIdx::new(field_idx)];
                if !field.is_1zst() {
                    start_align = start_align.min(field.align.abi);
                    break;
                }
            }
            size = cmp::max(size, st.size);
            align = align.max(st.align);
            max_repr_align = max_repr_align.max(st.max_repr_align);
            unadjusted_abi_align = unadjusted_abi_align.max(st.unadjusted_abi_align);
            Some(st)
        })
        .collect::<Option<IndexVec<VariantIdx, _>>>()?;

    // Align the maximum variant size to the largest alignment.
    size = size.align_to(align.abi);

    // FIXME(oli-obk): deduplicate and harden these checks
    if size.bytes() >= dl.obj_size_bound() {
        return None;
    }

    let typeck_ity = Integer::from_attr(dl, repr.discr_type());
    if typeck_ity < min_ity {
        // It is a bug if Layout decided on a greater discriminant size than typeck for
        // some reason at this point (based on values discriminant can take on). Mostly
        // because this discriminant will be loaded, and then stored into variable of
        // type calculated by typeck. Consider such case (a bug): typeck decided on
        // byte-sized discriminant, but layout thinks we need a 16-bit to store all
        // discriminant values. That would be a bug, because then, in codegen, in order
        // to store this 16-bit discriminant into 8-bit sized temporary some of the
        // space necessary to represent would have to be discarded (or layout is wrong
        // on thinking it needs 16 bits)
        panic!(
            "layout decided on a larger discriminant type ({min_ity:?}) than typeck ({typeck_ity:?})"
        );
        // However, it is fine to make discr type however large (as an optimisation)
        // after this point – we’ll just truncate the value we load in codegen.
    }

    // Check to see if we should use a different type for the
    // discriminant. We can safely use a type with the same size
    // as the alignment of the first field of each variant.
    // We increase the size of the discriminant to avoid LLVM copying
    // padding when it doesn't need to. This normally causes unaligned
    // load/stores and excessive memcpy/memset operations. By using a
    // bigger integer size, LLVM can be sure about its contents and
    // won't be so conservative.

    // Use the initial field alignment
    let mut ity = if repr.c() || repr.int.is_some() {
        min_ity
    } else {
        Integer::for_align(dl, start_align).unwrap_or(min_ity)
    };

    // If the alignment is not larger than the chosen discriminant size,
    // don't use the alignment as the final size.
    if ity <= min_ity {
        ity = min_ity;
    } else {
        // Patch up the variants' first few fields.
        let old_ity_size = min_ity.size();
        let new_ity_size = ity.size();
        for variant in &mut layout_variants {
            match variant.fields {
                FieldsShape::Arbitrary { ref mut offsets, .. } => {
                    for i in offsets {
                        if *i <= old_ity_size {
                            assert_eq!(*i, old_ity_size);
                            *i = new_ity_size;
                        }
                    }
                    // We might be making the struct larger.
                    if variant.size <= old_ity_size {
                        variant.size = new_ity_size;
                    }
                }
                FieldsShape::Primitive | FieldsShape::Array { .. } | FieldsShape::Union(..) => {
                    panic!("encountered a non-arbitrary layout during enum layout")
                }
            }
        }
    }

    let tag_mask = ity.size().unsigned_int_max();
    let tag = Scalar::Initialized {
        value: Primitive::Int(ity, signed),
        valid_range: WrappingRange {
            start: (min as u128 & tag_mask),
            end: (max as u128 & tag_mask),
        },
    };
    let mut abi = Abi::Aggregate { sized: true };

    if layout_variants.iter().all(|v| v.abi.is_uninhabited()) {
        abi = Abi::Uninhabited;
    } else if tag.size(dl) == size {
        // Make sure we only use scalar layout when the enum is entirely its
        // own tag (i.e. it has no padding nor any non-ZST variant fields).
        abi = Abi::Scalar(tag);
    } else {
        // Try to use a ScalarPair for all tagged enums.
        // That's possible only if we can find a common primitive type for all variants.
        let mut common_prim = None;
        let mut common_prim_initialized_in_all_variants = true;
        for (field_layouts, layout_variant) in iter::zip(variants, &layout_variants) {
            let FieldsShape::Arbitrary { ref offsets, .. } = layout_variant.fields else {
                panic!("encountered a non-arbitrary layout during enum layout");
            };
            // We skip *all* ZST here and later check if we are good in terms of alignment.
            // This lets us handle some cases involving aligned ZST.
            let mut fields = iter::zip(field_layouts, offsets).filter(|p| !p.0.is_zst());
            let (field, offset) = match (fields.next(), fields.next()) {
                (None, None) => {
                    common_prim_initialized_in_all_variants = false;
                    continue;
                }
                (Some(pair), None) => pair,
                _ => {
                    common_prim = None;
                    break;
                }
            };
            let prim = match field.abi {
                Abi::Scalar(scalar) => {
                    common_prim_initialized_in_all_variants &=
                        matches!(scalar, Scalar::Initialized { .. });
                    scalar.primitive()
                }
                _ => {
                    common_prim = None;
                    break;
                }
            };
            if let Some((old_prim, common_offset)) = common_prim {
                // All variants must be at the same offset
                if offset != common_offset {
                    common_prim = None;
                    break;
                }
                // This is pretty conservative. We could go fancier
                // by realising that (u8, u8) could just cohabit with
                // u16 or even u32.
                let new_prim = match (old_prim, prim) {
                    // Allow all identical primitives.
                    (x, y) if x == y => x,
                    // Allow integers of the same size with differing signedness.
                    // We arbitrarily choose the signedness of the first variant.
                    (p @ Primitive::Int(x, _), Primitive::Int(y, _)) if x == y => p,
                    // Allow integers mixed with pointers of the same layout.
                    // We must represent this using a pointer, to avoid
                    // roundtripping pointers through ptrtoint/inttoptr.
                    (p @ Primitive::Pointer(_), i @ Primitive::Int(..))
                    | (i @ Primitive::Int(..), p @ Primitive::Pointer(_))
                        if p.size(dl) == i.size(dl) && p.align(dl) == i.align(dl) =>
                    {
                        p
                    }
                    _ => {
                        common_prim = None;
                        break;
                    }
                };
                // We may be updating the primitive here, for example from int->ptr.
                common_prim = Some((new_prim, common_offset));
            } else {
                common_prim = Some((prim, offset));
            }
        }
        if let Some((prim, offset)) = common_prim {
            let prim_scalar = if common_prim_initialized_in_all_variants {
                let size = prim.size(dl);
                assert!(size.bits() <= 128);
                Scalar::Initialized { value: prim, valid_range: WrappingRange::full(size) }
            } else {
                // Common prim might be uninit.
                Scalar::Union { value: prim }
            };
            let pair = layout_calc.scalar_pair::<FieldIdx, VariantIdx>(tag, prim_scalar);
            let pair_offsets = match pair.fields {
                FieldsShape::Arbitrary { ref offsets, ref memory_index } => {
                    assert_eq!(memory_index.raw, [0, 1]);
                    offsets
                }
                _ => panic!("encountered a non-arbitrary layout during enum layout"),
            };
            if pair_offsets[FieldIdx::new(0)] == Size::ZERO
                && pair_offsets[FieldIdx::new(1)] == *offset
                && align == pair.align
                && size == pair.size
            {
                // We can use `ScalarPair` only when it matches our
                // already computed layout (including `#[repr(C)]`).
                abi = pair.abi;
            }
        }
    }

    // If we pick a "clever" (by-value) ABI, we might have to adjust the ABI of the
    // variants to ensure they are consistent. This is because a downcast is
    // semantically a NOP, and thus should not affect layout.
    if matches!(abi, Abi::Scalar(..) | Abi::ScalarPair(..)) {
        for variant in &mut layout_variants {
            // We only do this for variants with fields; the others are not accessed anyway.
            // Also do not overwrite any already existing "clever" ABIs.
            if variant.fields.count() > 0 && matches!(variant.abi, Abi::Aggregate { .. }) {
                variant.abi = abi;
                // Also need to bump up the size and alignment, so that the entire value fits
                // in here.
                variant.size = cmp::max(variant.size, size);
                variant.align.abi = cmp::max(variant.align.abi, align.abi);
            }
        }
    }

    let largest_niche = Niche::from_scalar(dl, Size::ZERO, tag);

    let tagged_layout = LayoutS {
        variants: Variants::Multiple {
            tag,
            tag_encoding: TagEncoding::Direct,
            tag_field: 0,
            variants: IndexVec::new(),
        },
        fields: FieldsShape::Arbitrary { offsets: [Size::ZERO].into(), memory_index: [0].into() },
        largest_niche,
        abi,
        align,
        size,
        max_repr_align,
        unadjusted_abi_align,
    };

    let tagged_layout = TmpLayout { layout: tagged_layout, variants: layout_variants };

    let mut best_layout = match (tagged_layout, niche_filling_layout) {
        (tl, Some(nl)) => {
            // Pick the smaller layout; otherwise,
            // pick the layout with the larger niche; otherwise,
            // pick tagged as it has simpler codegen.
            use cmp::Ordering::*;
            let niche_size = |tmp_l: &TmpLayout<FieldIdx, VariantIdx>| {
                tmp_l.layout.largest_niche.map_or(0, |n| n.available(dl))
            };
            match (tl.layout.size.cmp(&nl.layout.size), niche_size(&tl).cmp(&niche_size(&nl))) {
                (Greater, _) => nl,
                (Equal, Less) => nl,
                _ => tl,
            }
        }
        (tl, None) => tl,
    };

    // Now we can intern the variant layouts and store them in the enum layout.
    best_layout.layout.variants = match best_layout.layout.variants {
        Variants::Multiple { tag, tag_encoding, tag_field, .. } => {
            Variants::Multiple { tag, tag_encoding, tag_field, variants: best_layout.variants }
        }
        Variants::Single { .. } => {
            panic!("encountered a single-variant enum during multi-variant layout")
        }
    };
    Some(best_layout.layout)
}

/// Determines towards which end of a struct layout optimizations will try to place the best niches.
enum NicheBias {
    Start,
    End,
}

fn univariant<
    'a,
    FieldIdx: Idx,
    VariantIdx: Idx,
    F: Deref<Target = &'a LayoutS<FieldIdx, VariantIdx>> + fmt::Debug,
>(
    this: &(impl LayoutCalculator + ?Sized),
    dl: &TargetDataLayout,
    fields: &IndexSlice<FieldIdx, F>,
    repr: &ReprOptions,
    kind: StructKind,
    niche_bias: NicheBias,
) -> Option<LayoutS<FieldIdx, VariantIdx>> {
    let pack = repr.pack;
    let mut align = if pack.is_some() { dl.i8_align } else { dl.aggregate_align };
    let mut max_repr_align = repr.align;
    let mut inverse_memory_index: IndexVec<u32, FieldIdx> = fields.indices().collect();
    let optimize = !repr.inhibit_struct_field_reordering();
    if optimize && fields.len() > 1 {
        let end = if let StructKind::MaybeUnsized = kind { fields.len() - 1 } else { fields.len() };
        let optimizing = &mut inverse_memory_index.raw[..end];
        let fields_excluding_tail = &fields.raw[..end];

        // If `-Z randomize-layout` was enabled for the type definition we can shuffle
        // the field ordering to try and catch some code making assumptions about layouts
        // we don't guarantee.
        if repr.can_randomize_type_layout() && cfg!(feature = "randomize") {
            #[cfg(feature = "randomize")]
            {
                use rand::{seq::SliceRandom, SeedableRng};
                // `ReprOptions.field_shuffle_seed` is a deterministic seed we can use to randomize field
                // ordering.
                let mut rng =
                    rand_xoshiro::Xoshiro128StarStar::seed_from_u64(repr.field_shuffle_seed);

                // Shuffle the ordering of the fields.
                optimizing.shuffle(&mut rng);
            }
            // Otherwise we just leave things alone and actually optimize the type's fields
        } else {
            // To allow unsizing `&Foo<Type>` -> `&Foo<dyn Trait>`, the layout of the struct must
            // not depend on the layout of the tail.
            let max_field_align =
                fields_excluding_tail.iter().map(|f| f.align.abi.bytes()).max().unwrap_or(1);
            let largest_niche_size = fields_excluding_tail
                .iter()
                .filter_map(|f| f.largest_niche)
                .map(|n| n.available(dl))
                .max()
                .unwrap_or(0);

            // Calculates a sort key to group fields by their alignment or possibly some
            // size-derived pseudo-alignment.
            let alignment_group_key = |layout: &F| {
                // The two branches here return values that cannot be meaningfully compared with
                // each other. However, we know that consistently for all executions of
                // `alignment_group_key`, one or the other branch will be taken, so this is okay.
                if let Some(pack) = pack {
                    // Return the packed alignment in bytes.
                    layout.align.abi.min(pack).bytes()
                } else {
                    // Returns `log2(effective-align)`. The calculation assumes that size is an
                    // integer multiple of align, except for ZSTs.
                    let align = layout.align.abi.bytes();
                    let size = layout.size.bytes();
                    let niche_size = layout.largest_niche.map(|n| n.available(dl)).unwrap_or(0);
                    // Group [u8; 4] with align-4 or [u8; 6] with align-2 fields.
                    let size_as_align = align.max(size).trailing_zeros();
                    let size_as_align = if largest_niche_size > 0 {
                        match niche_bias {
                            // Given `A(u8, [u8; 16])` and `B(bool, [u8; 16])` we want to bump the
                            // array to the front in the first case (for aligned loads) but keep
                            // the bool in front in the second case for its niches.
                            NicheBias::Start => max_field_align.trailing_zeros().min(size_as_align),
                            // When moving niches towards the end of the struct then for
                            // A((u8, u8, u8, bool), (u8, bool, u8)) we want to keep the first tuple
                            // in the align-1 group because its bool can be moved closer to the end.
                            NicheBias::End if niche_size == largest_niche_size => {
                                align.trailing_zeros()
                            }
                            NicheBias::End => size_as_align,
                        }
                    } else {
                        size_as_align
                    };
                    size_as_align as u64
                }
            };

            match kind {
                StructKind::AlwaysSized | StructKind::MaybeUnsized => {
                    // Currently `LayoutS` only exposes a single niche so sorting is usually
                    // sufficient to get one niche into the preferred position. If it ever
                    // supported multiple niches then a more advanced pick-and-pack approach could
                    // provide better results. But even for the single-niche cache it's not
                    // optimal. E.g. for A(u32, (bool, u8), u16) it would be possible to move the
                    // bool to the front but it would require packing the tuple together with the
                    // u16 to build a 4-byte group so that the u32 can be placed after it without
                    // padding. This kind of packing can't be achieved by sorting.
                    optimizing.sort_by_key(|&x| {
                        let f = &fields[x];
                        let field_size = f.size.bytes();
                        let niche_size = f.largest_niche.map_or(0, |n| n.available(dl));
                        let niche_size_key = match niche_bias {
                            // large niche first
                            NicheBias::Start => !niche_size,
                            // large niche last
                            NicheBias::End => niche_size,
                        };
                        let inner_niche_offset_key = match niche_bias {
                            NicheBias::Start => f.largest_niche.map_or(0, |n| n.offset.bytes()),
                            NicheBias::End => f.largest_niche.map_or(0, |n| {
                                !(field_size - n.value.size(dl).bytes() - n.offset.bytes())
                            }),
                        };

                        (
                            // Then place largest alignments first.
                            cmp::Reverse(alignment_group_key(f)),
                            // Then prioritize niche placement within alignment group according to
                            // `niche_bias_start`.
                            niche_size_key,
                            // Then among fields with equally-sized niches prefer the ones
                            // closer to the start/end of the field.
                            inner_niche_offset_key,
                        )
                    });
                }

                StructKind::Prefixed(..) => {
                    // Sort in ascending alignment so that the layout stays optimal
                    // regardless of the prefix.
                    // And put the largest niche in an alignment group at the end
                    // so it can be used as discriminant in jagged enums
                    optimizing.sort_by_key(|&x| {
                        let f = &fields[x];
                        let niche_size = f.largest_niche.map_or(0, |n| n.available(dl));
                        (alignment_group_key(f), niche_size)
                    });
                }
            }

            // FIXME(Kixiron): We can always shuffle fields within a given alignment class
            //                 regardless of the status of `-Z randomize-layout`
        }
    }
    // inverse_memory_index holds field indices by increasing memory offset.
    // That is, if field 5 has offset 0, the first element of inverse_memory_index is 5.
    // We now write field offsets to the corresponding offset slot;
    // field 5 with offset 0 puts 0 in offsets[5].
    // At the bottom of this function, we invert `inverse_memory_index` to
    // produce `memory_index` (see `invert_mapping`).
    let mut sized = true;
    let mut offsets = IndexVec::from_elem(Size::ZERO, fields);
    let mut offset = Size::ZERO;
    let mut largest_niche = None;
    let mut largest_niche_available = 0;
    if let StructKind::Prefixed(prefix_size, prefix_align) = kind {
        let prefix_align =
            if let Some(pack) = pack { prefix_align.min(pack) } else { prefix_align };
        align = align.max(AbiAndPrefAlign::new(prefix_align));
        offset = prefix_size.align_to(prefix_align);
    }
    for &i in &inverse_memory_index {
        let field = &fields[i];
        if !sized {
            this.delayed_bug(format!(
                "univariant: field #{} comes after unsized field",
                offsets.len(),
            ));
        }

        if field.is_unsized() {
            sized = false;
        }

        // Invariant: offset < dl.obj_size_bound() <= 1<<61
        let field_align = if let Some(pack) = pack {
            field.align.min(AbiAndPrefAlign::new(pack))
        } else {
            field.align
        };
        offset = offset.align_to(field_align.abi);
        align = align.max(field_align);
        max_repr_align = max_repr_align.max(field.max_repr_align);

        debug!("univariant offset: {:?} field: {:#?}", offset, field);
        offsets[i] = offset;

        if let Some(mut niche) = field.largest_niche {
            let available = niche.available(dl);
            // Pick up larger niches.
            let prefer_new_niche = match niche_bias {
                NicheBias::Start => available > largest_niche_available,
                // if there are several niches of the same size then pick the last one
                NicheBias::End => available >= largest_niche_available,
            };
            if prefer_new_niche {
                largest_niche_available = available;
                niche.offset += offset;
                largest_niche = Some(niche);
            }
        }

        offset = offset.checked_add(field.size, dl)?;
    }

    // The unadjusted ABI alignment does not include repr(align), but does include repr(pack).
    // See documentation on `LayoutS::unadjusted_abi_align`.
    let unadjusted_abi_align = align.abi;
    if let Some(repr_align) = repr.align {
        align = align.max(AbiAndPrefAlign::new(repr_align));
    }
    // `align` must not be modified after this point, or `unadjusted_abi_align` could be inaccurate.
    let align = align;

    debug!("univariant min_size: {:?}", offset);
    let min_size = offset;
    // As stated above, inverse_memory_index holds field indices by increasing offset.
    // This makes it an already-sorted view of the offsets vec.
    // To invert it, consider:
    // If field 5 has offset 0, offsets[0] is 5, and memory_index[5] should be 0.
    // Field 5 would be the first element, so memory_index is i:
    // Note: if we didn't optimize, it's already right.
    let memory_index = if optimize {
        inverse_memory_index.invert_bijective_mapping()
    } else {
        debug_assert!(inverse_memory_index.iter().copied().eq(fields.indices()));
        inverse_memory_index.into_iter().map(|it| it.index() as u32).collect()
    };
    let size = min_size.align_to(align.abi);
    // FIXME(oli-obk): deduplicate and harden these checks
    if size.bytes() >= dl.obj_size_bound() {
        return None;
    }
    let mut layout_of_single_non_zst_field = None;
    let mut abi = Abi::Aggregate { sized };
    // Try to make this a Scalar/ScalarPair.
    if sized && size.bytes() > 0 {
        // We skip *all* ZST here and later check if we are good in terms of alignment.
        // This lets us handle some cases involving aligned ZST.
        let mut non_zst_fields = fields.iter_enumerated().filter(|&(_, f)| !f.is_zst());

        match (non_zst_fields.next(), non_zst_fields.next(), non_zst_fields.next()) {
            // We have exactly one non-ZST field.
            (Some((i, field)), None, None) => {
                layout_of_single_non_zst_field = Some(field);

                // Field fills the struct and it has a scalar or scalar pair ABI.
                if offsets[i].bytes() == 0 && align.abi == field.align.abi && size == field.size {
                    match field.abi {
                        // For plain scalars, or vectors of them, we can't unpack
                        // newtypes for `#[repr(C)]`, as that affects C ABIs.
                        Abi::Scalar(_) | Abi::Vector { .. } if optimize => {
                            abi = field.abi;
                        }
                        // But scalar pairs are Rust-specific and get
                        // treated as aggregates by C ABIs anyway.
                        Abi::ScalarPair(..) => {
                            abi = field.abi;
                        }
                        _ => {}
                    }
                }
            }

            // Two non-ZST fields, and they're both scalars.
            (Some((i, a)), Some((j, b)), None) => {
                match (a.abi, b.abi) {
                    (Abi::Scalar(a), Abi::Scalar(b)) => {
                        // Order by the memory placement, not source order.
                        let ((i, a), (j, b)) = if offsets[i] < offsets[j] {
                            ((i, a), (j, b))
                        } else {
                            ((j, b), (i, a))
                        };
                        let pair = this.scalar_pair::<FieldIdx, VariantIdx>(a, b);
                        let pair_offsets = match pair.fields {
                            FieldsShape::Arbitrary { ref offsets, ref memory_index } => {
                                assert_eq!(memory_index.raw, [0, 1]);
                                offsets
                            }
                            FieldsShape::Primitive
                            | FieldsShape::Array { .. }
                            | FieldsShape::Union(..) => {
                                panic!("encountered a non-arbitrary layout during enum layout")
                            }
                        };
                        if offsets[i] == pair_offsets[FieldIdx::new(0)]
                            && offsets[j] == pair_offsets[FieldIdx::new(1)]
                            && align == pair.align
                            && size == pair.size
                        {
                            // We can use `ScalarPair` only when it matches our
                            // already computed layout (including `#[repr(C)]`).
                            abi = pair.abi;
                        }
                    }
                    _ => {}
                }
            }

            _ => {}
        }
    }
    if fields.iter().any(|f| f.abi.is_uninhabited()) {
        abi = Abi::Uninhabited;
    }

    let unadjusted_abi_align = if repr.transparent() {
        match layout_of_single_non_zst_field {
            Some(l) => l.unadjusted_abi_align,
            None => {
                // `repr(transparent)` with all ZST fields.
                align.abi
            }
        }
    } else {
        unadjusted_abi_align
    };

    Some(LayoutS {
        variants: Variants::Single { index: VariantIdx::new(0) },
        fields: FieldsShape::Arbitrary { offsets, memory_index },
        abi,
        largest_niche,
        align,
        size,
        max_repr_align,
        unadjusted_abi_align,
    })
}

fn format_field_niches<
    'a,
    FieldIdx: Idx,
    VariantIdx: Idx,
    F: Deref<Target = &'a LayoutS<FieldIdx, VariantIdx>> + fmt::Debug,
>(
    layout: &LayoutS<FieldIdx, VariantIdx>,
    fields: &IndexSlice<FieldIdx, F>,
    dl: &TargetDataLayout,
) -> String {
    let mut s = String::new();
    for i in layout.fields.index_by_increasing_offset() {
        let offset = layout.fields.offset(i);
        let f = &fields[FieldIdx::new(i)];
        write!(s, "[o{}a{}s{}", offset.bytes(), f.align.abi.bytes(), f.size.bytes()).unwrap();
        if let Some(n) = f.largest_niche {
            write!(
                s,
                " n{}b{}s{}",
                n.offset.bytes(),
                n.available(dl).ilog2(),
                n.value.size(dl).bytes()
            )
            .unwrap();
        }
        write!(s, "] ").unwrap();
    }
    s
}