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use crate::cmp;
use crate::fmt;
use crate::io::{self, BufRead, Initializer, IoSliceMut, Read, Seek, SeekFrom, DEFAULT_BUF_SIZE};

/// The `BufReader<R>` struct adds buffering to any reader.
///
/// It can be excessively inefficient to work directly with a [`Read`] instance.
/// For example, every call to [`read`][`TcpStream::read`] on [`TcpStream`]
/// results in a system call. A `BufReader<R>` performs large, infrequent reads on
/// the underlying [`Read`] and maintains an in-memory buffer of the results.
///
/// `BufReader<R>` can improve the speed of programs that make *small* and
/// *repeated* read calls to the same file or network socket. It does not
/// help when reading very large amounts at once, or reading just one or a few
/// times. It also provides no advantage when reading from a source that is
/// already in memory, like a [`Vec`]`<u8>`.
///
/// When the `BufReader<R>` is dropped, the contents of its buffer will be
/// discarded. Creating multiple instances of a `BufReader<R>` on the same
/// stream can cause data loss. Reading from the underlying reader after
/// unwrapping the `BufReader<R>` with [`BufReader::into_inner`] can also cause
/// data loss.
///
// HACK(#78696): can't use `crate` for associated items
/// [`TcpStream::read`]: super::super::super::net::TcpStream::read
/// [`TcpStream`]: crate::net::TcpStream
///
/// # Examples
///
/// ```no_run
/// use std::io::prelude::*;
/// use std::io::BufReader;
/// use std::fs::File;
///
/// fn main() -> std::io::Result<()> {
///     let f = File::open("log.txt")?;
///     let mut reader = BufReader::new(f);
///
///     let mut line = String::new();
///     let len = reader.read_line(&mut line)?;
///     println!("First line is {} bytes long", len);
///     Ok(())
/// }
/// ```
#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
pub struct BufReader<R> {
    inner: R,
    buf: Box<[u8]>,
    pos: usize,
    cap: usize,
}

impl<R: Read> BufReader<R> {
    /// Creates a new `BufReader<R>` with a default buffer capacity. The default is currently 8 KB,
    /// but may change in the future.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```no_run
    /// use std::io::BufReader;
    /// use std::fs::File;
    ///
    /// fn main() -> std::io::Result<()> {
    ///     let f = File::open("log.txt")?;
    ///     let reader = BufReader::new(f);
    ///     Ok(())
    /// }
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    pub fn new(inner: R) -> BufReader<R> {
        BufReader::with_capacity(DEFAULT_BUF_SIZE, inner)
    }

    /// Creates a new `BufReader<R>` with the specified buffer capacity.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// Creating a buffer with ten bytes of capacity:
    ///
    /// ```no_run
    /// use std::io::BufReader;
    /// use std::fs::File;
    ///
    /// fn main() -> std::io::Result<()> {
    ///     let f = File::open("log.txt")?;
    ///     let reader = BufReader::with_capacity(10, f);
    ///     Ok(())
    /// }
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    pub fn with_capacity(capacity: usize, inner: R) -> BufReader<R> {
        unsafe {
            let mut buffer = Vec::with_capacity(capacity);
            buffer.set_len(capacity);
            inner.initializer().initialize(&mut buffer);
            BufReader { inner, buf: buffer.into_boxed_slice(), pos: 0, cap: 0 }
        }
    }
}

impl<R> BufReader<R> {
    /// Gets a reference to the underlying reader.
    ///
    /// It is inadvisable to directly read from the underlying reader.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```no_run
    /// use std::io::BufReader;
    /// use std::fs::File;
    ///
    /// fn main() -> std::io::Result<()> {
    ///     let f1 = File::open("log.txt")?;
    ///     let reader = BufReader::new(f1);
    ///
    ///     let f2 = reader.get_ref();
    ///     Ok(())
    /// }
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    pub fn get_ref(&self) -> &R {
        &self.inner
    }

    /// Gets a mutable reference to the underlying reader.
    ///
    /// It is inadvisable to directly read from the underlying reader.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```no_run
    /// use std::io::BufReader;
    /// use std::fs::File;
    ///
    /// fn main() -> std::io::Result<()> {
    ///     let f1 = File::open("log.txt")?;
    ///     let mut reader = BufReader::new(f1);
    ///
    ///     let f2 = reader.get_mut();
    ///     Ok(())
    /// }
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    pub fn get_mut(&mut self) -> &mut R {
        &mut self.inner
    }

    /// Returns a reference to the internally buffered data.
    ///
    /// Unlike [`fill_buf`], this will not attempt to fill the buffer if it is empty.
    ///
    /// [`fill_buf`]: BufRead::fill_buf
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```no_run
    /// use std::io::{BufReader, BufRead};
    /// use std::fs::File;
    ///
    /// fn main() -> std::io::Result<()> {
    ///     let f = File::open("log.txt")?;
    ///     let mut reader = BufReader::new(f);
    ///     assert!(reader.buffer().is_empty());
    ///
    ///     if reader.fill_buf()?.len() > 0 {
    ///         assert!(!reader.buffer().is_empty());
    ///     }
    ///     Ok(())
    /// }
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "bufreader_buffer", since = "1.37.0")]
    pub fn buffer(&self) -> &[u8] {
        &self.buf[self.pos..self.cap]
    }

    /// Returns the number of bytes the internal buffer can hold at once.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```no_run
    /// use std::io::{BufReader, BufRead};
    /// use std::fs::File;
    ///
    /// fn main() -> std::io::Result<()> {
    ///     let f = File::open("log.txt")?;
    ///     let mut reader = BufReader::new(f);
    ///
    ///     let capacity = reader.capacity();
    ///     let buffer = reader.fill_buf()?;
    ///     assert!(buffer.len() <= capacity);
    ///     Ok(())
    /// }
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "buffered_io_capacity", since = "1.46.0")]
    pub fn capacity(&self) -> usize {
        self.buf.len()
    }

    /// Unwraps this `BufReader<R>`, returning the underlying reader.
    ///
    /// Note that any leftover data in the internal buffer is lost. Therefore,
    /// a following read from the underlying reader may lead to data loss.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```no_run
    /// use std::io::BufReader;
    /// use std::fs::File;
    ///
    /// fn main() -> std::io::Result<()> {
    ///     let f1 = File::open("log.txt")?;
    ///     let reader = BufReader::new(f1);
    ///
    ///     let f2 = reader.into_inner();
    ///     Ok(())
    /// }
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    pub fn into_inner(self) -> R {
        self.inner
    }

    /// Invalidates all data in the internal buffer.
    #[inline]
    fn discard_buffer(&mut self) {
        self.pos = 0;
        self.cap = 0;
    }
}

impl<R: Seek> BufReader<R> {
    /// Seeks relative to the current position. If the new position lies within the buffer,
    /// the buffer will not be flushed, allowing for more efficient seeks.
    /// This method does not return the location of the underlying reader, so the caller
    /// must track this information themselves if it is required.
    #[unstable(feature = "bufreader_seek_relative", issue = "31100")]
    pub fn seek_relative(&mut self, offset: i64) -> io::Result<()> {
        let pos = self.pos as u64;
        if offset < 0 {
            if let Some(new_pos) = pos.checked_sub((-offset) as u64) {
                self.pos = new_pos as usize;
                return Ok(());
            }
        } else {
            if let Some(new_pos) = pos.checked_add(offset as u64) {
                if new_pos <= self.cap as u64 {
                    self.pos = new_pos as usize;
                    return Ok(());
                }
            }
        }
        self.seek(SeekFrom::Current(offset)).map(drop)
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl<R: Read> Read for BufReader<R> {
    fn read(&mut self, buf: &mut [u8]) -> io::Result<usize> {
        // If we don't have any buffered data and we're doing a massive read
        // (larger than our internal buffer), bypass our internal buffer
        // entirely.
        if self.pos == self.cap && buf.len() >= self.buf.len() {
            self.discard_buffer();
            return self.inner.read(buf);
        }
        let nread = {
            let mut rem = self.fill_buf()?;
            rem.read(buf)?
        };
        self.consume(nread);
        Ok(nread)
    }

    fn read_vectored(&mut self, bufs: &mut [IoSliceMut<'_>]) -> io::Result<usize> {
        let total_len = bufs.iter().map(|b| b.len()).sum::<usize>();
        if self.pos == self.cap && total_len >= self.buf.len() {
            self.discard_buffer();
            return self.inner.read_vectored(bufs);
        }
        let nread = {
            let mut rem = self.fill_buf()?;
            rem.read_vectored(bufs)?
        };
        self.consume(nread);
        Ok(nread)
    }

    fn is_read_vectored(&self) -> bool {
        self.inner.is_read_vectored()
    }

    // we can't skip unconditionally because of the large buffer case in read.
    unsafe fn initializer(&self) -> Initializer {
        self.inner.initializer()
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl<R: Read> BufRead for BufReader<R> {
    fn fill_buf(&mut self) -> io::Result<&[u8]> {
        // If we've reached the end of our internal buffer then we need to fetch
        // some more data from the underlying reader.
        // Branch using `>=` instead of the more correct `==`
        // to tell the compiler that the pos..cap slice is always valid.
        if self.pos >= self.cap {
            debug_assert!(self.pos == self.cap);
            self.cap = self.inner.read(&mut self.buf)?;
            self.pos = 0;
        }
        Ok(&self.buf[self.pos..self.cap])
    }

    fn consume(&mut self, amt: usize) {
        self.pos = cmp::min(self.pos + amt, self.cap);
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl<R> fmt::Debug for BufReader<R>
where
    R: fmt::Debug,
{
    fn fmt(&self, fmt: &mut fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> fmt::Result {
        fmt.debug_struct("BufReader")
            .field("reader", &self.inner)
            .field("buffer", &format_args!("{}/{}", self.cap - self.pos, self.buf.len()))
            .finish()
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl<R: Seek> Seek for BufReader<R> {
    /// Seek to an offset, in bytes, in the underlying reader.
    ///
    /// The position used for seeking with [`SeekFrom::Current`]`(_)` is the
    /// position the underlying reader would be at if the `BufReader<R>` had no
    /// internal buffer.
    ///
    /// Seeking always discards the internal buffer, even if the seek position
    /// would otherwise fall within it. This guarantees that calling
    /// [`BufReader::into_inner()`] immediately after a seek yields the underlying reader
    /// at the same position.
    ///
    /// To seek without discarding the internal buffer, use [`BufReader::seek_relative`].
    ///
    /// See [`std::io::Seek`] for more details.
    ///
    /// Note: In the edge case where you're seeking with [`SeekFrom::Current`]`(n)`
    /// where `n` minus the internal buffer length overflows an `i64`, two
    /// seeks will be performed instead of one. If the second seek returns
    /// [`Err`], the underlying reader will be left at the same position it would
    /// have if you called `seek` with [`SeekFrom::Current`]`(0)`.
    ///
    /// [`std::io::Seek`]: Seek
    fn seek(&mut self, pos: SeekFrom) -> io::Result<u64> {
        let result: u64;
        if let SeekFrom::Current(n) = pos {
            let remainder = (self.cap - self.pos) as i64;
            // it should be safe to assume that remainder fits within an i64 as the alternative
            // means we managed to allocate 8 exbibytes and that's absurd.
            // But it's not out of the realm of possibility for some weird underlying reader to
            // support seeking by i64::MIN so we need to handle underflow when subtracting
            // remainder.
            if let Some(offset) = n.checked_sub(remainder) {
                result = self.inner.seek(SeekFrom::Current(offset))?;
            } else {
                // seek backwards by our remainder, and then by the offset
                self.inner.seek(SeekFrom::Current(-remainder))?;
                self.discard_buffer();
                result = self.inner.seek(SeekFrom::Current(n))?;
            }
        } else {
            // Seeking with Start/End doesn't care about our buffer length.
            result = self.inner.seek(pos)?;
        }
        self.discard_buffer();
        Ok(result)
    }

    /// Returns the current seek position from the start of the stream.
    ///
    /// The value returned is equivalent to `self.seek(SeekFrom::Current(0))`
    /// but does not flush the internal buffer. Due to this optimization the
    /// function does not guarantee that calling `.into_inner()` immediately
    /// afterwards will yield the underlying reader at the same position. Use
    /// [`BufReader::seek`] instead if you require that guarantee.
    ///
    /// # Panics
    ///
    /// This function will panic if the position of the inner reader is smaller
    /// than the amount of buffered data. That can happen if the inner reader
    /// has an incorrect implementation of [`Seek::stream_position`], or if the
    /// position has gone out of sync due to calling [`Seek::seek`] directly on
    /// the underlying reader.
    ///
    /// # Example
    ///
    /// ```no_run
    /// #![feature(seek_convenience)]
    /// use std::{
    ///     io::{self, BufRead, BufReader, Seek},
    ///     fs::File,
    /// };
    ///
    /// fn main() -> io::Result<()> {
    ///     let mut f = BufReader::new(File::open("foo.txt")?);
    ///
    ///     let before = f.stream_position()?;
    ///     f.read_line(&mut String::new())?;
    ///     let after = f.stream_position()?;
    ///
    ///     println!("The first line was {} bytes long", after - before);
    ///     Ok(())
    /// }
    /// ```
    fn stream_position(&mut self) -> io::Result<u64> {
        let remainder = (self.cap - self.pos) as u64;
        self.inner.stream_position().map(|pos| {
            pos.checked_sub(remainder).expect(
                "overflow when subtracting remaining buffer size from inner stream position",
            )
        })
    }
}