Trait core::cmp::Ord

1.0.0 · source ·
pub trait Ord: Eq + PartialOrd<Self> {
    // Required method
    fn cmp(&self, other: &Self) -> Ordering;

    // Provided methods
    fn max(self, other: Self) -> Self
       where Self: Sized { ... }
    fn min(self, other: Self) -> Self
       where Self: Sized { ... }
    fn clamp(self, min: Self, max: Self) -> Self
       where Self: Sized + PartialOrd { ... }
}
Expand description

Trait for types that form a total order.

Implementations must be consistent with the PartialOrd implementation, and ensure max, min, and clamp are consistent with cmp:

  • partial_cmp(a, b) == Some(cmp(a, b)).
  • max(a, b) == max_by(a, b, cmp) (ensured by the default implementation).
  • min(a, b) == min_by(a, b, cmp) (ensured by the default implementation).
  • For a.clamp(min, max), see the method docs (ensured by the default implementation).

It’s easy to accidentally make cmp and partial_cmp disagree by deriving some of the traits and manually implementing others.

Violating these requirements is a logic error. The behavior resulting from a logic error is not specified, but users of the trait must ensure that such logic errors do not result in undefined behavior. This means that unsafe code must not rely on the correctness of these methods.

Corollaries

From the above and the requirements of PartialOrd, it follows that < defines a strict total order. This means that for all a, b and c:

  • exactly one of a < b, a == b or a > b is true; and
  • < is transitive: a < b and b < c implies a < c. The same must hold for both == and >.

Derivable

This trait can be used with #[derive].

When derived on structs, it will produce a lexicographic ordering based on the top-to-bottom declaration order of the struct’s members.

When derived on enums, variants are ordered by their discriminants. By default, the discriminant is smallest for variants at the top, and largest for variants at the bottom. Here’s an example:

#[derive(PartialEq, Eq, PartialOrd, Ord)]
enum E {
    Top,
    Bottom,
}

assert!(E::Top < E::Bottom);
Run

However, manually setting the discriminants can override this default behavior:

#[derive(PartialEq, Eq, PartialOrd, Ord)]
enum E {
    Top = 2,
    Bottom = 1,
}

assert!(E::Bottom < E::Top);
Run

Lexicographical comparison

Lexicographical comparison is an operation with the following properties:

  • Two sequences are compared element by element.
  • The first mismatching element defines which sequence is lexicographically less or greater than the other.
  • If one sequence is a prefix of another, the shorter sequence is lexicographically less than the other.
  • If two sequence have equivalent elements and are of the same length, then the sequences are lexicographically equal.
  • An empty sequence is lexicographically less than any non-empty sequence.
  • Two empty sequences are lexicographically equal.

How can I implement Ord?

Ord requires that the type also be PartialOrd and Eq (which requires PartialEq).

Then you must define an implementation for cmp. You may find it useful to use cmp on your type’s fields.

Here’s an example where you want to sort people by height only, disregarding id and name:

use std::cmp::Ordering;

#[derive(Eq)]
struct Person {
    id: u32,
    name: String,
    height: u32,
}

impl Ord for Person {
    fn cmp(&self, other: &Self) -> Ordering {
        self.height.cmp(&other.height)
    }
}

impl PartialOrd for Person {
    fn partial_cmp(&self, other: &Self) -> Option<Ordering> {
        Some(self.cmp(other))
    }
}

impl PartialEq for Person {
    fn eq(&self, other: &Self) -> bool {
        self.height == other.height
    }
}
Run

Required Methods§

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fn cmp(&self, other: &Self) -> Ordering

This method returns an Ordering between self and other.

By convention, self.cmp(&other) returns the ordering matching the expression self <operator> other if true.

Examples
use std::cmp::Ordering;

assert_eq!(5.cmp(&10), Ordering::Less);
assert_eq!(10.cmp(&5), Ordering::Greater);
assert_eq!(5.cmp(&5), Ordering::Equal);
Run

Provided Methods§

1.21.0 · source

fn max(self, other: Self) -> Selfwhere Self: Sized,

Compares and returns the maximum of two values.

Returns the second argument if the comparison determines them to be equal.

Examples
assert_eq!(1.max(2), 2);
assert_eq!(2.max(2), 2);
Run
1.21.0 · source

fn min(self, other: Self) -> Selfwhere Self: Sized,

Compares and returns the minimum of two values.

Returns the first argument if the comparison determines them to be equal.

Examples
assert_eq!(1.min(2), 1);
assert_eq!(2.min(2), 2);
Run
1.50.0 · source

fn clamp(self, min: Self, max: Self) -> Selfwhere Self: Sized + PartialOrd,

Restrict a value to a certain interval.

Returns max if self is greater than max, and min if self is less than min. Otherwise this returns self.

Panics

Panics if min > max.

Examples
assert_eq!((-3).clamp(-2, 1), -2);
assert_eq!(0.clamp(-2, 1), 0);
assert_eq!(2.clamp(-2, 1), 1);
Run

Implementors§

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impl Ord for AsciiChar

1.34.0 · source§

impl Ord for Infallible

1.7.0 · source§

impl Ord for IpAddr

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impl Ord for SocketAddr

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impl Ord for Which

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impl Ord for Ordering

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impl Ord for bool

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impl Ord for char

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impl Ord for i8

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impl Ord for i16

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impl Ord for i32

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impl Ord for i64

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impl Ord for i128

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impl Ord for isize

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impl Ord for !

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impl Ord for str

Implements ordering of strings.

Strings are ordered lexicographically by their byte values. This orders Unicode code points based on their positions in the code charts. This is not necessarily the same as “alphabetical” order, which varies by language and locale. Sorting strings according to culturally-accepted standards requires locale-specific data that is outside the scope of the str type.

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impl Ord for u8

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impl Ord for u16

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impl Ord for u32

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impl Ord for u64

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impl Ord for u128

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impl Ord for ()

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impl Ord for usize

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impl Ord for TypeId

1.27.0 · source§

impl Ord for CpuidResult

Available on x86 or x86-64 only.
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impl Ord for CStr

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impl Ord for Error

1.33.0 · source§

impl Ord for PhantomPinned

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impl Ord for Ipv4Addr

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impl Ord for Ipv6Addr

1.45.0 · source§

impl Ord for SocketAddrV4

1.45.0 · source§

impl Ord for SocketAddrV6

1.34.0 · source§

impl Ord for NonZeroI8

1.34.0 · source§

impl Ord for NonZeroI16

1.34.0 · source§

impl Ord for NonZeroI32

1.34.0 · source§

impl Ord for NonZeroI64

1.34.0 · source§

impl Ord for NonZeroI128

1.34.0 · source§

impl Ord for NonZeroIsize

1.28.0 · source§

impl Ord for NonZeroU8

1.28.0 · source§

impl Ord for NonZeroU16

1.28.0 · source§

impl Ord for NonZeroU32

1.28.0 · source§

impl Ord for NonZeroU64

1.28.0 · source§

impl Ord for NonZeroU128

1.28.0 · source§

impl Ord for NonZeroUsize

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impl Ord for Alignment

1.3.0 · source§

impl Ord for Duration

1.10.0 · source§

impl<'a> Ord for Location<'a>

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impl<A> Ord for &Awhere A: Ord + ?Sized,

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impl<A> Ord for &mut Awhere A: Ord + ?Sized,

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impl<Dyn: ?Sized> Ord for DynMetadata<Dyn>

1.4.0 · source§

impl<F: FnPtr> Ord for F

1.41.0 · source§

impl<P: Deref<Target: Ord>> Ord for Pin<P>

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impl<T> Ord for (T₁, T₂, …, Tₙ)where T: ?Sized + Ord,

This trait is implemented for tuples up to twelve items long.

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impl<T, const N: usize> Ord for Simd<T, N>where LaneCount<N>: SupportedLaneCount, T: SimdElement + Ord,

1.10.0 · source§

impl<T: Ord + Copy> Ord for Cell<T>

1.20.0 · source§

impl<T: Ord + ?Sized> Ord for ManuallyDrop<T>

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impl<T: Ord> Ord for Option<T>

1.36.0 · source§

impl<T: Ord> Ord for Poll<T>

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impl<T: Ord> Ord for [T]

Implements comparison of vectors lexicographically.

1.75.0-nightly · source§

impl<T: Ord> Ord for Saturating<T>

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impl<T: Ord> Ord for Wrapping<T>

1.19.0 · source§

impl<T: Ord> Ord for Reverse<T>

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impl<T: Ord, E: Ord> Ord for Result<T, E>

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impl<T: Ord, const N: usize> Ord for [T; N]

Implements comparison of arrays lexicographically.

1.10.0 · source§

impl<T: ?Sized + Ord> Ord for RefCell<T>

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impl<T: ?Sized> Ord for *const T

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impl<T: ?Sized> Ord for *mut T

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impl<T: ?Sized> Ord for PhantomData<T>

1.25.0 · source§

impl<T: ?Sized> Ord for NonNull<T>

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impl<Y: Ord, R: Ord> Ord for GeneratorState<Y, R>