1.0.0[][src]Trait std::clone::Clone

#[lang = "clone"]
pub trait Clone {
#[must_use = "cloning is often expensive and is not expected to have side effects"]
fn clone(&self) -> Self; fn clone_from(&mut self, source: &Self) { ... } }

A common trait for the ability to explicitly duplicate an object.

Differs from Copy in that Copy is implicit and extremely inexpensive, while Clone is always explicit and may or may not be expensive. In order to enforce these characteristics, Rust does not allow you to reimplement Copy, but you may reimplement Clone and run arbitrary code.

Since Clone is more general than Copy, you can automatically make anything Copy be Clone as well.

Derivable

This trait can be used with #[derive] if all fields are Clone. The derived implementation of clone calls clone on each field.

How can I implement Clone?

Types that are Copy should have a trivial implementation of Clone. More formally: if T: Copy, x: T, and y: &T, then let x = y.clone(); is equivalent to let x = *y;. Manual implementations should be careful to uphold this invariant; however, unsafe code must not rely on it to ensure memory safety.

An example is an array holding more than 32 elements of a type that is Clone; the standard library only implements Clone up until arrays of size 32. In this case, the implementation of Clone cannot be derived, but can be implemented as:

#[derive(Copy)]
struct Stats {
   frequencies: [i32; 100],
}

impl Clone for Stats {
    fn clone(&self) -> Stats { *self }
}Run

Additional implementors

In addition to the implementors listed below, the following types also implement Clone:

Required Methods

Returns a copy of the value.

Examples

let hello = "Hello"; // &str implements Clone

assert_eq!("Hello", hello.clone());Run

Provided Methods

Performs copy-assignment from source.

a.clone_from(&b) is equivalent to a = b.clone() in functionality, but can be overridden to reuse the resources of a to avoid unnecessary allocations.

Implementations on Foreign Types

impl Clone for TryFromSliceError
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Implementors

impl Clone for std::cmp::Ordering
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impl Clone for CollectionAllocErr
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impl Clone for VarError
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impl Clone for ErrorKind
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impl Clone for SeekFrom
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impl Clone for IpAddr
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impl Clone for Ipv6MulticastScope
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impl Clone for Shutdown
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impl Clone for std::net::SocketAddr
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impl Clone for FpCategory
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impl Clone for SearchStep
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impl Clone for ParseError
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impl Clone for std::sync::atomic::Ordering
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impl Clone for RecvTimeoutError
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impl Clone for TryRecvError
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impl Clone for bool
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impl Clone for char
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impl Clone for f32
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impl Clone for f64
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impl Clone for i128
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impl Clone for i16
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impl Clone for i32
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impl Clone for i64
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impl Clone for i8
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impl Clone for isize
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impl Clone for !
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impl Clone for u128
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impl Clone for u16
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impl Clone for u32
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impl Clone for u64
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impl Clone for u8
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impl Clone for usize
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impl Clone for AllocErr
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impl Clone for CannotReallocInPlace
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impl Clone for Global
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impl Clone for Layout
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impl Clone for LayoutErr
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impl Clone for TypeId
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impl Clone for Box<str>
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Important traits for Box<I>

impl Clone for Box<CStr>
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impl Clone for Box<OsStr>
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impl Clone for Box<Path>
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impl Clone for CharTryFromError
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impl Clone for DecodeUtf16Error
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impl Clone for EscapeDebug
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Important traits for EscapeDebug

impl Clone for EscapeDefault
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Important traits for EscapeDefault

impl Clone for EscapeUnicode
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Important traits for EscapeUnicode

impl Clone for ParseCharError
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impl Clone for ToLowercase
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Important traits for ToLowercase

impl Clone for ToUppercase
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Important traits for ToUppercase

impl Clone for UnicodeVersion
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impl Clone for DefaultHasher
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impl Clone for RandomState
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impl Clone for CString
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impl Clone for FromBytesWithNulError
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impl Clone for IntoStringError
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impl Clone for NulError
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impl Clone for OsString
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impl Clone for Error
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impl Clone for FileType
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impl Clone for Metadata
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impl Clone for OpenOptions
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impl Clone for Permissions
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impl Clone for SipHasher
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impl Clone for Pinned
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impl Clone for AddrParseError
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impl Clone for Ipv4Addr
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impl Clone for Ipv6Addr
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impl Clone for SocketAddrV4
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impl Clone for SocketAddrV6
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impl Clone for NonZeroU128
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impl Clone for NonZeroU16
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impl Clone for NonZeroU32
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impl Clone for NonZeroU64
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impl Clone for NonZeroU8
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impl Clone for NonZeroUsize
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impl Clone for ParseFloatError
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impl Clone for ParseIntError
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impl Clone for TryFromIntError
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impl Clone for RangeFull
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impl Clone for NoneError
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impl Clone for stat
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impl Clone for std::os::unix::net::SocketAddr
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impl Clone for PathBuf
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impl Clone for StripPrefixError
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impl Clone for ExitCode
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impl Clone for ExitStatus
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impl Clone for Output
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impl Clone for TraitObject
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impl Clone for ParseBoolError
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impl Clone for Utf8Error
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impl Clone for String
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impl Clone for RecvError
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impl Clone for WaitTimeoutResult
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impl Clone for LocalWaker
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impl Clone for Waker
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impl Clone for Thread
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impl Clone for ThreadId
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impl Clone for Duration
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impl Clone for Instant
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impl Clone for SystemTime
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impl Clone for SystemTimeError
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impl<'a> Clone for Component<'a>
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impl<'a> Clone for Prefix<'a>
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impl<'a> Clone for Arguments<'a>
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impl<'a> Clone for EncodeWide<'a>
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Important traits for EncodeWide<'a>

impl<'a> Clone for Ancestors<'a>
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Important traits for Ancestors<'a>

impl<'a> Clone for Components<'a>
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Important traits for Components<'a>

impl<'a> Clone for std::path::Iter<'a>
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Important traits for Iter<'a>

impl<'a> Clone for PrefixComponent<'a>
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impl<'a> Clone for CharSearcher<'a>
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impl<'a> Clone for Bytes<'a>
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Important traits for Bytes<'a>

impl<'a> Clone for CharIndices<'a>
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Important traits for CharIndices<'a>

impl<'a> Clone for Chars<'a>
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Important traits for Chars<'a>

impl<'a> Clone for EncodeUtf16<'a>
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Important traits for EncodeUtf16<'a>

impl<'a> Clone for Lines<'a>
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Important traits for Lines<'a>

impl<'a> Clone for LinesAny<'a>
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Important traits for LinesAny<'a>

impl<'a> Clone for SplitAsciiWhitespace<'a>
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Important traits for SplitAsciiWhitespace<'a>

impl<'a> Clone for SplitWhitespace<'a>
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Important traits for SplitWhitespace<'a>

impl<'a, 'b> Clone for CharSliceSearcher<'a, 'b>
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impl<'a, 'b> Clone for StrSearcher<'a, 'b>
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impl<'a, A> Clone for std::option::Iter<'a, A>
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Important traits for Iter<'a, A>

impl<'a, B> Clone for Cow<'a, B> where
    B: ToOwned + ?Sized
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impl<'a, F> Clone for CharPredicateSearcher<'a, F> where
    F: Clone + FnMut(char) -> bool
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impl<'a, K> Clone for std::collections::hash_set::Iter<'a, K>
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Important traits for Iter<'a, K>

impl<'a, K, V> Clone for std::collections::btree_map::Iter<'a, K, V>
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Important traits for Iter<'a, K, V>

impl<'a, K, V> Clone for std::collections::btree_map::Keys<'a, K, V>
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Important traits for Keys<'a, K, V>

impl<'a, K, V> Clone for std::collections::btree_map::Range<'a, K, V>
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Important traits for Range<'a, K, V>

impl<'a, K, V> Clone for std::collections::btree_map::Values<'a, K, V>
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Important traits for Values<'a, K, V>

impl<'a, K, V> Clone for std::collections::hash_map::Iter<'a, K, V>
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Important traits for Iter<'a, K, V>

impl<'a, K, V> Clone for std::collections::hash_map::Keys<'a, K, V>
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Important traits for Keys<'a, K, V>

impl<'a, K, V> Clone for std::collections::hash_map::Values<'a, K, V>
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Important traits for Values<'a, K, V>

impl<'a, P> Clone for MatchIndices<'a, P> where
    P: Pattern<'a>,
    <P as Pattern<'a>>::Searcher: Clone
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Important traits for MatchIndices<'a, P>

impl<'a, P> Clone for Matches<'a, P> where
    P: Pattern<'a>,
    <P as Pattern<'a>>::Searcher: Clone
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Important traits for Matches<'a, P>

impl<'a, P> Clone for RMatchIndices<'a, P> where
    P: Pattern<'a>,
    <P as Pattern<'a>>::Searcher: Clone
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Important traits for RMatchIndices<'a, P>

impl<'a, P> Clone for RMatches<'a, P> where
    P: Pattern<'a>,
    <P as Pattern<'a>>::Searcher: Clone
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Important traits for RMatches<'a, P>

impl<'a, P> Clone for std::str::RSplit<'a, P> where
    P: Pattern<'a>,
    <P as Pattern<'a>>::Searcher: Clone
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Important traits for RSplit<'a, P>

impl<'a, P> Clone for RSplitN<'a, P> where
    P: Pattern<'a>,
    <P as Pattern<'a>>::Searcher: Clone
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Important traits for RSplitN<'a, P>

impl<'a, P> Clone for RSplitTerminator<'a, P> where
    P: Pattern<'a>,
    <P as Pattern<'a>>::Searcher: Clone
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Important traits for RSplitTerminator<'a, P>

impl<'a, P> Clone for std::str::Split<'a, P> where
    P: Pattern<'a>,
    <P as Pattern<'a>>::Searcher: Clone
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Important traits for Split<'a, P>

impl<'a, P> Clone for SplitN<'a, P> where
    P: Pattern<'a>,
    <P as Pattern<'a>>::Searcher: Clone
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Important traits for SplitN<'a, P>

impl<'a, P> Clone for SplitTerminator<'a, P> where
    P: Pattern<'a>,
    <P as Pattern<'a>>::Searcher: Clone
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Important traits for SplitTerminator<'a, P>

impl<'a, T> Clone for &'a T where
    T: ?Sized
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Important traits for &'a mut I

impl<'a, T> Clone for std::collections::binary_heap::Iter<'a, T>
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Important traits for Iter<'a, T>

impl<'a, T> Clone for std::collections::btree_set::Difference<'a, T>
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Important traits for Difference<'a, T>

impl<'a, T> Clone for std::collections::btree_set::Intersection<'a, T>
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Important traits for Intersection<'a, T>

impl<'a, T> Clone for std::collections::btree_set::Iter<'a, T>
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Important traits for Iter<'a, T>

impl<'a, T> Clone for std::collections::btree_set::Range<'a, T>
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Important traits for Range<'a, T>

impl<'a, T> Clone for std::collections::btree_set::SymmetricDifference<'a, T>
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Important traits for SymmetricDifference<'a, T>

impl<'a, T> Clone for std::collections::btree_set::Union<'a, T>
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Important traits for Union<'a, T>

impl<'a, T> Clone for std::collections::linked_list::Iter<'a, T>
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Important traits for Iter<'a, T>

impl<'a, T> Clone for std::collections::vec_deque::Iter<'a, T>
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Important traits for Iter<'a, T>

impl<'a, T> Clone for std::result::Iter<'a, T>
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Important traits for Iter<'a, T>

impl<'a, T> Clone for Chunks<'a, T>
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Important traits for Chunks<'a, T>

impl<'a, T> Clone for ExactChunks<'a, T>
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Important traits for ExactChunks<'a, T>

impl<'a, T> Clone for std::slice::Iter<'a, T>
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Important traits for Iter<'a, T>

impl<'a, T> Clone for Windows<'a, T>
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Important traits for Windows<'a, T>

impl<'a, T, P> Clone for std::slice::RSplit<'a, T, P> where
    P: Clone + FnMut(&T) -> bool,
    T: 'a + Clone
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Important traits for RSplit<'a, T, P>

impl<'a, T, P> Clone for std::slice::Split<'a, T, P> where
    P: Clone + FnMut(&T) -> bool
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Important traits for Split<'a, T, P>

impl<'a, T, S> Clone for std::collections::hash_set::Difference<'a, T, S>
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Important traits for Difference<'a, T, S>

impl<'a, T, S> Clone for std::collections::hash_set::Intersection<'a, T, S>
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Important traits for Intersection<'a, T, S>

impl<'a, T, S> Clone for std::collections::hash_set::SymmetricDifference<'a, T, S>
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Important traits for SymmetricDifference<'a, T, S>

impl<'a, T, S> Clone for std::collections::hash_set::Union<'a, T, S>
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Important traits for Union<'a, T, S>

impl<A> Clone for Repeat<A> where
    A: Clone
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Important traits for Repeat<A>

impl<A> Clone for std::option::IntoIter<A> where
    A: Clone
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Important traits for IntoIter<A>

impl<A, B> Clone for Chain<A, B> where
    A: Clone,
    B: Clone
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Important traits for Chain<A, B>

impl<A, B> Clone for Zip<A, B> where
    A: Clone,
    B: Clone
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Important traits for Zip<A, B>

impl<F> Clone for RepeatWith<F> where
    F: Clone
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Important traits for RepeatWith<F>

impl<H> Clone for BuildHasherDefault<H>
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impl<I> Clone for DecodeUtf16<I> where
    I: Clone + Iterator<Item = u16>, 
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Important traits for DecodeUtf16<I>

impl<I> Clone for Cloned<I> where
    I: Clone
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Important traits for Cloned<I>

impl<I> Clone for Cycle<I> where
    I: Clone
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Important traits for Cycle<I>

impl<I> Clone for Enumerate<I> where
    I: Clone
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Important traits for Enumerate<I>

impl<I> Clone for Fuse<I> where
    I: Clone
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Important traits for Fuse<I>

impl<I> Clone for Peekable<I> where
    I: Clone + Iterator,
    <I as Iterator>::Item: Clone
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Important traits for Peekable<I>

impl<I> Clone for Skip<I> where
    I: Clone
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Important traits for Skip<I>

impl<I> Clone for StepBy<I> where
    I: Clone
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Important traits for StepBy<I>

impl<I> Clone for Take<I> where
    I: Clone
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Important traits for Take<I>

impl<I, F> Clone for FilterMap<I, F> where
    F: Clone,
    I: Clone
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Important traits for FilterMap<I, F>

impl<I, F> Clone for Inspect<I, F> where
    F: Clone,
    I: Clone
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Important traits for Inspect<I, F>

impl<I, F> Clone for Map<I, F> where
    F: Clone,
    I: Clone
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Important traits for Map<I, F>

impl<I, P> Clone for Filter<I, P> where
    I: Clone,
    P: Clone
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Important traits for Filter<I, P>

impl<I, P> Clone for SkipWhile<I, P> where
    I: Clone,
    P: Clone
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Important traits for SkipWhile<I, P>

impl<I, P> Clone for TakeWhile<I, P> where
    I: Clone,
    P: Clone
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Important traits for TakeWhile<I, P>

impl<I, St, F> Clone for Scan<I, St, F> where
    F: Clone,
    I: Clone,
    St: Clone
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Important traits for Scan<I, St, F>

impl<I, U> Clone for Flatten<I> where
    I: Iterator + Clone,
    U: Iterator + Clone,
    <I as Iterator>::Item: IntoIterator,
    <<I as Iterator>::Item as IntoIterator>::IntoIter == U,
    <<I as Iterator>::Item as IntoIterator>::Item == <U as Iterator>::Item
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Important traits for Flatten<I>

impl<I, U, F> Clone for FlatMap<I, U, F> where
    F: Clone,
    I: Clone,
    U: Clone + IntoIterator,
    <U as IntoIterator>::IntoIter: Clone
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Important traits for FlatMap<I, U, F>

impl<Idx> Clone for std::ops::Range<Idx> where
    Idx: Clone
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Important traits for Range<A>

impl<Idx> Clone for RangeFrom<Idx> where
    Idx: Clone
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Important traits for RangeFrom<A>

impl<Idx> Clone for RangeInclusive<Idx> where
    Idx: Clone
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Important traits for RangeInclusive<A>

impl<Idx> Clone for RangeTo<Idx> where
    Idx: Clone
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impl<Idx> Clone for RangeToInclusive<Idx> where
    Idx: Clone
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impl<K, V> Clone for BTreeMap<K, V> where
    K: Clone,
    V: Clone
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impl<K: Clone, V: Clone, S: Clone> Clone for HashMap<K, V, S>
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impl<T> Clone for Bound<T> where
    T: Clone
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impl<T> Clone for Option<T> where
    T: Clone
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impl<T> Clone for Poll<T> where
    T: Clone
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impl<T> Clone for *const T where
    T: ?Sized
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impl<T> Clone for *mut T where
    T: ?Sized
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impl<T> Clone for Box<[T]> where
    T: Clone
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Important traits for Box<I>

impl<T> Clone for Box<T> where
    T: Clone
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Important traits for Box<I>

Returns a new box with a clone() of this box's contents.

Examples

let x = Box::new(5);
let y = x.clone();Run

Copies source's contents into self without creating a new allocation.

Examples

let x = Box::new(5);
let mut y = Box::new(10);

y.clone_from(&x);

assert_eq!(*y, 5);Run

impl<T> Clone for Cell<T> where
    T: Copy
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impl<T> Clone for RefCell<T> where
    T: Clone
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Panics

Panics if the value is currently mutably borrowed.

impl<T> Clone for Reverse<T> where
    T: Clone
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impl<T> Clone for BinaryHeap<T> where
    T: Clone
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impl<T> Clone for std::collections::binary_heap::IntoIter<T> where
    T: Clone
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Important traits for IntoIter<T>

impl<T> Clone for BTreeSet<T> where
    T: Clone
[src]

impl<T> Clone for std::collections::linked_list::IntoIter<T> where
    T: Clone
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Important traits for IntoIter<T>

impl<T> Clone for LinkedList<T> where
    T: Clone
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impl<T> Clone for std::collections::vec_deque::IntoIter<T> where
    T: Clone
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Important traits for IntoIter<T>

impl<T> Clone for VecDeque<T> where
    T: Clone
[src]

impl<T> Clone for Empty<T>
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Important traits for Empty<T>

impl<T> Clone for Once<T> where
    T: Clone
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Important traits for Once<T>

impl<T> Clone for Rev<T> where
    T: Clone
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Important traits for Rev<I>

impl<T> Clone for PhantomData<T> where
    T: ?Sized
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impl<T> Clone for Discriminant<T>
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impl<T> Clone for ManuallyDrop<T> where
    T: Clone + ?Sized
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impl<T> Clone for Wrapping<T> where
    T: Clone
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impl<T> Clone for NonNull<T> where
    T: ?Sized
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impl<T> Clone for Rc<T> where
    T: ?Sized
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Makes a clone of the Rc pointer.

This creates another pointer to the same inner value, increasing the strong reference count.

Examples

use std::rc::Rc;

let five = Rc::new(5);

Rc::clone(&five);Run

impl<T> Clone for std::rc::Weak<T> where
    T: ?Sized
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Makes a clone of the Weak pointer that points to the same value.

Examples

use std::rc::{Rc, Weak};

let weak_five = Rc::downgrade(&Rc::new(5));

Weak::clone(&weak_five);Run

impl<T> Clone for std::result::IntoIter<T> where
    T: Clone
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Important traits for IntoIter<T>

impl<T> Clone for Sender<T>
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impl<T> Clone for SyncSender<T>
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impl<T> Clone for Arc<T> where
    T: ?Sized
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Makes a clone of the Arc pointer.

This creates another pointer to the same inner value, increasing the strong reference count.

Examples

use std::sync::Arc;

let five = Arc::new(5);

Arc::clone(&five);Run

impl<T> Clone for std::sync::Weak<T> where
    T: ?Sized
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Makes a clone of the Weak pointer that points to the same value.

Examples

use std::sync::{Arc, Weak};

let weak_five = Arc::downgrade(&Arc::new(5));

Weak::clone(&weak_five);Run

impl<T> Clone for std::vec::IntoIter<T> where
    T: Clone
[src]

Important traits for IntoIter<T>

impl<T> Clone for Vec<T> where
    T: Clone
[src]

Important traits for Vec<u8>

impl<T, E> Clone for Result<T, E> where
    E: Clone,
    T: Clone
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impl<T: Clone> Clone for TrySendError<T>
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impl<T: Clone> Clone for Cursor<T>
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Important traits for Cursor<T>

impl<T: Clone> Clone for SendError<T>
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impl<T: Clone, S: Clone> Clone for HashSet<T, S>
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impl<Y, R> Clone for GeneratorState<Y, R> where
    R: Clone,
    Y: Clone
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