1
  2
  3
  4
  5
  6
  7
  8
  9
 10
 11
 12
 13
 14
 15
 16
 17
 18
 19
 20
 21
 22
 23
 24
 25
 26
 27
 28
 29
 30
 31
 32
 33
 34
 35
 36
 37
 38
 39
 40
 41
 42
 43
 44
 45
 46
 47
 48
 49
 50
 51
 52
 53
 54
 55
 56
 57
 58
 59
 60
 61
 62
 63
 64
 65
 66
 67
 68
 69
 70
 71
 72
 73
 74
 75
 76
 77
 78
 79
 80
 81
 82
 83
 84
 85
 86
 87
 88
 89
 90
 91
 92
 93
 94
 95
 96
 97
 98
 99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
use crate::fmt;
use crate::io::{
    self, Error, ErrorKind, IntoInnerError, IoSlice, Seek, SeekFrom, Write, DEFAULT_BUF_SIZE,
};

/// Wraps a writer and buffers its output.
///
/// It can be excessively inefficient to work directly with something that
/// implements [`Write`]. For example, every call to
/// [`write`][`TcpStream::write`] on [`TcpStream`] results in a system call. A
/// `BufWriter<W>` keeps an in-memory buffer of data and writes it to an underlying
/// writer in large, infrequent batches.
///
/// `BufWriter<W>` can improve the speed of programs that make *small* and
/// *repeated* write calls to the same file or network socket. It does not
/// help when writing very large amounts at once, or writing just one or a few
/// times. It also provides no advantage when writing to a destination that is
/// in memory, like a [`Vec`]`<u8>`.
///
/// It is critical to call [`flush`] before `BufWriter<W>` is dropped. Though
/// dropping will attempt to flush the contents of the buffer, any errors
/// that happen in the process of dropping will be ignored. Calling [`flush`]
/// ensures that the buffer is empty and thus dropping will not even attempt
/// file operations.
///
/// # Examples
///
/// Let's write the numbers one through ten to a [`TcpStream`]:
///
/// ```no_run
/// use std::io::prelude::*;
/// use std::net::TcpStream;
///
/// let mut stream = TcpStream::connect("127.0.0.1:34254").unwrap();
///
/// for i in 0..10 {
///     stream.write(&[i+1]).unwrap();
/// }
/// ```
///
/// Because we're not buffering, we write each one in turn, incurring the
/// overhead of a system call per byte written. We can fix this with a
/// `BufWriter<W>`:
///
/// ```no_run
/// use std::io::prelude::*;
/// use std::io::BufWriter;
/// use std::net::TcpStream;
///
/// let mut stream = BufWriter::new(TcpStream::connect("127.0.0.1:34254").unwrap());
///
/// for i in 0..10 {
///     stream.write(&[i+1]).unwrap();
/// }
/// stream.flush().unwrap();
/// ```
///
/// By wrapping the stream with a `BufWriter<W>`, these ten writes are all grouped
/// together by the buffer and will all be written out in one system call when
/// the `stream` is flushed.
///
// HACK(#78696): can't use `crate` for associated items
/// [`TcpStream::write`]: super::super::super::net::TcpStream::write
/// [`TcpStream`]: crate::net::TcpStream
/// [`flush`]: BufWriter::flush
#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
pub struct BufWriter<W: Write> {
    inner: Option<W>,
    buf: Vec<u8>,
    // #30888: If the inner writer panics in a call to write, we don't want to
    // write the buffered data a second time in BufWriter's destructor. This
    // flag tells the Drop impl if it should skip the flush.
    panicked: bool,
}

impl<W: Write> BufWriter<W> {
    /// Creates a new `BufWriter<W>` with a default buffer capacity. The default is currently 8 KB,
    /// but may change in the future.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```no_run
    /// use std::io::BufWriter;
    /// use std::net::TcpStream;
    ///
    /// let mut buffer = BufWriter::new(TcpStream::connect("127.0.0.1:34254").unwrap());
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    pub fn new(inner: W) -> BufWriter<W> {
        BufWriter::with_capacity(DEFAULT_BUF_SIZE, inner)
    }

    /// Creates a new `BufWriter<W>` with the specified buffer capacity.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// Creating a buffer with a buffer of a hundred bytes.
    ///
    /// ```no_run
    /// use std::io::BufWriter;
    /// use std::net::TcpStream;
    ///
    /// let stream = TcpStream::connect("127.0.0.1:34254").unwrap();
    /// let mut buffer = BufWriter::with_capacity(100, stream);
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    pub fn with_capacity(capacity: usize, inner: W) -> BufWriter<W> {
        BufWriter { inner: Some(inner), buf: Vec::with_capacity(capacity), panicked: false }
    }

    /// Send data in our local buffer into the inner writer, looping as
    /// necessary until either it's all been sent or an error occurs.
    ///
    /// Because all the data in the buffer has been reported to our owner as
    /// "successfully written" (by returning nonzero success values from
    /// `write`), any 0-length writes from `inner` must be reported as i/o
    /// errors from this method.
    pub(super) fn flush_buf(&mut self) -> io::Result<()> {
        /// Helper struct to ensure the buffer is updated after all the writes
        /// are complete. It tracks the number of written bytes and drains them
        /// all from the front of the buffer when dropped.
        struct BufGuard<'a> {
            buffer: &'a mut Vec<u8>,
            written: usize,
        }

        impl<'a> BufGuard<'a> {
            fn new(buffer: &'a mut Vec<u8>) -> Self {
                Self { buffer, written: 0 }
            }

            /// The unwritten part of the buffer
            fn remaining(&self) -> &[u8] {
                &self.buffer[self.written..]
            }

            /// Flag some bytes as removed from the front of the buffer
            fn consume(&mut self, amt: usize) {
                self.written += amt;
            }

            /// true if all of the bytes have been written
            fn done(&self) -> bool {
                self.written >= self.buffer.len()
            }
        }

        impl Drop for BufGuard<'_> {
            fn drop(&mut self) {
                if self.written > 0 {
                    self.buffer.drain(..self.written);
                }
            }
        }

        let mut guard = BufGuard::new(&mut self.buf);
        let inner = self.inner.as_mut().unwrap();
        while !guard.done() {
            self.panicked = true;
            let r = inner.write(guard.remaining());
            self.panicked = false;

            match r {
                Ok(0) => {
                    return Err(Error::new(
                        ErrorKind::WriteZero,
                        "failed to write the buffered data",
                    ));
                }
                Ok(n) => guard.consume(n),
                Err(ref e) if e.kind() == io::ErrorKind::Interrupted => {}
                Err(e) => return Err(e),
            }
        }
        Ok(())
    }

    /// Buffer some data without flushing it, regardless of the size of the
    /// data. Writes as much as possible without exceeding capacity. Returns
    /// the number of bytes written.
    pub(super) fn write_to_buf(&mut self, buf: &[u8]) -> usize {
        let available = self.buf.capacity() - self.buf.len();
        let amt_to_buffer = available.min(buf.len());
        self.buf.extend_from_slice(&buf[..amt_to_buffer]);
        amt_to_buffer
    }

    /// Gets a reference to the underlying writer.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```no_run
    /// use std::io::BufWriter;
    /// use std::net::TcpStream;
    ///
    /// let mut buffer = BufWriter::new(TcpStream::connect("127.0.0.1:34254").unwrap());
    ///
    /// // we can use reference just like buffer
    /// let reference = buffer.get_ref();
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    pub fn get_ref(&self) -> &W {
        self.inner.as_ref().unwrap()
    }

    /// Gets a mutable reference to the underlying writer.
    ///
    /// It is inadvisable to directly write to the underlying writer.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```no_run
    /// use std::io::BufWriter;
    /// use std::net::TcpStream;
    ///
    /// let mut buffer = BufWriter::new(TcpStream::connect("127.0.0.1:34254").unwrap());
    ///
    /// // we can use reference just like buffer
    /// let reference = buffer.get_mut();
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    pub fn get_mut(&mut self) -> &mut W {
        self.inner.as_mut().unwrap()
    }

    /// Returns a reference to the internally buffered data.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```no_run
    /// use std::io::BufWriter;
    /// use std::net::TcpStream;
    ///
    /// let buf_writer = BufWriter::new(TcpStream::connect("127.0.0.1:34254").unwrap());
    ///
    /// // See how many bytes are currently buffered
    /// let bytes_buffered = buf_writer.buffer().len();
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "bufreader_buffer", since = "1.37.0")]
    pub fn buffer(&self) -> &[u8] {
        &self.buf
    }

    /// Returns the number of bytes the internal buffer can hold without flushing.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```no_run
    /// use std::io::BufWriter;
    /// use std::net::TcpStream;
    ///
    /// let buf_writer = BufWriter::new(TcpStream::connect("127.0.0.1:34254").unwrap());
    ///
    /// // Check the capacity of the inner buffer
    /// let capacity = buf_writer.capacity();
    /// // Calculate how many bytes can be written without flushing
    /// let without_flush = capacity - buf_writer.buffer().len();
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "buffered_io_capacity", since = "1.46.0")]
    pub fn capacity(&self) -> usize {
        self.buf.capacity()
    }

    /// Unwraps this `BufWriter<W>`, returning the underlying writer.
    ///
    /// The buffer is written out before returning the writer.
    ///
    /// # Errors
    ///
    /// An [`Err`] will be returned if an error occurs while flushing the buffer.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```no_run
    /// use std::io::BufWriter;
    /// use std::net::TcpStream;
    ///
    /// let mut buffer = BufWriter::new(TcpStream::connect("127.0.0.1:34254").unwrap());
    ///
    /// // unwrap the TcpStream and flush the buffer
    /// let stream = buffer.into_inner().unwrap();
    /// ```
    #[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
    pub fn into_inner(mut self) -> Result<W, IntoInnerError<BufWriter<W>>> {
        match self.flush_buf() {
            Err(e) => Err(IntoInnerError::new(self, e)),
            Ok(()) => Ok(self.inner.take().unwrap()),
        }
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl<W: Write> Write for BufWriter<W> {
    fn write(&mut self, buf: &[u8]) -> io::Result<usize> {
        if self.buf.len() + buf.len() > self.buf.capacity() {
            self.flush_buf()?;
        }
        // FIXME: Why no len > capacity? Why not buffer len == capacity? #72919
        if buf.len() >= self.buf.capacity() {
            self.panicked = true;
            let r = self.get_mut().write(buf);
            self.panicked = false;
            r
        } else {
            self.buf.extend_from_slice(buf);
            Ok(buf.len())
        }
    }

    fn write_all(&mut self, buf: &[u8]) -> io::Result<()> {
        // Normally, `write_all` just calls `write` in a loop. We can do better
        // by calling `self.get_mut().write_all()` directly, which avoids
        // round trips through the buffer in the event of a series of partial
        // writes in some circumstances.
        if self.buf.len() + buf.len() > self.buf.capacity() {
            self.flush_buf()?;
        }
        // FIXME: Why no len > capacity? Why not buffer len == capacity? #72919
        if buf.len() >= self.buf.capacity() {
            self.panicked = true;
            let r = self.get_mut().write_all(buf);
            self.panicked = false;
            r
        } else {
            self.buf.extend_from_slice(buf);
            Ok(())
        }
    }

    fn write_vectored(&mut self, bufs: &[IoSlice<'_>]) -> io::Result<usize> {
        let total_len = bufs.iter().map(|b| b.len()).sum::<usize>();
        if self.buf.len() + total_len > self.buf.capacity() {
            self.flush_buf()?;
        }
        // FIXME: Why no len > capacity? Why not buffer len == capacity? #72919
        if total_len >= self.buf.capacity() {
            self.panicked = true;
            let r = self.get_mut().write_vectored(bufs);
            self.panicked = false;
            r
        } else {
            bufs.iter().for_each(|b| self.buf.extend_from_slice(b));
            Ok(total_len)
        }
    }

    fn is_write_vectored(&self) -> bool {
        self.get_ref().is_write_vectored()
    }

    fn flush(&mut self) -> io::Result<()> {
        self.flush_buf().and_then(|()| self.get_mut().flush())
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl<W: Write> fmt::Debug for BufWriter<W>
where
    W: fmt::Debug,
{
    fn fmt(&self, fmt: &mut fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> fmt::Result {
        fmt.debug_struct("BufWriter")
            .field("writer", &self.inner.as_ref().unwrap())
            .field("buffer", &format_args!("{}/{}", self.buf.len(), self.buf.capacity()))
            .finish()
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl<W: Write + Seek> Seek for BufWriter<W> {
    /// Seek to the offset, in bytes, in the underlying writer.
    ///
    /// Seeking always writes out the internal buffer before seeking.
    fn seek(&mut self, pos: SeekFrom) -> io::Result<u64> {
        self.flush_buf()?;
        self.get_mut().seek(pos)
    }
}

#[stable(feature = "rust1", since = "1.0.0")]
impl<W: Write> Drop for BufWriter<W> {
    fn drop(&mut self) {
        if self.inner.is_some() && !self.panicked {
            // dtors should not panic, so we ignore a failed flush
            let _r = self.flush_buf();
        }
    }
}