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#[cfg(test)]
mod tests;

use crate::convert::From;
use crate::error;
use crate::fmt;
use crate::result;
use crate::sys;

/// A specialized [`Result`] type for I/O operations.
///
/// This type is broadly used across [`std::io`] for any operation which may
/// produce an error.
///
/// This typedef is generally used to avoid writing out [`io::Error`] directly and
/// is otherwise a direct mapping to [`Result`].
///
/// While usual Rust style is to import types directly, aliases of [`Result`]
/// often are not, to make it easier to distinguish between them. [`Result`] is
/// generally assumed to be [`std::result::Result`][`Result`], and so users of this alias
/// will generally use `io::Result` instead of shadowing the [prelude]'s import
/// of [`std::result::Result`][`Result`].
///
/// [`std::io`]: crate::io
/// [`io::Error`]: Error
/// [`Result`]: crate::result::Result
/// [prelude]: crate::prelude
///
/// # Examples
///
/// A convenience function that bubbles an `io::Result` to its caller:
///
/// ```
/// use std::io;
///
/// fn get_string() -> io::Result<String> {
///     let mut buffer = String::new();
///
///     io::stdin().read_line(&mut buffer)?;
///
///     Ok(buffer)
/// }
/// ```
#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
pub type Result<T> = result::Result<T, Error>;

/// The error type for I/O operations of the [`Read`], [`Write`], [`Seek`], and
/// associated traits.
///
/// Errors mostly originate from the underlying OS, but custom instances of
/// `Error` can be created with crafted error messages and a particular value of
/// [`ErrorKind`].
///
/// [`Read`]: crate::io::Read
/// [`Write`]: crate::io::Write
/// [`Seek`]: crate::io::Seek
#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
pub struct Error {
    repr: Repr,
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl fmt::Debug for Error {
    fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> fmt::Result {
        fmt::Debug::fmt(&self.repr, f)
    }
}

enum Repr {
    Os(i32),
    Simple(ErrorKind),
    // &str is a fat pointer, but &&str is a thin pointer.
    SimpleMessage(ErrorKind, &'static &'static str),
    Custom(Box<Custom>),
}

#[derive(Debug)]
struct Custom {
    kind: ErrorKind,
    error: Box<dyn error::Error + Send + Sync>,
}

/// A list specifying general categories of I/O error.
///
/// This list is intended to grow over time and it is not recommended to
/// exhaustively match against it.
///
/// It is used with the [`io::Error`] type.
///
/// [`io::Error`]: Error
#[derive(Clone, Copy, Debug, Eq, Hash, Ord, PartialEq, PartialOrd)]
#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
#[allow(deprecated)]
#[non_exhaustive]
pub enum ErrorKind {
    /// An entity was not found, often a file.
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    NotFound,
    /// The operation lacked the necessary privileges to complete.
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    PermissionDenied,
    /// The connection was refused by the remote server.
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    ConnectionRefused,
    /// The connection was reset by the remote server.
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    ConnectionReset,
    /// The remote host is not reachable.
    #[unstable(feature = "io_error_more", issue = "86442")]
    HostUnreachable,
    /// The network containing the remote host is not reachable.
    #[unstable(feature = "io_error_more", issue = "86442")]
    NetworkUnreachable,
    /// The connection was aborted (terminated) by the remote server.
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    ConnectionAborted,
    /// The network operation failed because it was not connected yet.
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    NotConnected,
    /// A socket address could not be bound because the address is already in
    /// use elsewhere.
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    AddrInUse,
    /// A nonexistent interface was requested or the requested address was not
    /// local.
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    AddrNotAvailable,
    /// The system's networking is down.
    #[unstable(feature = "io_error_more", issue = "86442")]
    NetworkDown,
    /// The operation failed because a pipe was closed.
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    BrokenPipe,
    /// An entity already exists, often a file.
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    AlreadyExists,
    /// The operation needs to block to complete, but the blocking operation was
    /// requested to not occur.
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    WouldBlock,
    /// A filesystem object is, unexpectedly, not a directory.
    ///
    /// For example, a filesystem path was specified where one of the intermediate directory
    /// components was, in fact, a plain file.
    #[unstable(feature = "io_error_more", issue = "86442")]
    NotADirectory,
    /// The filesystem object is, unexpectedly, a directory.
    ///
    /// A directory was specified when a non-directory was expected.
    #[unstable(feature = "io_error_more", issue = "86442")]
    IsADirectory,
    /// A non-empty directory was specified where an empty directory was expected.
    #[unstable(feature = "io_error_more", issue = "86442")]
    DirectoryNotEmpty,
    /// The filesystem or storage medium is read-only, but a write operation was attempted.
    #[unstable(feature = "io_error_more", issue = "86442")]
    ReadOnlyFilesystem,
    /// Loop in the filesystem or IO subsystem; often, too many levels of symbolic links.
    ///
    /// There was a loop (or excessively long chain) resolving a filesystem object
    /// or file IO object.
    ///
    /// On Unix this is usually the result of a symbolic link loop; or, of exceeding the
    /// system-specific limit on the depth of symlink traversal.
    #[unstable(feature = "io_error_more", issue = "86442")]
    FilesystemLoop,
    /// Stale network file handle.
    ///
    /// With some network filesystems, notably NFS, an open file (or directory) can be invalidated
    /// by problems with the network or server.
    #[unstable(feature = "io_error_more", issue = "86442")]
    StaleNetworkFileHandle,
    /// A parameter was incorrect.
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    InvalidInput,
    /// Data not valid for the operation were encountered.
    ///
    /// Unlike [`InvalidInput`], this typically means that the operation
    /// parameters were valid, however the error was caused by malformed
    /// input data.
    ///
    /// For example, a function that reads a file into a string will error with
    /// `InvalidData` if the file's contents are not valid UTF-8.
    ///
    /// [`InvalidInput`]: ErrorKind::InvalidInput
    #[stable(feature = "io_invalid_data", since = "1.2.0")]
    InvalidData,
    /// The I/O operation's timeout expired, causing it to be canceled.
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    TimedOut,
    /// An error returned when an operation could not be completed because a
    /// call to [`write`] returned [`Ok(0)`].
    ///
    /// This typically means that an operation could only succeed if it wrote a
    /// particular number of bytes but only a smaller number of bytes could be
    /// written.
    ///
    /// [`write`]: crate::io::Write::write
    /// [`Ok(0)`]: Ok
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    WriteZero,
    /// The underlying storage (typically, a filesystem) is full.
    ///
    /// This does not include out of quota errors.
    #[unstable(feature = "io_error_more", issue = "86442")]
    StorageFull,
    /// Seek on unseekable file.
    ///
    /// Seeking was attempted on an open file handle which is not suitable for seeking - for
    /// example, on Unix, a named pipe opened with `File::open`.
    #[unstable(feature = "io_error_more", issue = "86442")]
    NotSeekable,
    /// Filesystem quota was exceeded.
    #[unstable(feature = "io_error_more", issue = "86442")]
    FilesystemQuotaExceeded,
    /// File larger than allowed or supported.
    ///
    /// This might arise from a hard limit of the underlying filesystem or file access API, or from
    /// an administratively imposed resource limitation.  Simple disk full, and out of quota, have
    /// their own errors.
    #[unstable(feature = "io_error_more", issue = "86442")]
    FileTooLarge,
    /// Resource is busy.
    #[unstable(feature = "io_error_more", issue = "86442")]
    ResourceBusy,
    /// Executable file is busy.
    ///
    /// An attempt was made to write to a file which is also in use as a running program.  (Not all
    /// operating systems detect this situation.)
    #[unstable(feature = "io_error_more", issue = "86442")]
    ExecutableFileBusy,
    /// Deadlock (avoided).
    ///
    /// A file locking operation would result in deadlock.  This situation is typically detected, if
    /// at all, on a best-effort basis.
    #[unstable(feature = "io_error_more", issue = "86442")]
    Deadlock,
    /// Cross-device or cross-filesystem (hard) link or rename.
    #[unstable(feature = "io_error_more", issue = "86442")]
    CrossesDevices,
    /// Too many (hard) links to the same filesystem object.
    ///
    /// The filesystem does not support making so many hardlinks to the same file.
    #[unstable(feature = "io_error_more", issue = "86442")]
    TooManyLinks,
    /// Filename too long.
    ///
    /// The limit might be from the underlying filesystem or API, or an administratively imposed
    /// resource limit.
    #[unstable(feature = "io_error_more", issue = "86442")]
    FilenameTooLong,
    /// Program argument list too long.
    ///
    /// When trying to run an external program, a system or process limit on the size of the
    /// arguments would have been exceeded.
    #[unstable(feature = "io_error_more", issue = "86442")]
    ArgumentListTooLong,
    /// This operation was interrupted.
    ///
    /// Interrupted operations can typically be retried.
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    Interrupted,

    /// A custom error that does not fall under any other I/O error kind.
    ///
    /// This can be used to construct your own [`Error`]s that do not match any
    /// [`ErrorKind`].
    ///
    /// This [`ErrorKind`] is not used by the standard library.
    ///
    /// Errors from the standard library that do not fall under any of the I/O
    /// error kinds cannot be `match`ed on, and will only match a wildcard (`_`) pattern.
    /// New [`ErrorKind`]s might be added in the future for some of those.
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    Other,

    /// An error returned when an operation could not be completed because an
    /// "end of file" was reached prematurely.
    ///
    /// This typically means that an operation could only succeed if it read a
    /// particular number of bytes but only a smaller number of bytes could be
    /// read.
    #[stable(feature = "read_exact", since = "1.6.0")]
    UnexpectedEof,

    /// This operation is unsupported on this platform.
    ///
    /// This means that the operation can never succeed.
    #[stable(feature = "unsupported_error", since = "1.53.0")]
    Unsupported,

    /// An operation could not be completed, because it failed
    /// to allocate enough memory.
    #[stable(feature = "out_of_memory_error", since = "1.54.0")]
    OutOfMemory,

    /// Any I/O error from the standard library that's not part of this list.
    ///
    /// Errors that are `Uncategorized` now may move to a different or a new
    /// [`ErrorKind`] variant in the future. It is not recommended to match
    /// an error against `Uncategorized`; use a wildcard match (`_`) instead.
    #[unstable(feature = "io_error_uncategorized", issue = "none")]
    #[doc(hidden)]
    Uncategorized,
}

impl ErrorKind {
    pub(crate) fn as_str(&self) -> &'static str {
        use ErrorKind::*;
        match *self {
            AddrInUse => "address in use",
            AddrNotAvailable => "address not available",
            AlreadyExists => "entity already exists",
            ArgumentListTooLong => "argument list too long",
            BrokenPipe => "broken pipe",
            ResourceBusy => "resource busy",
            ConnectionAborted => "connection aborted",
            ConnectionRefused => "connection refused",
            ConnectionReset => "connection reset",
            CrossesDevices => "cross-device link or rename",
            Deadlock => "deadlock",
            DirectoryNotEmpty => "directory not empty",
            ExecutableFileBusy => "executable file busy",
            FilenameTooLong => "filename too long",
            FilesystemQuotaExceeded => "filesystem quota exceeded",
            FileTooLarge => "file too large",
            HostUnreachable => "host unreachable",
            Interrupted => "operation interrupted",
            InvalidData => "invalid data",
            InvalidInput => "invalid input parameter",
            IsADirectory => "is a directory",
            NetworkDown => "network down",
            NetworkUnreachable => "network unreachable",
            NotADirectory => "not a directory",
            StorageFull => "no storage space",
            NotConnected => "not connected",
            NotFound => "entity not found",
            Other => "other error",
            OutOfMemory => "out of memory",
            PermissionDenied => "permission denied",
            ReadOnlyFilesystem => "read-only filesystem or storage medium",
            StaleNetworkFileHandle => "stale network file handle",
            FilesystemLoop => "filesystem loop or indirection limit (e.g. symlink loop)",
            NotSeekable => "seek on unseekable file",
            TimedOut => "timed out",
            TooManyLinks => "too many links",
            Uncategorized => "uncategorized error",
            UnexpectedEof => "unexpected end of file",
            Unsupported => "unsupported",
            WouldBlock => "operation would block",
            WriteZero => "write zero",
        }
    }
}

/// Intended for use for errors not exposed to the user, where allocating onto
/// the heap (for normal construction via Error::new) is too costly.
#[stable(feature = "io_error_from_errorkind", since = "1.14.0")]
impl From<ErrorKind> for Error {
    /// Converts an [`ErrorKind`] into an [`Error`].
    ///
    /// This conversion allocates a new error with a simple representation of error kind.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::io::{Error, ErrorKind};
    ///
    /// let not_found = ErrorKind::NotFound;
    /// let error = Error::from(not_found);
    /// assert_eq!("entity not found", format!("{}", error));
    /// ```
    #[inline]
    fn from(kind: ErrorKind) -> Error {
        Error { repr: Repr::Simple(kind) }
    }
}

impl Error {
    /// Creates a new I/O error from a known kind of error as well as an
    /// arbitrary error payload.
    ///
    /// This function is used to generically create I/O errors which do not
    /// originate from the OS itself. The `error` argument is an arbitrary
    /// payload which will be contained in this [`Error`].
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::io::{Error, ErrorKind};
    ///
    /// // errors can be created from strings
    /// let custom_error = Error::new(ErrorKind::Other, "oh no!");
    ///
    /// // errors can also be created from other errors
    /// let custom_error2 = Error::new(ErrorKind::Interrupted, custom_error);
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    pub fn new<E>(kind: ErrorKind, error: E) -> Error
    where
        E: Into<Box<dyn error::Error + Send + Sync>>,
    {
        Self::_new(kind, error.into())
    }

    fn _new(kind: ErrorKind, error: Box<dyn error::Error + Send + Sync>) -> Error {
        Error { repr: Repr::Custom(Box::new(Custom { kind, error })) }
    }

    /// Creates a new I/O error from a known kind of error as well as a
    /// constant message.
    ///
    /// This function does not allocate.
    ///
    /// This function should maybe change to
    /// `new_const<const MSG: &'static str>(kind: ErrorKind)`
    /// in the future, when const generics allow that.
    #[inline]
    pub(crate) const fn new_const(kind: ErrorKind, message: &'static &'static str) -> Error {
        Self { repr: Repr::SimpleMessage(kind, message) }
    }

    /// Returns an error representing the last OS error which occurred.
    ///
    /// This function reads the value of `errno` for the target platform (e.g.
    /// `GetLastError` on Windows) and will return a corresponding instance of
    /// [`Error`] for the error code.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::io::Error;
    ///
    /// println!("last OS error: {:?}", Error::last_os_error());
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    #[inline]
    pub fn last_os_error() -> Error {
        Error::from_raw_os_error(sys::os::errno() as i32)
    }

    /// Creates a new instance of an [`Error`] from a particular OS error code.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// On Linux:
    ///
    /// ```
    /// # if cfg!(target_os = "linux") {
    /// use std::io;
    ///
    /// let error = io::Error::from_raw_os_error(22);
    /// assert_eq!(error.kind(), io::ErrorKind::InvalidInput);
    /// # }
    /// ```
    ///
    /// On Windows:
    ///
    /// ```
    /// # if cfg!(windows) {
    /// use std::io;
    ///
    /// let error = io::Error::from_raw_os_error(10022);
    /// assert_eq!(error.kind(), io::ErrorKind::InvalidInput);
    /// # }
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    #[inline]
    pub fn from_raw_os_error(code: i32) -> Error {
        Error { repr: Repr::Os(code) }
    }

    /// Returns the OS error that this error represents (if any).
    ///
    /// If this [`Error`] was constructed via [`last_os_error`] or
    /// [`from_raw_os_error`], then this function will return [`Some`], otherwise
    /// it will return [`None`].
    ///
    /// [`last_os_error`]: Error::last_os_error
    /// [`from_raw_os_error`]: Error::from_raw_os_error
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::io::{Error, ErrorKind};
    ///
    /// fn print_os_error(err: &Error) {
    ///     if let Some(raw_os_err) = err.raw_os_error() {
    ///         println!("raw OS error: {:?}", raw_os_err);
    ///     } else {
    ///         println!("Not an OS error");
    ///     }
    /// }
    ///
    /// fn main() {
    ///     // Will print "raw OS error: ...".
    ///     print_os_error(&Error::last_os_error());
    ///     // Will print "Not an OS error".
    ///     print_os_error(&Error::new(ErrorKind::Other, "oh no!"));
    /// }
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    #[inline]
    pub fn raw_os_error(&self) -> Option<i32> {
        match self.repr {
            Repr::Os(i) => Some(i),
            Repr::Custom(..) => None,
            Repr::Simple(..) => None,
            Repr::SimpleMessage(..) => None,
        }
    }

    /// Returns a reference to the inner error wrapped by this error (if any).
    ///
    /// If this [`Error`] was constructed via [`new`] then this function will
    /// return [`Some`], otherwise it will return [`None`].
    ///
    /// [`new`]: Error::new
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::io::{Error, ErrorKind};
    ///
    /// fn print_error(err: &Error) {
    ///     if let Some(inner_err) = err.get_ref() {
    ///         println!("Inner error: {:?}", inner_err);
    ///     } else {
    ///         println!("No inner error");
    ///     }
    /// }
    ///
    /// fn main() {
    ///     // Will print "No inner error".
    ///     print_error(&Error::last_os_error());
    ///     // Will print "Inner error: ...".
    ///     print_error(&Error::new(ErrorKind::Other, "oh no!"));
    /// }
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "io_error_inner", since = "1.3.0")]
    #[inline]
    pub fn get_ref(&self) -> Option<&(dyn error::Error + Send + Sync + 'static)> {
        match self.repr {
            Repr::Os(..) => None,
            Repr::Simple(..) => None,
            Repr::SimpleMessage(..) => None,
            Repr::Custom(ref c) => Some(&*c.error),
        }
    }

    /// Returns a mutable reference to the inner error wrapped by this error
    /// (if any).
    ///
    /// If this [`Error`] was constructed via [`new`] then this function will
    /// return [`Some`], otherwise it will return [`None`].
    ///
    /// [`new`]: Error::new
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::io::{Error, ErrorKind};
    /// use std::{error, fmt};
    /// use std::fmt::Display;
    ///
    /// #[derive(Debug)]
    /// struct MyError {
    ///     v: String,
    /// }
    ///
    /// impl MyError {
    ///     fn new() -> MyError {
    ///         MyError {
    ///             v: "oh no!".to_string()
    ///         }
    ///     }
    ///
    ///     fn change_message(&mut self, new_message: &str) {
    ///         self.v = new_message.to_string();
    ///     }
    /// }
    ///
    /// impl error::Error for MyError {}
    ///
    /// impl Display for MyError {
    ///     fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> fmt::Result {
    ///         write!(f, "MyError: {}", &self.v)
    ///     }
    /// }
    ///
    /// fn change_error(mut err: Error) -> Error {
    ///     if let Some(inner_err) = err.get_mut() {
    ///         inner_err.downcast_mut::<MyError>().unwrap().change_message("I've been changed!");
    ///     }
    ///     err
    /// }
    ///
    /// fn print_error(err: &Error) {
    ///     if let Some(inner_err) = err.get_ref() {
    ///         println!("Inner error: {}", inner_err);
    ///     } else {
    ///         println!("No inner error");
    ///     }
    /// }
    ///
    /// fn main() {
    ///     // Will print "No inner error".
    ///     print_error(&change_error(Error::last_os_error()));
    ///     // Will print "Inner error: ...".
    ///     print_error(&change_error(Error::new(ErrorKind::Other, MyError::new())));
    /// }
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "io_error_inner", since = "1.3.0")]
    #[inline]
    pub fn get_mut(&mut self) -> Option<&mut (dyn error::Error + Send + Sync + 'static)> {
        match self.repr {
            Repr::Os(..) => None,
            Repr::Simple(..) => None,
            Repr::SimpleMessage(..) => None,
            Repr::Custom(ref mut c) => Some(&mut *c.error),
        }
    }

    /// Consumes the `Error`, returning its inner error (if any).
    ///
    /// If this [`Error`] was constructed via [`new`] then this function will
    /// return [`Some`], otherwise it will return [`None`].
    ///
    /// [`new`]: Error::new
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::io::{Error, ErrorKind};
    ///
    /// fn print_error(err: Error) {
    ///     if let Some(inner_err) = err.into_inner() {
    ///         println!("Inner error: {}", inner_err);
    ///     } else {
    ///         println!("No inner error");
    ///     }
    /// }
    ///
    /// fn main() {
    ///     // Will print "No inner error".
    ///     print_error(Error::last_os_error());
    ///     // Will print "Inner error: ...".
    ///     print_error(Error::new(ErrorKind::Other, "oh no!"));
    /// }
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "io_error_inner", since = "1.3.0")]
    #[inline]
    pub fn into_inner(self) -> Option<Box<dyn error::Error + Send + Sync>> {
        match self.repr {
            Repr::Os(..) => None,
            Repr::Simple(..) => None,
            Repr::SimpleMessage(..) => None,
            Repr::Custom(c) => Some(c.error),
        }
    }

    /// Returns the corresponding [`ErrorKind`] for this error.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// use std::io::{Error, ErrorKind};
    ///
    /// fn print_error(err: Error) {
    ///     println!("{:?}", err.kind());
    /// }
    ///
    /// fn main() {
    ///     // Will print "Uncategorized".
    ///     print_error(Error::last_os_error());
    ///     // Will print "AddrInUse".
    ///     print_error(Error::new(ErrorKind::AddrInUse, "oh no!"));
    /// }
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    #[inline]
    pub fn kind(&self) -> ErrorKind {
        match self.repr {
            Repr::Os(code) => sys::decode_error_kind(code),
            Repr::Custom(ref c) => c.kind,
            Repr::Simple(kind) => kind,
            Repr::SimpleMessage(kind, _) => kind,
        }
    }
}

impl fmt::Debug for Repr {
    fn fmt(&self, fmt: &mut fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> fmt::Result {
        match *self {
            Repr::Os(code) => fmt
                .debug_struct("Os")
                .field("code", &code)
                .field("kind", &sys::decode_error_kind(code))
                .field("message", &sys::os::error_string(code))
                .finish(),
            Repr::Custom(ref c) => fmt::Debug::fmt(&c, fmt),
            Repr::Simple(kind) => fmt.debug_tuple("Kind").field(&kind).finish(),
            Repr::SimpleMessage(kind, &message) => {
                fmt.debug_struct("Error").field("kind", &kind).field("message", &message).finish()
            }
        }
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl fmt::Display for Error {
    fn fmt(&self, fmt: &mut fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> fmt::Result {
        match self.repr {
            Repr::Os(code) => {
                let detail = sys::os::error_string(code);
                write!(fmt, "{} (os error {})", detail, code)
            }
            Repr::Custom(ref c) => c.error.fmt(fmt),
            Repr::Simple(kind) => write!(fmt, "{}", kind.as_str()),
            Repr::SimpleMessage(_, &msg) => msg.fmt(fmt),
        }
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl error::Error for Error {
    #[allow(deprecated, deprecated_in_future)]
    fn description(&self) -> &str {
        match self.repr {
            Repr::Os(..) | Repr::Simple(..) => self.kind().as_str(),
            Repr::SimpleMessage(_, &msg) => msg,
            Repr::Custom(ref c) => c.error.description(),
        }
    }

    #[allow(deprecated)]
    fn cause(&self) -> Option<&dyn error::Error> {
        match self.repr {
            Repr::Os(..) => None,
            Repr::Simple(..) => None,
            Repr::SimpleMessage(..) => None,
            Repr::Custom(ref c) => c.error.cause(),
        }
    }

    fn source(&self) -> Option<&(dyn error::Error + 'static)> {
        match self.repr {
            Repr::Os(..) => None,
            Repr::Simple(..) => None,
            Repr::SimpleMessage(..) => None,
            Repr::Custom(ref c) => c.error.source(),
        }
    }
}

fn _assert_error_is_sync_send() {
    fn _is_sync_send<T: Sync + Send>() {}
    _is_sync_send::<Error>();
}