Struct std::vec::Vec1.0.0[][src]

pub struct Vec<T, A = Global> where
    A: Allocator
{ /* fields omitted */ }
Expand description

A contiguous growable array type, written as Vec<T> and pronounced ‘vector’.

Examples

let mut vec = Vec::new();
vec.push(1);
vec.push(2);

assert_eq!(vec.len(), 2);
assert_eq!(vec[0], 1);

assert_eq!(vec.pop(), Some(2));
assert_eq!(vec.len(), 1);

vec[0] = 7;
assert_eq!(vec[0], 7);

vec.extend([1, 2, 3].iter().copied());

for x in &vec {
    println!("{}", x);
}
assert_eq!(vec, [7, 1, 2, 3]);
Run

The vec! macro is provided for convenient initialization:

let mut vec1 = vec![1, 2, 3];
vec1.push(4);
let vec2 = Vec::from([1, 2, 3, 4]);
assert_eq!(vec1, vec2);
Run

It can also initialize each element of a Vec<T> with a given value. This may be more efficient than performing allocation and initialization in separate steps, especially when initializing a vector of zeros:

let vec = vec![0; 5];
assert_eq!(vec, [0, 0, 0, 0, 0]);

// The following is equivalent, but potentially slower:
let mut vec = Vec::with_capacity(5);
vec.resize(5, 0);
assert_eq!(vec, [0, 0, 0, 0, 0]);
Run

For more information, see Capacity and Reallocation.

Use a Vec<T> as an efficient stack:

let mut stack = Vec::new();

stack.push(1);
stack.push(2);
stack.push(3);

while let Some(top) = stack.pop() {
    // Prints 3, 2, 1
    println!("{}", top);
}
Run

Indexing

The Vec type allows to access values by index, because it implements the Index trait. An example will be more explicit:

let v = vec![0, 2, 4, 6];
println!("{}", v[1]); // it will display '2'
Run

However be careful: if you try to access an index which isn’t in the Vec, your software will panic! You cannot do this:

let v = vec![0, 2, 4, 6];
println!("{}", v[6]); // it will panic!
Run

Use get and get_mut if you want to check whether the index is in the Vec.

Slicing

A Vec can be mutable. On the other hand, slices are read-only objects. To get a slice, use &. Example:

fn read_slice(slice: &[usize]) {
    // ...
}

let v = vec![0, 1];
read_slice(&v);

// ... and that's all!
// you can also do it like this:
let u: &[usize] = &v;
// or like this:
let u: &[_] = &v;
Run

In Rust, it’s more common to pass slices as arguments rather than vectors when you just want to provide read access. The same goes for String and &str.

Capacity and reallocation

The capacity of a vector is the amount of space allocated for any future elements that will be added onto the vector. This is not to be confused with the length of a vector, which specifies the number of actual elements within the vector. If a vector’s length exceeds its capacity, its capacity will automatically be increased, but its elements will have to be reallocated.

For example, a vector with capacity 10 and length 0 would be an empty vector with space for 10 more elements. Pushing 10 or fewer elements onto the vector will not change its capacity or cause reallocation to occur. However, if the vector’s length is increased to 11, it will have to reallocate, which can be slow. For this reason, it is recommended to use Vec::with_capacity whenever possible to specify how big the vector is expected to get.

Guarantees

Due to its incredibly fundamental nature, Vec makes a lot of guarantees about its design. This ensures that it’s as low-overhead as possible in the general case, and can be correctly manipulated in primitive ways by unsafe code. Note that these guarantees refer to an unqualified Vec<T>. If additional type parameters are added (e.g., to support custom allocators), overriding their defaults may change the behavior.

Most fundamentally, Vec is and always will be a (pointer, capacity, length) triplet. No more, no less. The order of these fields is completely unspecified, and you should use the appropriate methods to modify these. The pointer will never be null, so this type is null-pointer-optimized.

However, the pointer might not actually point to allocated memory. In particular, if you construct a Vec with capacity 0 via Vec::new, vec![], Vec::with_capacity(0), or by calling shrink_to_fit on an empty Vec, it will not allocate memory. Similarly, if you store zero-sized types inside a Vec, it will not allocate space for them. Note that in this case the Vec might not report a capacity of 0. Vec will allocate if and only if mem::size_of::<T>() * capacity() > 0. In general, Vec’s allocation details are very subtle — if you intend to allocate memory using a Vec and use it for something else (either to pass to unsafe code, or to build your own memory-backed collection), be sure to deallocate this memory by using from_raw_parts to recover the Vec and then dropping it.

If a Vec has allocated memory, then the memory it points to is on the heap (as defined by the allocator Rust is configured to use by default), and its pointer points to len initialized, contiguous elements in order (what you would see if you coerced it to a slice), followed by capacity - len logically uninitialized, contiguous elements.

A vector containing the elements 'a' and 'b' with capacity 4 can be visualized as below. The top part is the Vec struct, it contains a pointer to the head of the allocation in the heap, length and capacity. The bottom part is the allocation on the heap, a contiguous memory block.

            ptr      len  capacity
       +--------+--------+--------+
       | 0x0123 |      2 |      4 |
       +--------+--------+--------+
            |
            v
Heap   +--------+--------+--------+--------+
       |    'a' |    'b' | uninit | uninit |
       +--------+--------+--------+--------+
  • uninit represents memory that is not initialized, see MaybeUninit.
  • Note: the ABI is not stable and Vec makes no guarantees about its memory layout (including the order of fields).

Vec will never perform a “small optimization” where elements are actually stored on the stack for two reasons:

  • It would make it more difficult for unsafe code to correctly manipulate a Vec. The contents of a Vec wouldn’t have a stable address if it were only moved, and it would be more difficult to determine if a Vec had actually allocated memory.

  • It would penalize the general case, incurring an additional branch on every access.

Vec will never automatically shrink itself, even if completely empty. This ensures no unnecessary allocations or deallocations occur. Emptying a Vec and then filling it back up to the same len should incur no calls to the allocator. If you wish to free up unused memory, use shrink_to_fit or shrink_to.

push and insert will never (re)allocate if the reported capacity is sufficient. push and insert will (re)allocate if len == capacity. That is, the reported capacity is completely accurate, and can be relied on. It can even be used to manually free the memory allocated by a Vec if desired. Bulk insertion methods may reallocate, even when not necessary.

Vec does not guarantee any particular growth strategy when reallocating when full, nor when reserve is called. The current strategy is basic and it may prove desirable to use a non-constant growth factor. Whatever strategy is used will of course guarantee O(1) amortized push.

vec![x; n], vec![a, b, c, d], and Vec::with_capacity(n), will all produce a Vec with exactly the requested capacity. If len == capacity, (as is the case for the vec! macro), then a Vec<T> can be converted to and from a Box<[T]> without reallocating or moving the elements.

Vec will not specifically overwrite any data that is removed from it, but also won’t specifically preserve it. Its uninitialized memory is scratch space that it may use however it wants. It will generally just do whatever is most efficient or otherwise easy to implement. Do not rely on removed data to be erased for security purposes. Even if you drop a Vec, its buffer may simply be reused by another allocation. Even if you zero a Vec’s memory first, that might not actually happen because the optimizer does not consider this a side-effect that must be preserved. There is one case which we will not break, however: using unsafe code to write to the excess capacity, and then increasing the length to match, is always valid.

Currently, Vec does not guarantee the order in which elements are dropped. The order has changed in the past and may change again.

Implementations

Constructs a new, empty Vec<T>.

The vector will not allocate until elements are pushed onto it.

Examples
let mut vec: Vec<i32> = Vec::new();
Run

Constructs a new, empty Vec<T> with the specified capacity.

The vector will be able to hold exactly capacity elements without reallocating. If capacity is 0, the vector will not allocate.

It is important to note that although the returned vector has the capacity specified, the vector will have a zero length. For an explanation of the difference between length and capacity, see Capacity and reallocation.

Panics

Panics if the new capacity exceeds isize::MAX bytes.

Examples
let mut vec = Vec::with_capacity(10);

// The vector contains no items, even though it has capacity for more
assert_eq!(vec.len(), 0);
assert_eq!(vec.capacity(), 10);

// These are all done without reallocating...
for i in 0..10 {
    vec.push(i);
}
assert_eq!(vec.len(), 10);
assert_eq!(vec.capacity(), 10);

// ...but this may make the vector reallocate
vec.push(11);
assert_eq!(vec.len(), 11);
assert!(vec.capacity() >= 11);
Run

Creates a Vec<T> directly from the raw components of another vector.

Safety

This is highly unsafe, due to the number of invariants that aren’t checked:

  • ptr needs to have been previously allocated via String/Vec<T> (at least, it’s highly likely to be incorrect if it wasn’t).
  • T needs to have the same size and alignment as what ptr was allocated with. (T having a less strict alignment is not sufficient, the alignment really needs to be equal to satisfy the dealloc requirement that memory must be allocated and deallocated with the same layout.)
  • length needs to be less than or equal to capacity.
  • capacity needs to be the capacity that the pointer was allocated with.

Violating these may cause problems like corrupting the allocator’s internal data structures. For example it is not safe to build a Vec<u8> from a pointer to a C char array with length size_t. It’s also not safe to build one from a Vec<u16> and its length, because the allocator cares about the alignment, and these two types have different alignments. The buffer was allocated with alignment 2 (for u16), but after turning it into a Vec<u8> it’ll be deallocated with alignment 1.

The ownership of ptr is effectively transferred to the Vec<T> which may then deallocate, reallocate or change the contents of memory pointed to by the pointer at will. Ensure that nothing else uses the pointer after calling this function.

Examples
use std::ptr;
use std::mem;

let v = vec![1, 2, 3];

// Prevent running `v`'s destructor so we are in complete control
// of the allocation.
let mut v = mem::ManuallyDrop::new(v);

// Pull out the various important pieces of information about `v`
let p = v.as_mut_ptr();
let len = v.len();
let cap = v.capacity();

unsafe {
    // Overwrite memory with 4, 5, 6
    for i in 0..len as isize {
        ptr::write(p.offset(i), 4 + i);
    }

    // Put everything back together into a Vec
    let rebuilt = Vec::from_raw_parts(p, len, cap);
    assert_eq!(rebuilt, [4, 5, 6]);
}
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (allocator_api #32838)

Constructs a new, empty Vec<T, A>.

The vector will not allocate until elements are pushed onto it.

Examples
#![feature(allocator_api)]

use std::alloc::System;

let mut vec: Vec<i32, _> = Vec::new_in(System);
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (allocator_api #32838)

Constructs a new, empty Vec<T, A> with the specified capacity with the provided allocator.

The vector will be able to hold exactly capacity elements without reallocating. If capacity is 0, the vector will not allocate.

It is important to note that although the returned vector has the capacity specified, the vector will have a zero length. For an explanation of the difference between length and capacity, see Capacity and reallocation.

Panics

Panics if the new capacity exceeds isize::MAX bytes.

Examples
#![feature(allocator_api)]

use std::alloc::System;

let mut vec = Vec::with_capacity_in(10, System);

// The vector contains no items, even though it has capacity for more
assert_eq!(vec.len(), 0);
assert_eq!(vec.capacity(), 10);

// These are all done without reallocating...
for i in 0..10 {
    vec.push(i);
}
assert_eq!(vec.len(), 10);
assert_eq!(vec.capacity(), 10);

// ...but this may make the vector reallocate
vec.push(11);
assert_eq!(vec.len(), 11);
assert!(vec.capacity() >= 11);
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (allocator_api #32838)

Creates a Vec<T, A> directly from the raw components of another vector.

Safety

This is highly unsafe, due to the number of invariants that aren’t checked:

  • ptr needs to have been previously allocated via String/Vec<T> (at least, it’s highly likely to be incorrect if it wasn’t).
  • T needs to have the same size and alignment as what ptr was allocated with. (T having a less strict alignment is not sufficient, the alignment really needs to be equal to satisfy the dealloc requirement that memory must be allocated and deallocated with the same layout.)
  • length needs to be less than or equal to capacity.
  • capacity needs to be the capacity that the pointer was allocated with.

Violating these may cause problems like corrupting the allocator’s internal data structures. For example it is not safe to build a Vec<u8> from a pointer to a C char array with length size_t. It’s also not safe to build one from a Vec<u16> and its length, because the allocator cares about the alignment, and these two types have different alignments. The buffer was allocated with alignment 2 (for u16), but after turning it into a Vec<u8> it’ll be deallocated with alignment 1.

The ownership of ptr is effectively transferred to the Vec<T> which may then deallocate, reallocate or change the contents of memory pointed to by the pointer at will. Ensure that nothing else uses the pointer after calling this function.

Examples
#![feature(allocator_api)]

use std::alloc::System;

use std::ptr;
use std::mem;

let mut v = Vec::with_capacity_in(3, System);
v.push(1);
v.push(2);
v.push(3);

// Prevent running `v`'s destructor so we are in complete control
// of the allocation.
let mut v = mem::ManuallyDrop::new(v);

// Pull out the various important pieces of information about `v`
let p = v.as_mut_ptr();
let len = v.len();
let cap = v.capacity();
let alloc = v.allocator();

unsafe {
    // Overwrite memory with 4, 5, 6
    for i in 0..len as isize {
        ptr::write(p.offset(i), 4 + i);
    }

    // Put everything back together into a Vec
    let rebuilt = Vec::from_raw_parts_in(p, len, cap, alloc.clone());
    assert_eq!(rebuilt, [4, 5, 6]);
}
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (vec_into_raw_parts #65816)

new API

Decomposes a Vec<T> into its raw components.

Returns the raw pointer to the underlying data, the length of the vector (in elements), and the allocated capacity of the data (in elements). These are the same arguments in the same order as the arguments to from_raw_parts.

After calling this function, the caller is responsible for the memory previously managed by the Vec. The only way to do this is to convert the raw pointer, length, and capacity back into a Vec with the from_raw_parts function, allowing the destructor to perform the cleanup.

Examples
#![feature(vec_into_raw_parts)]
let v: Vec<i32> = vec![-1, 0, 1];

let (ptr, len, cap) = v.into_raw_parts();

let rebuilt = unsafe {
    // We can now make changes to the components, such as
    // transmuting the raw pointer to a compatible type.
    let ptr = ptr as *mut u32;

    Vec::from_raw_parts(ptr, len, cap)
};
assert_eq!(rebuilt, [4294967295, 0, 1]);
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (allocator_api #32838)

Decomposes a Vec<T> into its raw components.

Returns the raw pointer to the underlying data, the length of the vector (in elements), the allocated capacity of the data (in elements), and the allocator. These are the same arguments in the same order as the arguments to from_raw_parts_in.

After calling this function, the caller is responsible for the memory previously managed by the Vec. The only way to do this is to convert the raw pointer, length, and capacity back into a Vec with the from_raw_parts_in function, allowing the destructor to perform the cleanup.

Examples
#![feature(allocator_api, vec_into_raw_parts)]

use std::alloc::System;

let mut v: Vec<i32, System> = Vec::new_in(System);
v.push(-1);
v.push(0);
v.push(1);

let (ptr, len, cap, alloc) = v.into_raw_parts_with_alloc();

let rebuilt = unsafe {
    // We can now make changes to the components, such as
    // transmuting the raw pointer to a compatible type.
    let ptr = ptr as *mut u32;

    Vec::from_raw_parts_in(ptr, len, cap, alloc)
};
assert_eq!(rebuilt, [4294967295, 0, 1]);
Run

Returns the number of elements the vector can hold without reallocating.

Examples
let vec: Vec<i32> = Vec::with_capacity(10);
assert_eq!(vec.capacity(), 10);
Run

Reserves capacity for at least additional more elements to be inserted in the given Vec<T>. The collection may reserve more space to avoid frequent reallocations. After calling reserve, capacity will be greater than or equal to self.len() + additional. Does nothing if capacity is already sufficient.

Panics

Panics if the new capacity exceeds isize::MAX bytes.

Examples
let mut vec = vec![1];
vec.reserve(10);
assert!(vec.capacity() >= 11);
Run

Reserves the minimum capacity for exactly additional more elements to be inserted in the given Vec<T>. After calling reserve_exact, capacity will be greater than or equal to self.len() + additional. Does nothing if the capacity is already sufficient.

Note that the allocator may give the collection more space than it requests. Therefore, capacity can not be relied upon to be precisely minimal. Prefer reserve if future insertions are expected.

Panics

Panics if the new capacity overflows usize.

Examples
let mut vec = vec![1];
vec.reserve_exact(10);
assert!(vec.capacity() >= 11);
Run

Tries to reserve capacity for at least additional more elements to be inserted in the given Vec<T>. The collection may reserve more space to avoid frequent reallocations. After calling try_reserve, capacity will be greater than or equal to self.len() + additional. Does nothing if capacity is already sufficient.

Errors

If the capacity overflows, or the allocator reports a failure, then an error is returned.

Examples
use std::collections::TryReserveError;

fn process_data(data: &[u32]) -> Result<Vec<u32>, TryReserveError> {
    let mut output = Vec::new();

    // Pre-reserve the memory, exiting if we can't
    output.try_reserve(data.len())?;

    // Now we know this can't OOM in the middle of our complex work
    output.extend(data.iter().map(|&val| {
        val * 2 + 5 // very complicated
    }));

    Ok(output)
}
Run

Tries to reserve the minimum capacity for exactly additional elements to be inserted in the given Vec<T>. After calling try_reserve_exact, capacity will be greater than or equal to self.len() + additional if it returns Ok(()). Does nothing if the capacity is already sufficient.

Note that the allocator may give the collection more space than it requests. Therefore, capacity can not be relied upon to be precisely minimal. Prefer reserve if future insertions are expected.

Errors

If the capacity overflows, or the allocator reports a failure, then an error is returned.

Examples
use std::collections::TryReserveError;

fn process_data(data: &[u32]) -> Result<Vec<u32>, TryReserveError> {
    let mut output = Vec::new();

    // Pre-reserve the memory, exiting if we can't
    output.try_reserve_exact(data.len())?;

    // Now we know this can't OOM in the middle of our complex work
    output.extend(data.iter().map(|&val| {
        val * 2 + 5 // very complicated
    }));

    Ok(output)
}
Run

Shrinks the capacity of the vector as much as possible.

It will drop down as close as possible to the length but the allocator may still inform the vector that there is space for a few more elements.

Examples
let mut vec = Vec::with_capacity(10);
vec.extend([1, 2, 3]);
assert_eq!(vec.capacity(), 10);
vec.shrink_to_fit();
assert!(vec.capacity() >= 3);
Run

Shrinks the capacity of the vector with a lower bound.

The capacity will remain at least as large as both the length and the supplied value.

If the current capacity is less than the lower limit, this is a no-op.

Examples
let mut vec = Vec::with_capacity(10);
vec.extend([1, 2, 3]);
assert_eq!(vec.capacity(), 10);
vec.shrink_to(4);
assert!(vec.capacity() >= 4);
vec.shrink_to(0);
assert!(vec.capacity() >= 3);
Run

Converts the vector into Box<[T]>.

Note that this will drop any excess capacity.

Examples
let v = vec![1, 2, 3];

let slice = v.into_boxed_slice();
Run

Any excess capacity is removed:

let mut vec = Vec::with_capacity(10);
vec.extend([1, 2, 3]);

assert_eq!(vec.capacity(), 10);
let slice = vec.into_boxed_slice();
assert_eq!(slice.into_vec().capacity(), 3);
Run

Shortens the vector, keeping the first len elements and dropping the rest.

If len is greater than the vector’s current length, this has no effect.

The drain method can emulate truncate, but causes the excess elements to be returned instead of dropped.

Note that this method has no effect on the allocated capacity of the vector.

Examples

Truncating a five element vector to two elements:

let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
vec.truncate(2);
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2]);
Run

No truncation occurs when len is greater than the vector’s current length:

let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3];
vec.truncate(8);
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2, 3]);
Run

Truncating when len == 0 is equivalent to calling the clear method.

let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3];
vec.truncate(0);
assert_eq!(vec, []);
Run

Extracts a slice containing the entire vector.

Equivalent to &s[..].

Examples
use std::io::{self, Write};
let buffer = vec![1, 2, 3, 5, 8];
io::sink().write(buffer.as_slice()).unwrap();
Run

Extracts a mutable slice of the entire vector.

Equivalent to &mut s[..].

Examples
use std::io::{self, Read};
let mut buffer = vec![0; 3];
io::repeat(0b101).read_exact(buffer.as_mut_slice()).unwrap();
Run

Returns a raw pointer to the vector’s buffer.

The caller must ensure that the vector outlives the pointer this function returns, or else it will end up pointing to garbage. Modifying the vector may cause its buffer to be reallocated, which would also make any pointers to it invalid.

The caller must also ensure that the memory the pointer (non-transitively) points to is never written to (except inside an UnsafeCell) using this pointer or any pointer derived from it. If you need to mutate the contents of the slice, use as_mut_ptr.

Examples
let x = vec![1, 2, 4];
let x_ptr = x.as_ptr();

unsafe {
    for i in 0..x.len() {
        assert_eq!(*x_ptr.add(i), 1 << i);
    }
}
Run

Returns an unsafe mutable pointer to the vector’s buffer.

The caller must ensure that the vector outlives the pointer this function returns, or else it will end up pointing to garbage. Modifying the vector may cause its buffer to be reallocated, which would also make any pointers to it invalid.

Examples
// Allocate vector big enough for 4 elements.
let size = 4;
let mut x: Vec<i32> = Vec::with_capacity(size);
let x_ptr = x.as_mut_ptr();

// Initialize elements via raw pointer writes, then set length.
unsafe {
    for i in 0..size {
        *x_ptr.add(i) = i as i32;
    }
    x.set_len(size);
}
assert_eq!(&*x, &[0, 1, 2, 3]);
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (allocator_api #32838)

Returns a reference to the underlying allocator.

Forces the length of the vector to new_len.

This is a low-level operation that maintains none of the normal invariants of the type. Normally changing the length of a vector is done using one of the safe operations instead, such as truncate, resize, extend, or clear.

Safety
  • new_len must be less than or equal to capacity().
  • The elements at old_len..new_len must be initialized.
Examples

This method can be useful for situations in which the vector is serving as a buffer for other code, particularly over FFI:

pub fn get_dictionary(&self) -> Option<Vec<u8>> {
    // Per the FFI method's docs, "32768 bytes is always enough".
    let mut dict = Vec::with_capacity(32_768);
    let mut dict_length = 0;
    // SAFETY: When `deflateGetDictionary` returns `Z_OK`, it holds that:
    // 1. `dict_length` elements were initialized.
    // 2. `dict_length` <= the capacity (32_768)
    // which makes `set_len` safe to call.
    unsafe {
        // Make the FFI call...
        let r = deflateGetDictionary(self.strm, dict.as_mut_ptr(), &mut dict_length);
        if r == Z_OK {
            // ...and update the length to what was initialized.
            dict.set_len(dict_length);
            Some(dict)
        } else {
            None
        }
    }
}
Run

While the following example is sound, there is a memory leak since the inner vectors were not freed prior to the set_len call:

let mut vec = vec![vec![1, 0, 0],
                   vec![0, 1, 0],
                   vec![0, 0, 1]];
// SAFETY:
// 1. `old_len..0` is empty so no elements need to be initialized.
// 2. `0 <= capacity` always holds whatever `capacity` is.
unsafe {
    vec.set_len(0);
}
Run

Normally, here, one would use clear instead to correctly drop the contents and thus not leak memory.

Removes an element from the vector and returns it.

The removed element is replaced by the last element of the vector.

This does not preserve ordering, but is O(1).

Panics

Panics if index is out of bounds.

Examples
let mut v = vec!["foo", "bar", "baz", "qux"];

assert_eq!(v.swap_remove(1), "bar");
assert_eq!(v, ["foo", "qux", "baz"]);

assert_eq!(v.swap_remove(0), "foo");
assert_eq!(v, ["baz", "qux"]);
Run

Inserts an element at position index within the vector, shifting all elements after it to the right.

Panics

Panics if index > len.

Examples
let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3];
vec.insert(1, 4);
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 4, 2, 3]);
vec.insert(4, 5);
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 4, 2, 3, 5]);
Run

Removes and returns the element at position index within the vector, shifting all elements after it to the left.

Note: Because this shifts over the remaining elements, it has a worst-case performance of O(n). If you don’t need the order of elements to be preserved, use swap_remove instead.

Panics

Panics if index is out of bounds.

Examples
let mut v = vec![1, 2, 3];
assert_eq!(v.remove(1), 2);
assert_eq!(v, [1, 3]);
Run

Retains only the elements specified by the predicate.

In other words, remove all elements e such that f(&e) returns false. This method operates in place, visiting each element exactly once in the original order, and preserves the order of the retained elements.

Examples
let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3, 4];
vec.retain(|&x| x % 2 == 0);
assert_eq!(vec, [2, 4]);
Run

Because the elements are visited exactly once in the original order, external state may be used to decide which elements to keep.

let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
let keep = [false, true, true, false, true];
let mut iter = keep.iter();
vec.retain(|_| *iter.next().unwrap());
assert_eq!(vec, [2, 3, 5]);
Run

Removes all but the first of consecutive elements in the vector that resolve to the same key.

If the vector is sorted, this removes all duplicates.

Examples
let mut vec = vec![10, 20, 21, 30, 20];

vec.dedup_by_key(|i| *i / 10);

assert_eq!(vec, [10, 20, 30, 20]);
Run

Removes all but the first of consecutive elements in the vector satisfying a given equality relation.

The same_bucket function is passed references to two elements from the vector and must determine if the elements compare equal. The elements are passed in opposite order from their order in the slice, so if same_bucket(a, b) returns true, a is removed.

If the vector is sorted, this removes all duplicates.

Examples
let mut vec = vec!["foo", "bar", "Bar", "baz", "bar"];

vec.dedup_by(|a, b| a.eq_ignore_ascii_case(b));

assert_eq!(vec, ["foo", "bar", "baz", "bar"]);
Run

Appends an element to the back of a collection.

Panics

Panics if the new capacity exceeds isize::MAX bytes.

Examples
let mut vec = vec![1, 2];
vec.push(3);
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2, 3]);
Run

Removes the last element from a vector and returns it, or None if it is empty.

Examples
let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3];
assert_eq!(vec.pop(), Some(3));
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2]);
Run

Moves all the elements of other into Self, leaving other empty.

Panics

Panics if the number of elements in the vector overflows a usize.

Examples
let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3];
let mut vec2 = vec![4, 5, 6];
vec.append(&mut vec2);
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]);
assert_eq!(vec2, []);
Run

Creates a draining iterator that removes the specified range in the vector and yields the removed items.

When the iterator is dropped, all elements in the range are removed from the vector, even if the iterator was not fully consumed. If the iterator is not dropped (with mem::forget for example), it is unspecified how many elements are removed.

Panics

Panics if the starting point is greater than the end point or if the end point is greater than the length of the vector.

Examples
let mut v = vec![1, 2, 3];
let u: Vec<_> = v.drain(1..).collect();
assert_eq!(v, &[1]);
assert_eq!(u, &[2, 3]);

// A full range clears the vector
v.drain(..);
assert_eq!(v, &[]);
Run

Clears the vector, removing all values.

Note that this method has no effect on the allocated capacity of the vector.

Examples
let mut v = vec![1, 2, 3];

v.clear();

assert!(v.is_empty());
Run

Returns the number of elements in the vector, also referred to as its ‘length’.

Examples
let a = vec![1, 2, 3];
assert_eq!(a.len(), 3);
Run

Returns true if the vector contains no elements.

Examples
let mut v = Vec::new();
assert!(v.is_empty());

v.push(1);
assert!(!v.is_empty());
Run

Splits the collection into two at the given index.

Returns a newly allocated vector containing the elements in the range [at, len). After the call, the original vector will be left containing the elements [0, at) with its previous capacity unchanged.

Panics

Panics if at > len.

Examples
let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3];
let vec2 = vec.split_off(1);
assert_eq!(vec, [1]);
assert_eq!(vec2, [2, 3]);
Run

Resizes the Vec in-place so that len is equal to new_len.

If new_len is greater than len, the Vec is extended by the difference, with each additional slot filled with the result of calling the closure f. The return values from f will end up in the Vec in the order they have been generated.

If new_len is less than len, the Vec is simply truncated.

This method uses a closure to create new values on every push. If you’d rather Clone a given value, use Vec::resize. If you want to use the Default trait to generate values, you can pass Default::default as the second argument.

Examples
let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3];
vec.resize_with(5, Default::default);
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2, 3, 0, 0]);

let mut vec = vec![];
let mut p = 1;
vec.resize_with(4, || { p *= 2; p });
assert_eq!(vec, [2, 4, 8, 16]);
Run

Consumes and leaks the Vec, returning a mutable reference to the contents, &'a mut [T]. Note that the type T must outlive the chosen lifetime 'a. If the type has only static references, or none at all, then this may be chosen to be 'static.

As of Rust 1.57, this method does not reallocate or shrink the Vec, so the leaked allocation may include unused capacity that is not part of the returned slice.

This function is mainly useful for data that lives for the remainder of the program’s life. Dropping the returned reference will cause a memory leak.

Examples

Simple usage:

let x = vec![1, 2, 3];
let static_ref: &'static mut [usize] = x.leak();
static_ref[0] += 1;
assert_eq!(static_ref, &[2, 2, 3]);
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (vec_spare_capacity #75017)

Returns the remaining spare capacity of the vector as a slice of MaybeUninit<T>.

The returned slice can be used to fill the vector with data (e.g. by reading from a file) before marking the data as initialized using the set_len method.

Examples
#![feature(vec_spare_capacity, maybe_uninit_extra)]

// Allocate vector big enough for 10 elements.
let mut v = Vec::with_capacity(10);

// Fill in the first 3 elements.
let uninit = v.spare_capacity_mut();
uninit[0].write(0);
uninit[1].write(1);
uninit[2].write(2);

// Mark the first 3 elements of the vector as being initialized.
unsafe {
    v.set_len(3);
}

assert_eq!(&v, &[0, 1, 2]);
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (vec_split_at_spare #81944)

Returns vector content as a slice of T, along with the remaining spare capacity of the vector as a slice of MaybeUninit<T>.

The returned spare capacity slice can be used to fill the vector with data (e.g. by reading from a file) before marking the data as initialized using the set_len method.

Note that this is a low-level API, which should be used with care for optimization purposes. If you need to append data to a Vec you can use push, extend, extend_from_slice, extend_from_within, insert, append, resize or resize_with, depending on your exact needs.

Examples
#![feature(vec_split_at_spare, maybe_uninit_extra)]

let mut v = vec![1, 1, 2];

// Reserve additional space big enough for 10 elements.
v.reserve(10);

let (init, uninit) = v.split_at_spare_mut();
let sum = init.iter().copied().sum::<u32>();

// Fill in the next 4 elements.
uninit[0].write(sum);
uninit[1].write(sum * 2);
uninit[2].write(sum * 3);
uninit[3].write(sum * 4);

// Mark the 4 elements of the vector as being initialized.
unsafe {
    let len = v.len();
    v.set_len(len + 4);
}

assert_eq!(&v, &[1, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16]);
Run

Resizes the Vec in-place so that len is equal to new_len.

If new_len is greater than len, the Vec is extended by the difference, with each additional slot filled with value. If new_len is less than len, the Vec is simply truncated.

This method requires T to implement Clone, in order to be able to clone the passed value. If you need more flexibility (or want to rely on Default instead of Clone), use Vec::resize_with. If you only need to resize to a smaller size, use Vec::truncate.

Examples
let mut vec = vec!["hello"];
vec.resize(3, "world");
assert_eq!(vec, ["hello", "world", "world"]);

let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3, 4];
vec.resize(2, 0);
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2]);
Run

Clones and appends all elements in a slice to the Vec.

Iterates over the slice other, clones each element, and then appends it to this Vec. The other vector is traversed in-order.

Note that this function is same as extend except that it is specialized to work with slices instead. If and when Rust gets specialization this function will likely be deprecated (but still available).

Examples
let mut vec = vec![1];
vec.extend_from_slice(&[2, 3, 4]);
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2, 3, 4]);
Run

Copies elements from src range to the end of the vector.

Panics

Panics if the starting point is greater than the end point or if the end point is greater than the length of the vector.

Examples
let mut vec = vec![0, 1, 2, 3, 4];

vec.extend_from_within(2..);
assert_eq!(vec, [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 2, 3, 4]);

vec.extend_from_within(..2);
assert_eq!(vec, [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 2, 3, 4, 0, 1]);

vec.extend_from_within(4..8);
assert_eq!(vec, [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 2, 3, 4, 0, 1, 4, 2, 3, 4]);
Run

Removes consecutive repeated elements in the vector according to the PartialEq trait implementation.

If the vector is sorted, this removes all duplicates.

Examples
let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 2, 3, 2];

vec.dedup();

assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2, 3, 2]);
Run

Creates a splicing iterator that replaces the specified range in the vector with the given replace_with iterator and yields the removed items. replace_with does not need to be the same length as range.

range is removed even if the iterator is not consumed until the end.

It is unspecified how many elements are removed from the vector if the Splice value is leaked.

The input iterator replace_with is only consumed when the Splice value is dropped.

This is optimal if:

  • The tail (elements in the vector after range) is empty,
  • or replace_with yields fewer or equal elements than range’s length
  • or the lower bound of its size_hint() is exact.

Otherwise, a temporary vector is allocated and the tail is moved twice.

Panics

Panics if the starting point is greater than the end point or if the end point is greater than the length of the vector.

Examples
let mut v = vec![1, 2, 3];
let new = [7, 8];
let u: Vec<_> = v.splice(..2, new).collect();
assert_eq!(v, &[7, 8, 3]);
assert_eq!(u, &[1, 2]);
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (drain_filter #43244)

recently added

Creates an iterator which uses a closure to determine if an element should be removed.

If the closure returns true, then the element is removed and yielded. If the closure returns false, the element will remain in the vector and will not be yielded by the iterator.

Using this method is equivalent to the following code:

let mut i = 0;
while i < vec.len() {
    if some_predicate(&mut vec[i]) {
        let val = vec.remove(i);
        // your code here
    } else {
        i += 1;
    }
}
Run

But drain_filter is easier to use. drain_filter is also more efficient, because it can backshift the elements of the array in bulk.

Note that drain_filter also lets you mutate every element in the filter closure, regardless of whether you choose to keep or remove it.

Examples

Splitting an array into evens and odds, reusing the original allocation:

#![feature(drain_filter)]
let mut numbers = vec![1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15];

let evens = numbers.drain_filter(|x| *x % 2 == 0).collect::<Vec<_>>();
let odds = numbers;

assert_eq!(evens, vec![2, 4, 6, 8, 14]);
assert_eq!(odds, vec![1, 3, 5, 9, 11, 13, 15]);
Run

Methods from Deref<Target = [T]>

Returns the number of elements in the slice.

Examples
let a = [1, 2, 3];
assert_eq!(a.len(), 3);
Run

Returns true if the slice has a length of 0.

Examples
let a = [1, 2, 3];
assert!(!a.is_empty());
Run

Returns the first element of the slice, or None if it is empty.

Examples
let v = [10, 40, 30];
assert_eq!(Some(&10), v.first());

let w: &[i32] = &[];
assert_eq!(None, w.first());
Run

Returns a mutable pointer to the first element of the slice, or None if it is empty.

Examples
let x = &mut [0, 1, 2];

if let Some(first) = x.first_mut() {
    *first = 5;
}
assert_eq!(x, &[5, 1, 2]);
Run

Returns the first and all the rest of the elements of the slice, or None if it is empty.

Examples
let x = &[0, 1, 2];

if let Some((first, elements)) = x.split_first() {
    assert_eq!(first, &0);
    assert_eq!(elements, &[1, 2]);
}
Run

Returns the first and all the rest of the elements of the slice, or None if it is empty.

Examples
let x = &mut [0, 1, 2];

if let Some((first, elements)) = x.split_first_mut() {
    *first = 3;
    elements[0] = 4;
    elements[1] = 5;
}
assert_eq!(x, &[3, 4, 5]);
Run

Returns the last and all the rest of the elements of the slice, or None if it is empty.

Examples
let x = &[0, 1, 2];

if let Some((last, elements)) = x.split_last() {
    assert_eq!(last, &2);
    assert_eq!(elements, &[0, 1]);
}
Run

Returns the last and all the rest of the elements of the slice, or None if it is empty.

Examples
let x = &mut [0, 1, 2];

if let Some((last, elements)) = x.split_last_mut() {
    *last = 3;
    elements[0] = 4;
    elements[1] = 5;
}
assert_eq!(x, &[4, 5, 3]);
Run

Returns the last element of the slice, or None if it is empty.

Examples
let v = [10, 40, 30];
assert_eq!(Some(&30), v.last());

let w: &[i32] = &[];
assert_eq!(None, w.last());
Run

Returns a mutable pointer to the last item in the slice.

Examples
let x = &mut [0, 1, 2];

if let Some(last) = x.last_mut() {
    *last = 10;
}
assert_eq!(x, &[0, 1, 10]);
Run

Returns a reference to an element or subslice depending on the type of index.

  • If given a position, returns a reference to the element at that position or None if out of bounds.
  • If given a range, returns the subslice corresponding to that range, or None if out of bounds.
Examples
let v = [10, 40, 30];
assert_eq!(Some(&40), v.get(1));
assert_eq!(Some(&[10, 40][..]), v.get(0..2));
assert_eq!(None, v.get(3));
assert_eq!(None, v.get(0..4));
Run

Returns a mutable reference to an element or subslice depending on the type of index (see get) or None if the index is out of bounds.

Examples
let x = &mut [0, 1, 2];

if let Some(elem) = x.get_mut(1) {
    *elem = 42;
}
assert_eq!(x, &[0, 42, 2]);
Run

Returns a reference to an element or subslice, without doing bounds checking.

For a safe alternative see get.

Safety

Calling this method with an out-of-bounds index is undefined behavior even if the resulting reference is not used.

Examples
let x = &[1, 2, 4];

unsafe {
    assert_eq!(x.get_unchecked(1), &2);
}
Run

Returns a mutable reference to an element or subslice, without doing bounds checking.

For a safe alternative see get_mut.

Safety

Calling this method with an out-of-bounds index is undefined behavior even if the resulting reference is not used.

Examples
let x = &mut [1, 2, 4];

unsafe {
    let elem = x.get_unchecked_mut(1);
    *elem = 13;
}
assert_eq!(x, &[1, 13, 4]);
Run

Returns a raw pointer to the slice’s buffer.

The caller must ensure that the slice outlives the pointer this function returns, or else it will end up pointing to garbage.

The caller must also ensure that the memory the pointer (non-transitively) points to is never written to (except inside an UnsafeCell) using this pointer or any pointer derived from it. If you need to mutate the contents of the slice, use as_mut_ptr.

Modifying the container referenced by this slice may cause its buffer to be reallocated, which would also make any pointers to it invalid.

Examples
let x = &[1, 2, 4];
let x_ptr = x.as_ptr();

unsafe {
    for i in 0..x.len() {
        assert_eq!(x.get_unchecked(i), &*x_ptr.add(i));
    }
}
Run

Returns an unsafe mutable pointer to the slice’s buffer.

The caller must ensure that the slice outlives the pointer this function returns, or else it will end up pointing to garbage.

Modifying the container referenced by this slice may cause its buffer to be reallocated, which would also make any pointers to it invalid.

Examples
let x = &mut [1, 2, 4];
let x_ptr = x.as_mut_ptr();

unsafe {
    for i in 0..x.len() {
        *x_ptr.add(i) += 2;
    }
}
assert_eq!(x, &[3, 4, 6]);
Run

Returns the two raw pointers spanning the slice.

The returned range is half-open, which means that the end pointer points one past the last element of the slice. This way, an empty slice is represented by two equal pointers, and the difference between the two pointers represents the size of the slice.

See as_ptr for warnings on using these pointers. The end pointer requires extra caution, as it does not point to a valid element in the slice.

This function is useful for interacting with foreign interfaces which use two pointers to refer to a range of elements in memory, as is common in C++.

It can also be useful to check if a pointer to an element refers to an element of this slice:

let a = [1, 2, 3];
let x = &a[1] as *const _;
let y = &5 as *const _;

assert!(a.as_ptr_range().contains(&x));
assert!(!a.as_ptr_range().contains(&y));
Run

Returns the two unsafe mutable pointers spanning the slice.

The returned range is half-open, which means that the end pointer points one past the last element of the slice. This way, an empty slice is represented by two equal pointers, and the difference between the two pointers represents the size of the slice.

See as_mut_ptr for warnings on using these pointers. The end pointer requires extra caution, as it does not point to a valid element in the slice.

This function is useful for interacting with foreign interfaces which use two pointers to refer to a range of elements in memory, as is common in C++.

Swaps two elements in the slice.

Arguments
  • a - The index of the first element
  • b - The index of the second element
Panics

Panics if a or b are out of bounds.

Examples
let mut v = ["a", "b", "c", "d"];
v.swap(1, 3);
assert!(v == ["a", "d", "c", "b"]);
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_swap_unchecked #88539)

Swaps two elements in the slice, without doing bounds checking.

For a safe alternative see swap.

Arguments
  • a - The index of the first element
  • b - The index of the second element
Safety

Calling this method with an out-of-bounds index is undefined behavior. The caller has to ensure that a < self.len() and b < self.len().

Examples
#![feature(slice_swap_unchecked)]

let mut v = ["a", "b", "c", "d"];
// SAFETY: we know that 1 and 3 are both indices of the slice
unsafe { v.swap_unchecked(1, 3) };
assert!(v == ["a", "d", "c", "b"]);
Run

Reverses the order of elements in the slice, in place.

Examples
let mut v = [1, 2, 3];
v.reverse();
assert!(v == [3, 2, 1]);
Run

Returns an iterator over the slice.

Examples
let x = &[1, 2, 4];
let mut iterator = x.iter();

assert_eq!(iterator.next(), Some(&1));
assert_eq!(iterator.next(), Some(&2));
assert_eq!(iterator.next(), Some(&4));
assert_eq!(iterator.next(), None);
Run

Returns an iterator that allows modifying each value.

Examples
let x = &mut [1, 2, 4];
for elem in x.iter_mut() {
    *elem += 2;
}
assert_eq!(x, &[3, 4, 6]);
Run

Returns an iterator over all contiguous windows of length size. The windows overlap. If the slice is shorter than size, the iterator returns no values.

Panics

Panics if size is 0.

Examples
let slice = ['r', 'u', 's', 't'];
let mut iter = slice.windows(2);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['r', 'u']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['u', 's']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['s', 't']);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());
Run

If the slice is shorter than size:

let slice = ['f', 'o', 'o'];
let mut iter = slice.windows(4);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());
Run

Returns an iterator over chunk_size elements of the slice at a time, starting at the beginning of the slice.

The chunks are slices and do not overlap. If chunk_size does not divide the length of the slice, then the last chunk will not have length chunk_size.

See chunks_exact for a variant of this iterator that returns chunks of always exactly chunk_size elements, and rchunks for the same iterator but starting at the end of the slice.

Panics

Panics if chunk_size is 0.

Examples
let slice = ['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm'];
let mut iter = slice.chunks(2);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['l', 'o']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['r', 'e']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['m']);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());
Run

Returns an iterator over chunk_size elements of the slice at a time, starting at the beginning of the slice.

The chunks are mutable slices, and do not overlap. If chunk_size does not divide the length of the slice, then the last chunk will not have length chunk_size.

See chunks_exact_mut for a variant of this iterator that returns chunks of always exactly chunk_size elements, and rchunks_mut for the same iterator but starting at the end of the slice.

Panics

Panics if chunk_size is 0.

Examples
let v = &mut [0, 0, 0, 0, 0];
let mut count = 1;

for chunk in v.chunks_mut(2) {
    for elem in chunk.iter_mut() {
        *elem += count;
    }
    count += 1;
}
assert_eq!(v, &[1, 1, 2, 2, 3]);
Run

Returns an iterator over chunk_size elements of the slice at a time, starting at the beginning of the slice.

The chunks are slices and do not overlap. If chunk_size does not divide the length of the slice, then the last up to chunk_size-1 elements will be omitted and can be retrieved from the remainder function of the iterator.

Due to each chunk having exactly chunk_size elements, the compiler can often optimize the resulting code better than in the case of chunks.

See chunks for a variant of this iterator that also returns the remainder as a smaller chunk, and rchunks_exact for the same iterator but starting at the end of the slice.

Panics

Panics if chunk_size is 0.

Examples
let slice = ['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm'];
let mut iter = slice.chunks_exact(2);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['l', 'o']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['r', 'e']);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());
assert_eq!(iter.remainder(), &['m']);
Run

Returns an iterator over chunk_size elements of the slice at a time, starting at the beginning of the slice.

The chunks are mutable slices, and do not overlap. If chunk_size does not divide the length of the slice, then the last up to chunk_size-1 elements will be omitted and can be retrieved from the into_remainder function of the iterator.

Due to each chunk having exactly chunk_size elements, the compiler can often optimize the resulting code better than in the case of chunks_mut.

See chunks_mut for a variant of this iterator that also returns the remainder as a smaller chunk, and rchunks_exact_mut for the same iterator but starting at the end of the slice.

Panics

Panics if chunk_size is 0.

Examples
let v = &mut [0, 0, 0, 0, 0];
let mut count = 1;

for chunk in v.chunks_exact_mut(2) {
    for elem in chunk.iter_mut() {
        *elem += count;
    }
    count += 1;
}
assert_eq!(v, &[1, 1, 2, 2, 0]);
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_as_chunks #74985)

Splits the slice into a slice of N-element arrays, assuming that there’s no remainder.

Safety

This may only be called when

  • The slice splits exactly into N-element chunks (aka self.len() % N == 0).
  • N != 0.
Examples
#![feature(slice_as_chunks)]
let slice: &[char] = &['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm', '!'];
let chunks: &[[char; 1]] =
    // SAFETY: 1-element chunks never have remainder
    unsafe { slice.as_chunks_unchecked() };
assert_eq!(chunks, &[['l'], ['o'], ['r'], ['e'], ['m'], ['!']]);
let chunks: &[[char; 3]] =
    // SAFETY: The slice length (6) is a multiple of 3
    unsafe { slice.as_chunks_unchecked() };
assert_eq!(chunks, &[['l', 'o', 'r'], ['e', 'm', '!']]);

// These would be unsound:
// let chunks: &[[_; 5]] = slice.as_chunks_unchecked() // The slice length is not a multiple of 5
// let chunks: &[[_; 0]] = slice.as_chunks_unchecked() // Zero-length chunks are never allowed
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_as_chunks #74985)

Splits the slice into a slice of N-element arrays, starting at the beginning of the slice, and a remainder slice with length strictly less than N.

Panics

Panics if N is 0. This check will most probably get changed to a compile time error before this method gets stabilized.

Examples
#![feature(slice_as_chunks)]
let slice = ['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm'];
let (chunks, remainder) = slice.as_chunks();
assert_eq!(chunks, &[['l', 'o'], ['r', 'e']]);
assert_eq!(remainder, &['m']);
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_as_chunks #74985)

Splits the slice into a slice of N-element arrays, starting at the end of the slice, and a remainder slice with length strictly less than N.

Panics

Panics if N is 0. This check will most probably get changed to a compile time error before this method gets stabilized.

Examples
#![feature(slice_as_chunks)]
let slice = ['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm'];
let (remainder, chunks) = slice.as_rchunks();
assert_eq!(remainder, &['l']);
assert_eq!(chunks, &[['o', 'r'], ['e', 'm']]);
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (array_chunks #74985)

Returns an iterator over N elements of the slice at a time, starting at the beginning of the slice.

The chunks are array references and do not overlap. If N does not divide the length of the slice, then the last up to N-1 elements will be omitted and can be retrieved from the remainder function of the iterator.

This method is the const generic equivalent of chunks_exact.

Panics

Panics if N is 0. This check will most probably get changed to a compile time error before this method gets stabilized.

Examples
#![feature(array_chunks)]
let slice = ['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm'];
let mut iter = slice.array_chunks();
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['l', 'o']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['r', 'e']);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());
assert_eq!(iter.remainder(), &['m']);
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_as_chunks #74985)

Splits the slice into a slice of N-element arrays, assuming that there’s no remainder.

Safety

This may only be called when

  • The slice splits exactly into N-element chunks (aka self.len() % N == 0).
  • N != 0.
Examples
#![feature(slice_as_chunks)]
let slice: &mut [char] = &mut ['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm', '!'];
let chunks: &mut [[char; 1]] =
    // SAFETY: 1-element chunks never have remainder
    unsafe { slice.as_chunks_unchecked_mut() };
chunks[0] = ['L'];
assert_eq!(chunks, &[['L'], ['o'], ['r'], ['e'], ['m'], ['!']]);
let chunks: &mut [[char; 3]] =
    // SAFETY: The slice length (6) is a multiple of 3
    unsafe { slice.as_chunks_unchecked_mut() };
chunks[1] = ['a', 'x', '?'];
assert_eq!(slice, &['L', 'o', 'r', 'a', 'x', '?']);

// These would be unsound:
// let chunks: &[[_; 5]] = slice.as_chunks_unchecked_mut() // The slice length is not a multiple of 5
// let chunks: &[[_; 0]] = slice.as_chunks_unchecked_mut() // Zero-length chunks are never allowed
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_as_chunks #74985)

Splits the slice into a slice of N-element arrays, starting at the beginning of the slice, and a remainder slice with length strictly less than N.

Panics

Panics if N is 0. This check will most probably get changed to a compile time error before this method gets stabilized.

Examples
#![feature(slice_as_chunks)]
let v = &mut [0, 0, 0, 0, 0];
let mut count = 1;

let (chunks, remainder) = v.as_chunks_mut();
remainder[0] = 9;
for chunk in chunks {
    *chunk = [count; 2];
    count += 1;
}
assert_eq!(v, &[1, 1, 2, 2, 9]);
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_as_chunks #74985)

Splits the slice into a slice of N-element arrays, starting at the end of the slice, and a remainder slice with length strictly less than N.

Panics

Panics if N is 0. This check will most probably get changed to a compile time error before this method gets stabilized.

Examples
#![feature(slice_as_chunks)]
let v = &mut [0, 0, 0, 0, 0];
let mut count = 1;

let (remainder, chunks) = v.as_rchunks_mut();
remainder[0] = 9;
for chunk in chunks {
    *chunk = [count; 2];
    count += 1;
}
assert_eq!(v, &[9, 1, 1, 2, 2]);
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (array_chunks #74985)

Returns an iterator over N elements of the slice at a time, starting at the beginning of the slice.

The chunks are mutable array references and do not overlap. If N does not divide the length of the slice, then the last up to N-1 elements will be omitted and can be retrieved from the into_remainder function of the iterator.

This method is the const generic equivalent of chunks_exact_mut.

Panics

Panics if N is 0. This check will most probably get changed to a compile time error before this method gets stabilized.

Examples
#![feature(array_chunks)]
let v = &mut [0, 0, 0, 0, 0];
let mut count = 1;

for chunk in v.array_chunks_mut() {
    *chunk = [count; 2];
    count += 1;
}
assert_eq!(v, &[1, 1, 2, 2, 0]);
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (array_windows #75027)

Returns an iterator over overlapping windows of N elements of a slice, starting at the beginning of the slice.

This is the const generic equivalent of windows.

If N is greater than the size of the slice, it will return no windows.

Panics

Panics if N is 0. This check will most probably get changed to a compile time error before this method gets stabilized.

Examples
#![feature(array_windows)]
let slice = [0, 1, 2, 3];
let mut iter = slice.array_windows();
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[0, 1]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[1, 2]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[2, 3]);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());
Run

Returns an iterator over chunk_size elements of the slice at a time, starting at the end of the slice.

The chunks are slices and do not overlap. If chunk_size does not divide the length of the slice, then the last chunk will not have length chunk_size.

See rchunks_exact for a variant of this iterator that returns chunks of always exactly chunk_size elements, and chunks for the same iterator but starting at the beginning of the slice.

Panics

Panics if chunk_size is 0.

Examples
let slice = ['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm'];
let mut iter = slice.rchunks(2);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['e', 'm']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['o', 'r']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['l']);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());
Run

Returns an iterator over chunk_size elements of the slice at a time, starting at the end of the slice.

The chunks are mutable slices, and do not overlap. If chunk_size does not divide the length of the slice, then the last chunk will not have length chunk_size.

See rchunks_exact_mut for a variant of this iterator that returns chunks of always exactly chunk_size elements, and chunks_mut for the same iterator but starting at the beginning of the slice.

Panics

Panics if chunk_size is 0.

Examples
let v = &mut [0, 0, 0, 0, 0];
let mut count = 1;

for chunk in v.rchunks_mut(2) {
    for elem in chunk.iter_mut() {
        *elem += count;
    }
    count += 1;
}
assert_eq!(v, &[3, 2, 2, 1, 1]);
Run

Returns an iterator over chunk_size elements of the slice at a time, starting at the end of the slice.

The chunks are slices and do not overlap. If chunk_size does not divide the length of the slice, then the last up to chunk_size-1 elements will be omitted and can be retrieved from the remainder function of the iterator.

Due to each chunk having exactly chunk_size elements, the compiler can often optimize the resulting code better than in the case of chunks.

See rchunks for a variant of this iterator that also returns the remainder as a smaller chunk, and chunks_exact for the same iterator but starting at the beginning of the slice.

Panics

Panics if chunk_size is 0.

Examples
let slice = ['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm'];
let mut iter = slice.rchunks_exact(2);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['e', 'm']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['o', 'r']);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());
assert_eq!(iter.remainder(), &['l']);
Run

Returns an iterator over chunk_size elements of the slice at a time, starting at the end of the slice.

The chunks are mutable slices, and do not overlap. If chunk_size does not divide the length of the slice, then the last up to chunk_size-1 elements will be omitted and can be retrieved from the into_remainder function of the iterator.

Due to each chunk having exactly chunk_size elements, the compiler can often optimize the resulting code better than in the case of chunks_mut.

See rchunks_mut for a variant of this iterator that also returns the remainder as a smaller chunk, and chunks_exact_mut for the same iterator but starting at the beginning of the slice.

Panics

Panics if chunk_size is 0.

Examples
let v = &mut [0, 0, 0, 0, 0];
let mut count = 1;

for chunk in v.rchunks_exact_mut(2) {
    for elem in chunk.iter_mut() {
        *elem += count;
    }
    count += 1;
}
assert_eq!(v, &[0, 2, 2, 1, 1]);
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_group_by #80552)

Returns an iterator over the slice producing non-overlapping runs of elements using the predicate to separate them.

The predicate is called on two elements following themselves, it means the predicate is called on slice[0] and slice[1] then on slice[1] and slice[2] and so on.

Examples
#![feature(slice_group_by)]

let slice = &[1, 1, 1, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2];

let mut iter = slice.group_by(|a, b| a == b);

assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(&[1, 1, 1][..]));
assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(&[3, 3][..]));
assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(&[2, 2, 2][..]));
assert_eq!(iter.next(), None);
Run

This method can be used to extract the sorted subslices:

#![feature(slice_group_by)]

let slice = &[1, 1, 2, 3, 2, 3, 2, 3, 4];

let mut iter = slice.group_by(|a, b| a <= b);

assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(&[1, 1, 2, 3][..]));
assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(&[2, 3][..]));
assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(&[2, 3, 4][..]));
assert_eq!(iter.next(), None);
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_group_by #80552)

Returns an iterator over the slice producing non-overlapping mutable runs of elements using the predicate to separate them.

The predicate is called on two elements following themselves, it means the predicate is called on slice[0] and slice[1] then on slice[1] and slice[2] and so on.

Examples
#![feature(slice_group_by)]

let slice = &mut [1, 1, 1, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2];

let mut iter = slice.group_by_mut(|a, b| a == b);

assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(&mut [1, 1, 1][..]));
assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(&mut [3, 3][..]));
assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(&mut [2, 2, 2][..]));
assert_eq!(iter.next(), None);
Run

This method can be used to extract the sorted subslices:

#![feature(slice_group_by)]

let slice = &mut [1, 1, 2, 3, 2, 3, 2, 3, 4];

let mut iter = slice.group_by_mut(|a, b| a <= b);

assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(&mut [1, 1, 2, 3][..]));
assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(&mut [2, 3][..]));
assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(&mut [2, 3, 4][..]));
assert_eq!(iter.next(), None);
Run

Divides one slice into two at an index.

The first will contain all indices from [0, mid) (excluding the index mid itself) and the second will contain all indices from [mid, len) (excluding the index len itself).

Panics

Panics if mid > len.

Examples
let v = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6];

{
   let (left, right) = v.split_at(0);
   assert_eq!(left, []);
   assert_eq!(right, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]);
}

{
    let (left, right) = v.split_at(2);
    assert_eq!(left, [1, 2]);
    assert_eq!(right, [3, 4, 5, 6]);
}

{
    let (left, right) = v.split_at(6);
    assert_eq!(left, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]);
    assert_eq!(right, []);
}
Run

Divides one mutable slice into two at an index.

The first will contain all indices from [0, mid) (excluding the index mid itself) and the second will contain all indices from [mid, len) (excluding the index len itself).

Panics

Panics if mid > len.

Examples
let mut v = [1, 0, 3, 0, 5, 6];
let (left, right) = v.split_at_mut(2);
assert_eq!(left, [1, 0]);
assert_eq!(right, [3, 0, 5, 6]);
left[1] = 2;
right[1] = 4;
assert_eq!(v, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]);
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_split_at_unchecked #76014)

new API

Divides one slice into two at an index, without doing bounds checking.

The first will contain all indices from [0, mid) (excluding the index mid itself) and the second will contain all indices from [mid, len) (excluding the index len itself).

For a safe alternative see split_at.

Safety

Calling this method with an out-of-bounds index is undefined behavior even if the resulting reference is not used. The caller has to ensure that 0 <= mid <= self.len().

Examples
#![feature(slice_split_at_unchecked)]

let v = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6];

unsafe {
   let (left, right) = v.split_at_unchecked(0);
   assert_eq!(left, []);
   assert_eq!(right, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]);
}

unsafe {
    let (left, right) = v.split_at_unchecked(2);
    assert_eq!(left, [1, 2]);
    assert_eq!(right, [3, 4, 5, 6]);
}

unsafe {
    let (left, right) = v.split_at_unchecked(6);
    assert_eq!(left, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]);
    assert_eq!(right, []);
}
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_split_at_unchecked #76014)

new API

Divides one mutable slice into two at an index, without doing bounds checking.

The first will contain all indices from [0, mid) (excluding the index mid itself) and the second will contain all indices from [mid, len) (excluding the index len itself).

For a safe alternative see split_at_mut.

Safety

Calling this method with an out-of-bounds index is undefined behavior even if the resulting reference is not used. The caller has to ensure that 0 <= mid <= self.len().

Examples
#![feature(slice_split_at_unchecked)]

let mut v = [1, 0, 3, 0, 5, 6];
// scoped to restrict the lifetime of the borrows
unsafe {
    let (left, right) = v.split_at_mut_unchecked(2);
    assert_eq!(left, [1, 0]);
    assert_eq!(right, [3, 0, 5, 6]);
    left[1] = 2;
    right[1] = 4;
}
assert_eq!(v, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]);
Run

Returns an iterator over subslices separated by elements that match pred. The matched element is not contained in the subslices.

Examples
let slice = [10, 40, 33, 20];
let mut iter = slice.split(|num| num % 3 == 0);

assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[10, 40]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[20]);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());
Run

If the first element is matched, an empty slice will be the first item returned by the iterator. Similarly, if the last element in the slice is matched, an empty slice will be the last item returned by the iterator:

let slice = [10, 40, 33];
let mut iter = slice.split(|num| num % 3 == 0);

assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[10, 40]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[]);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());
Run

If two matched elements are directly adjacent, an empty slice will be present between them:

let slice = [10, 6, 33, 20];
let mut iter = slice.split(|num| num % 3 == 0);

assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[10]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[20]);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());
Run

Returns an iterator over mutable subslices separated by elements that match pred. The matched element is not contained in the subslices.

Examples
let mut v = [10, 40, 30, 20, 60, 50];

for group in v.split_mut(|num| *num % 3 == 0) {
    group[0] = 1;
}
assert_eq!(v, [1, 40, 30, 1, 60, 1]);
Run

Returns an iterator over subslices separated by elements that match pred. The matched element is contained in the end of the previous subslice as a terminator.

Examples
let slice = [10, 40, 33, 20];
let mut iter = slice.split_inclusive(|num| num % 3 == 0);

assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[10, 40, 33]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[20]);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());
Run

If the last element of the slice is matched, that element will be considered the terminator of the preceding slice. That slice will be the last item returned by the iterator.

let slice = [3, 10, 40, 33];
let mut iter = slice.split_inclusive(|num| num % 3 == 0);

assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[3]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[10, 40, 33]);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());
Run

Returns an iterator over mutable subslices separated by elements that match pred. The matched element is contained in the previous subslice as a terminator.

Examples
let mut v = [10, 40, 30, 20, 60, 50];

for group in v.split_inclusive_mut(|num| *num % 3 == 0) {
    let terminator_idx = group.len()-1;
    group[terminator_idx] = 1;
}
assert_eq!(v, [10, 40, 1, 20, 1, 1]);
Run

Returns an iterator over subslices separated by elements that match pred, starting at the end of the slice and working backwards. The matched element is not contained in the subslices.

Examples
let slice = [11, 22, 33, 0, 44, 55];
let mut iter = slice.rsplit(|num| *num == 0);

assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[44, 55]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[11, 22, 33]);
assert_eq!(iter.next(), None);
Run

As with split(), if the first or last element is matched, an empty slice will be the first (or last) item returned by the iterator.

let v = &[0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8];
let mut it = v.rsplit(|n| *n % 2 == 0);
assert_eq!(it.next().unwrap(), &[]);
assert_eq!(it.next().unwrap(), &[3, 5]);
assert_eq!(it.next().unwrap(), &[1, 1]);
assert_eq!(it.next().unwrap(), &[]);
assert_eq!(it.next(), None);
Run

Returns an iterator over mutable subslices separated by elements that match pred, starting at the end of the slice and working backwards. The matched element is not contained in the subslices.

Examples
let mut v = [100, 400, 300, 200, 600, 500];

let mut count = 0;
for group in v.rsplit_mut(|num| *num % 3 == 0) {
    count += 1;
    group[0] = count;
}
assert_eq!(v, [3, 400, 300, 2, 600, 1]);
Run

Returns an iterator over subslices separated by elements that match pred, limited to returning at most n items. The matched element is not contained in the subslices.

The last element returned, if any, will contain the remainder of the slice.

Examples

Print the slice split once by numbers divisible by 3 (i.e., [10, 40], [20, 60, 50]):

let v = [10, 40, 30, 20, 60, 50];

for group in v.splitn(2, |num| *num % 3 == 0) {
    println!("{:?}", group);
}
Run

Returns an iterator over subslices separated by elements that match pred, limited to returning at most n items. The matched element is not contained in the subslices.

The last element returned, if any, will contain the remainder of the slice.

Examples
let mut v = [10, 40, 30, 20, 60, 50];

for group in v.splitn_mut(2, |num| *num % 3 == 0) {
    group[0] = 1;
}
assert_eq!(v, [1, 40, 30, 1, 60, 50]);
Run

Returns an iterator over subslices separated by elements that match pred limited to returning at most n items. This starts at the end of the slice and works backwards. The matched element is not contained in the subslices.

The last element returned, if any, will contain the remainder of the slice.

Examples

Print the slice split once, starting from the end, by numbers divisible by 3 (i.e., [50], [10, 40, 30, 20]):

let v = [10, 40, 30, 20, 60, 50];

for group in v.rsplitn(2, |num| *num % 3 == 0) {
    println!("{:?}", group);
}
Run

Returns an iterator over subslices separated by elements that match pred limited to returning at most n items. This starts at the end of the slice and works backwards. The matched element is not contained in the subslices.

The last element returned, if any, will contain the remainder of the slice.

Examples
let mut s = [10, 40, 30, 20, 60, 50];

for group in s.rsplitn_mut(2, |num| *num % 3 == 0) {
    group[0] = 1;
}
assert_eq!(s, [1, 40, 30, 20, 60, 1]);
Run

Returns true if the slice contains an element with the given value.

Examples
let v = [10, 40, 30];
assert!(v.contains(&30));
assert!(!v.contains(&50));
Run

If you do not have a &T, but some other value that you can compare with one (for example, String implements PartialEq<str>), you can use iter().any:

let v = [String::from("hello"), String::from("world")]; // slice of `String`
assert!(v.iter().any(|e| e == "hello")); // search with `&str`
assert!(!v.iter().any(|e| e == "hi"));
Run

Returns true if needle is a prefix of the slice.

Examples
let v = [10, 40, 30];
assert!(v.starts_with(&[10]));
assert!(v.starts_with(&[10, 40]));
assert!(!v.starts_with(&[50]));
assert!(!v.starts_with(&[10, 50]));
Run

Always returns true if needle is an empty slice:

let v = &[10, 40, 30];
assert!(v.starts_with(&[]));
let v: &[u8] = &[];
assert!(v.starts_with(&[]));
Run

Returns true if needle is a suffix of the slice.

Examples
let v = [10, 40, 30];
assert!(v.ends_with(&[30]));
assert!(v.ends_with(&[40, 30]));
assert!(!v.ends_with(&[50]));
assert!(!v.ends_with(&[50, 30]));
Run

Always returns true if needle is an empty slice:

let v = &[10, 40, 30];
assert!(v.ends_with(&[]));
let v: &[u8] = &[];
assert!(v.ends_with(&[]));
Run

Returns a subslice with the prefix removed.

If the slice starts with prefix, returns the subslice after the prefix, wrapped in Some. If prefix is empty, simply returns the original slice.

If the slice does not start with prefix, returns None.

Examples
let v = &[10, 40, 30];
assert_eq!(v.strip_prefix(&[10]), Some(&[40, 30][..]));
assert_eq!(v.strip_prefix(&[10, 40]), Some(&[30][..]));
assert_eq!(v.strip_prefix(&[50]), None);
assert_eq!(v.strip_prefix(&[10, 50]), None);

let prefix : &str = "he";
assert_eq!(b"hello".strip_prefix(prefix.as_bytes()),
           Some(b"llo".as_ref()));
Run

Returns a subslice with the suffix removed.

If the slice ends with suffix, returns the subslice before the suffix, wrapped in Some. If suffix is empty, simply returns the original slice.

If the slice does not end with suffix, returns None.

Examples
let v = &[10, 40, 30];
assert_eq!(v.strip_suffix(&[30]), Some(&[10, 40][..]));
assert_eq!(v.strip_suffix(&[40, 30]), Some(&[10][..]));
assert_eq!(v.strip_suffix(&[50]), None);
assert_eq!(v.strip_suffix(&[50, 30]), None);
Run

Binary searches this sorted slice for a given element.

If the value is found then Result::Ok is returned, containing the index of the matching element. If there are multiple matches, then any one of the matches could be returned. The index is chosen deterministically, but is subject to change in future versions of Rust. If the value is not found then Result::Err is returned, containing the index where a matching element could be inserted while maintaining sorted order.

See also binary_search_by, binary_search_by_key, and partition_point.

Examples

Looks up a series of four elements. The first is found, with a uniquely determined position; the second and third are not found; the fourth could match any position in [1, 4].

let s = [0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55];

assert_eq!(s.binary_search(&13),  Ok(9));
assert_eq!(s.binary_search(&4),   Err(7));
assert_eq!(s.binary_search(&100), Err(13));
let r = s.binary_search(&1);
assert!(match r { Ok(1..=4) => true, _ => false, });
Run

If you want to insert an item to a sorted vector, while maintaining sort order:

let mut s = vec![0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55];
let num = 42;
let idx = s.binary_search(&num).unwrap_or_else(|x| x);
s.insert(idx, num);
assert_eq!(s, [0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 42, 55]);
Run

Binary searches this sorted slice with a comparator function.

The comparator function should implement an order consistent with the sort order of the underlying slice, returning an order code that indicates whether its argument is Less, Equal or Greater the desired target.

If the value is found then Result::Ok is returned, containing the index of the matching element. If there are multiple matches, then any one of the matches could be returned. The index is chosen deterministically, but is subject to change in future versions of Rust. If the value is not found then Result::Err is returned, containing the index where a matching element could be inserted while maintaining sorted order.

See also binary_search, binary_search_by_key, and partition_point.

Examples

Looks up a series of four elements. The first is found, with a uniquely determined position; the second and third are not found; the fourth could match any position in [1, 4].

let s = [0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55];

let seek = 13;
assert_eq!(s.binary_search_by(|probe| probe.cmp(&seek)), Ok(9));
let seek = 4;
assert_eq!(s.binary_search_by(|probe| probe.cmp(&seek)), Err(7));
let seek = 100;
assert_eq!(s.binary_search_by(|probe| probe.cmp(&seek)), Err(13));
let seek = 1;
let r = s.binary_search_by(|probe| probe.cmp(&seek));
assert!(match r { Ok(1..=4) => true, _ => false, });
Run

Binary searches this sorted slice with a key extraction function.

Assumes that the slice is sorted by the key, for instance with sort_by_key using the same key extraction function.

If the value is found then Result::Ok is returned, containing the index of the matching element. If there are multiple matches, then any one of the matches could be returned. The index is chosen deterministically, but is subject to change in future versions of Rust. If the value is not found then Result::Err is returned, containing the index where a matching element could be inserted while maintaining sorted order.

See also binary_search, binary_search_by, and partition_point.

Examples

Looks up a series of four elements in a slice of pairs sorted by their second elements. The first is found, with a uniquely determined position; the second and third are not found; the fourth could match any position in [1, 4].

let s = [(0, 0), (2, 1), (4, 1), (5, 1), (3, 1),
         (1, 2), (2, 3), (4, 5), (5, 8), (3, 13),
         (1, 21), (2, 34), (4, 55)];

assert_eq!(s.binary_search_by_key(&13, |&(a, b)| b),  Ok(9));
assert_eq!(s.binary_search_by_key(&4, |&(a, b)| b),   Err(7));
assert_eq!(s.binary_search_by_key(&100, |&(a, b)| b), Err(13));
let r = s.binary_search_by_key(&1, |&(a, b)| b);
assert!(match r { Ok(1..=4) => true, _ => false, });
Run

Sorts the slice, but might not preserve the order of equal elements.

This sort is unstable (i.e., may reorder equal elements), in-place (i.e., does not allocate), and O(n * log(n)) worst-case.

Current implementation

The current algorithm is based on pattern-defeating quicksort by Orson Peters, which combines the fast average case of randomized quicksort with the fast worst case of heapsort, while achieving linear time on slices with certain patterns. It uses some randomization to avoid degenerate cases, but with a fixed seed to always provide deterministic behavior.

It is typically faster than stable sorting, except in a few special cases, e.g., when the slice consists of several concatenated sorted sequences.

Examples
let mut v = [-5, 4, 1, -3, 2];

v.sort_unstable();
assert!(v == [-5, -3, 1, 2, 4]);
Run

Sorts the slice with a comparator function, but might not preserve the order of equal elements.

This sort is unstable (i.e., may reorder equal elements), in-place (i.e., does not allocate), and O(n * log(n)) worst-case.

The comparator function must define a total ordering for the elements in the slice. If the ordering is not total, the order of the elements is unspecified. An order is a total order if it is (for all a, b and c):

  • total and antisymmetric: exactly one of a < b, a == b or a > b is true, and
  • transitive, a < b and b < c implies a < c. The same must hold for both == and >.

For example, while f64 doesn’t implement Ord because NaN != NaN, we can use partial_cmp as our sort function when we know the slice doesn’t contain a NaN.

let mut floats = [5f64, 4.0, 1.0, 3.0, 2.0];
floats.sort_unstable_by(|a, b| a.partial_cmp(b).unwrap());
assert_eq!(floats, [1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0]);
Run
Current implementation

The current algorithm is based on pattern-defeating quicksort by Orson Peters, which combines the fast average case of randomized quicksort with the fast worst case of heapsort, while achieving linear time on slices with certain patterns. It uses some randomization to avoid degenerate cases, but with a fixed seed to always provide deterministic behavior.

It is typically faster than stable sorting, except in a few special cases, e.g., when the slice consists of several concatenated sorted sequences.

Examples
let mut v = [5, 4, 1, 3, 2];
v.sort_unstable_by(|a, b| a.cmp(b));
assert!(v == [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]);

// reverse sorting
v.sort_unstable_by(|a, b| b.cmp(a));
assert!(v == [5, 4, 3, 2, 1]);
Run

Sorts the slice with a key extraction function, but might not preserve the order of equal elements.

This sort is unstable (i.e., may reorder equal elements), in-place (i.e., does not allocate), and O(m * n * log(n)) worst-case, where the key function is O(m).

Current implementation

The current algorithm is based on pattern-defeating quicksort by Orson Peters, which combines the fast average case of randomized quicksort with the fast worst case of heapsort, while achieving linear time on slices with certain patterns. It uses some randomization to avoid degenerate cases, but with a fixed seed to always provide deterministic behavior.

Due to its key calling strategy, sort_unstable_by_key is likely to be slower than sort_by_cached_key in cases where the key function is expensive.

Examples
let mut v = [-5i32, 4, 1, -3, 2];

v.sort_unstable_by_key(|k| k.abs());
assert!(v == [1, 2, -3, 4, -5]);
Run
👎 Deprecated since 1.49.0:

use the select_nth_unstable() instead

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_partition_at_index #55300)

Reorder the slice such that the element at index is at its final sorted position.

👎 Deprecated since 1.49.0:

use select_nth_unstable_by() instead

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_partition_at_index #55300)

Reorder the slice with a comparator function such that the element at index is at its final sorted position.

👎 Deprecated since 1.49.0:

use the select_nth_unstable_by_key() instead

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_partition_at_index #55300)

Reorder the slice with a key extraction function such that the element at index is at its final sorted position.

Reorder the slice such that the element at index is at its final sorted position.

This reordering has the additional property that any value at position i < index will be less than or equal to any value at a position j > index. Additionally, this reordering is unstable (i.e. any number of equal elements may end up at position index), in-place (i.e. does not allocate), and O(n) worst-case. This function is also/ known as “kth element” in other libraries. It returns a triplet of the following values: all elements less than the one at the given index, the value at the given index, and all elements greater than the one at the given index.

Current implementation

The current algorithm is based on the quickselect portion of the same quicksort algorithm used for sort_unstable.

Panics

Panics when index >= len(), meaning it always panics on empty slices.

Examples
let mut v = [-5i32, 4, 1, -3, 2];

// Find the median
v.select_nth_unstable(2);

// We are only guaranteed the slice will be one of the following, based on the way we sort
// about the specified index.
assert!(v == [-3, -5, 1, 2, 4] ||
        v == [-5, -3, 1, 2, 4] ||
        v == [-3, -5, 1, 4, 2] ||
        v == [-5, -3, 1, 4, 2]);
Run

Reorder the slice with a comparator function such that the element at index is at its final sorted position.

This reordering has the additional property that any value at position i < index will be less than or equal to any value at a position j > index using the comparator function. Additionally, this reordering is unstable (i.e. any number of equal elements may end up at position index), in-place (i.e. does not allocate), and O(n) worst-case. This function is also known as “kth element” in other libraries. It returns a triplet of the following values: all elements less than the one at the given index, the value at the given index, and all elements greater than the one at the given index, using the provided comparator function.

Current implementation

The current algorithm is based on the quickselect portion of the same quicksort algorithm used for sort_unstable.

Panics

Panics when index >= len(), meaning it always panics on empty slices.

Examples
let mut v = [-5i32, 4, 1, -3, 2];

// Find the median as if the slice were sorted in descending order.
v.select_nth_unstable_by(2, |a, b| b.cmp(a));

// We are only guaranteed the slice will be one of the following, based on the way we sort
// about the specified index.
assert!(v == [2, 4, 1, -5, -3] ||
        v == [2, 4, 1, -3, -5] ||
        v == [4, 2, 1, -5, -3] ||
        v == [4, 2, 1, -3, -5]);
Run

Reorder the slice with a key extraction function such that the element at index is at its final sorted position.

This reordering has the additional property that any value at position i < index will be less than or equal to any value at a position j > index using the key extraction function. Additionally, this reordering is unstable (i.e. any number of equal elements may end up at position index), in-place (i.e. does not allocate), and O(n) worst-case. This function is also known as “kth element” in other libraries. It returns a triplet of the following values: all elements less than the one at the given index, the value at the given index, and all elements greater than the one at the given index, using the provided key extraction function.

Current implementation

The current algorithm is based on the quickselect portion of the same quicksort algorithm used for sort_unstable.

Panics

Panics when index >= len(), meaning it always panics on empty slices.

Examples
let mut v = [-5i32, 4, 1, -3, 2];

// Return the median as if the array were sorted according to absolute value.
v.select_nth_unstable_by_key(2, |a| a.abs());

// We are only guaranteed the slice will be one of the following, based on the way we sort
// about the specified index.
assert!(v == [1, 2, -3, 4, -5] ||
        v == [1, 2, -3, -5, 4] ||
        v == [2, 1, -3, 4, -5] ||
        v == [2, 1, -3, -5, 4]);
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_partition_dedup #54279)

Moves all consecutive repeated elements to the end of the slice according to the PartialEq trait implementation.

Returns two slices. The first contains no consecutive repeated elements. The second contains all the duplicates in no specified order.

If the slice is sorted, the first returned slice contains no duplicates.

Examples
#![feature(slice_partition_dedup)]

let mut slice = [1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 2, 1, 1];

let (dedup, duplicates) = slice.partition_dedup();

assert_eq!(dedup, [1, 2, 3, 2, 1]);
assert_eq!(duplicates, [2, 3, 1]);
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_partition_dedup #54279)

Moves all but the first of consecutive elements to the end of the slice satisfying a given equality relation.

Returns two slices. The first contains no consecutive repeated elements. The second contains all the duplicates in no specified order.

The same_bucket function is passed references to two elements from the slice and must determine if the elements compare equal. The elements are passed in opposite order from their order in the slice, so if same_bucket(a, b) returns true, a is moved at the end of the slice.

If the slice is sorted, the first returned slice contains no duplicates.

Examples
#![feature(slice_partition_dedup)]

let mut slice = ["foo", "Foo", "BAZ", "Bar", "bar", "baz", "BAZ"];

let (dedup, duplicates) = slice.partition_dedup_by(|a, b| a.eq_ignore_ascii_case(b));

assert_eq!(dedup, ["foo", "BAZ", "Bar", "baz"]);
assert_eq!(duplicates, ["bar", "Foo", "BAZ"]);
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_partition_dedup #54279)

Moves all but the first of consecutive elements to the end of the slice that resolve to the same key.

Returns two slices. The first contains no consecutive repeated elements. The second contains all the duplicates in no specified order.

If the slice is sorted, the first returned slice contains no duplicates.

Examples
#![feature(slice_partition_dedup)]

let mut slice = [10, 20, 21, 30, 30, 20, 11, 13];

let (dedup, duplicates) = slice.partition_dedup_by_key(|i| *i / 10);

assert_eq!(dedup, [10, 20, 30, 20, 11]);
assert_eq!(duplicates, [21, 30, 13]);
Run

Rotates the slice in-place such that the first mid elements of the slice move to the end while the last self.len() - mid elements move to the front. After calling rotate_left, the element previously at index mid will become the first element in the slice.

Panics

This function will panic if mid is greater than the length of the slice. Note that mid == self.len() does not panic and is a no-op rotation.

Complexity

Takes linear (in self.len()) time.

Examples
let mut a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f'];
a.rotate_left(2);
assert_eq!(a, ['c', 'd', 'e', 'f', 'a', 'b']);
Run

Rotating a subslice:

let mut a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f'];
a[1..5].rotate_left(1);
assert_eq!(a, ['a', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'b', 'f']);
Run

Rotates the slice in-place such that the first self.len() - k elements of the slice move to the end while the last k elements move to the front. After calling rotate_right, the element previously at index self.len() - k will become the first element in the slice.

Panics

This function will panic if k is greater than the length of the slice. Note that k == self.len() does not panic and is a no-op rotation.

Complexity

Takes linear (in self.len()) time.

Examples
let mut a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f'];
a.rotate_right(2);
assert_eq!(a, ['e', 'f', 'a', 'b', 'c', 'd']);
Run

Rotate a subslice:

let mut a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f'];
a[1..5].rotate_right(1);
assert_eq!(a, ['a', 'e', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'f']);
Run

Fills self with elements by cloning value.

Examples
let mut buf = vec![0; 10];
buf.fill(1);
assert_eq!(buf, vec![1; 10]);
Run

Fills self with elements returned by calling a closure repeatedly.

This method uses a closure to create new values. If you’d rather Clone a given value, use fill. If you want to use the Default trait to generate values, you can pass Default::default as the argument.

Examples
let mut buf = vec![1; 10];
buf.fill_with(Default::default);
assert_eq!(buf, vec![0; 10]);
Run

Copies the elements from src into self.

The length of src must be the same as self.

If T implements Copy, it can be more performant to use copy_from_slice.

Panics

This function will panic if the two slices have different lengths.

Examples

Cloning two elements from a slice into another:

let src = [1, 2, 3, 4];
let mut dst = [0, 0];

// Because the slices have to be the same length,
// we slice the source slice from four elements
// to two. It will panic if we don't do this.
dst.clone_from_slice(&src[2..]);

assert_eq!(src, [1, 2, 3, 4]);
assert_eq!(dst, [3, 4]);
Run

Rust enforces that there can only be one mutable reference with no immutable references to a particular piece of data in a particular scope. Because of this, attempting to use clone_from_slice on a single slice will result in a compile failure:

let mut slice = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

slice[..2].clone_from_slice(&slice[3..]); // compile fail!
Run

To work around this, we can use split_at_mut to create two distinct sub-slices from a slice:

let mut slice = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

{
    let (left, right) = slice.split_at_mut(2);
    left.clone_from_slice(&right[1..]);
}

assert_eq!(slice, [4, 5, 3, 4, 5]);
Run

Copies all elements from src into self, using a memcpy.

The length of src must be the same as self.

If T does not implement Copy, use clone_from_slice.

Panics

This function will panic if the two slices have different lengths.

Examples

Copying two elements from a slice into another:

let src = [1, 2, 3, 4];
let mut dst = [0, 0];

// Because the slices have to be the same length,
// we slice the source slice from four elements
// to two. It will panic if we don't do this.
dst.copy_from_slice(&src[2..]);

assert_eq!(src, [1, 2, 3, 4]);
assert_eq!(dst, [3, 4]);
Run

Rust enforces that there can only be one mutable reference with no immutable references to a particular piece of data in a particular scope. Because of this, attempting to use copy_from_slice on a single slice will result in a compile failure:

let mut slice = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

slice[..2].copy_from_slice(&slice[3..]); // compile fail!
Run

To work around this, we can use split_at_mut to create two distinct sub-slices from a slice:

let mut slice = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

{
    let (left, right) = slice.split_at_mut(2);
    left.copy_from_slice(&right[1..]);
}

assert_eq!(slice, [4, 5, 3, 4, 5]);
Run

Copies elements from one part of the slice to another part of itself, using a memmove.

src is the range within self to copy from. dest is the starting index of the range within self to copy to, which will have the same length as src. The two ranges may overlap. The ends of the two ranges must be less than or equal to self.len().

Panics

This function will panic if either range exceeds the end of the slice, or if the end of src is before the start.

Examples

Copying four bytes within a slice:

let mut bytes = *b"Hello, World!";

bytes.copy_within(1..5, 8);

assert_eq!(&bytes, b"Hello, Wello!");
Run

Swaps all elements in self with those in other.

The length of other must be the same as self.

Panics

This function will panic if the two slices have different lengths.

Example

Swapping two elements across slices:

let mut slice1 = [0, 0];
let mut slice2 = [1, 2, 3, 4];

slice1.swap_with_slice(&mut slice2[2..]);

assert_eq!(slice1, [3, 4]);
assert_eq!(slice2, [1, 2, 0, 0]);
Run

Rust enforces that there can only be one mutable reference to a particular piece of data in a particular scope. Because of this, attempting to use swap_with_slice on a single slice will result in a compile failure:

let mut slice = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
slice[..2].swap_with_slice(&mut slice[3..]); // compile fail!
Run

To work around this, we can use split_at_mut to create two distinct mutable sub-slices from a slice:

let mut slice = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

{
    let (left, right) = slice.split_at_mut(2);
    left.swap_with_slice(&mut right[1..]);
}

assert_eq!(slice, [4, 5, 3, 1, 2]);
Run

Transmute the slice to a slice of another type, ensuring alignment of the types is maintained.

This method splits the slice into three distinct slices: prefix, correctly aligned middle slice of a new type, and the suffix slice. The method may make the middle slice the greatest length possible for a given type and input slice, but only your algorithm’s performance should depend on that, not its correctness. It is permissible for all of the input data to be returned as the prefix or suffix slice.

This method has no purpose when either input element T or output element U are zero-sized and will return the original slice without splitting anything.

Safety

This method is essentially a transmute with respect to the elements in the returned middle slice, so all the usual caveats pertaining to transmute::<T, U> also apply here.

Examples

Basic usage:

unsafe {
    let bytes: [u8; 7] = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7];
    let (prefix, shorts, suffix) = bytes.align_to::<u16>();
    // less_efficient_algorithm_for_bytes(prefix);
    // more_efficient_algorithm_for_aligned_shorts(shorts);
    // less_efficient_algorithm_for_bytes(suffix);
}
Run

Transmute the slice to a slice of another type, ensuring alignment of the types is maintained.

This method splits the slice into three distinct slices: prefix, correctly aligned middle slice of a new type, and the suffix slice. The method may make the middle slice the greatest length possible for a given type and input slice, but only your algorithm’s performance should depend on that, not its correctness. It is permissible for all of the input data to be returned as the prefix or suffix slice.

This method has no purpose when either input element T or output element U are zero-sized and will return the original slice without splitting anything.

Safety

This method is essentially a transmute with respect to the elements in the returned middle slice, so all the usual caveats pertaining to transmute::<T, U> also apply here.

Examples

Basic usage:

unsafe {
    let mut bytes: [u8; 7] = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7];
    let (prefix, shorts, suffix) = bytes.align_to_mut::<u16>();
    // less_efficient_algorithm_for_bytes(prefix);
    // more_efficient_algorithm_for_aligned_shorts(shorts);
    // less_efficient_algorithm_for_bytes(suffix);
}
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (is_sorted #53485)

new API

Checks if the elements of this slice are sorted.

That is, for each element a and its following element b, a <= b must hold. If the slice yields exactly zero or one element, true is returned.

Note that if Self::Item is only PartialOrd, but not Ord, the above definition implies that this function returns false if any two consecutive items are not comparable.

Examples
#![feature(is_sorted)]
let empty: [i32; 0] = [];

assert!([1, 2, 2, 9].is_sorted());
assert!(![1, 3, 2, 4].is_sorted());
assert!([0].is_sorted());
assert!(empty.is_sorted());
assert!(![0.0, 1.0, f32::NAN].is_sorted());
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (is_sorted #53485)

new API

Checks if the elements of this slice are sorted using the given comparator function.

Instead of using PartialOrd::partial_cmp, this function uses the given compare function to determine the ordering of two elements. Apart from that, it’s equivalent to is_sorted; see its documentation for more information.

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (is_sorted #53485)

new API

Checks if the elements of this slice are sorted using the given key extraction function.

Instead of comparing the slice’s elements directly, this function compares the keys of the elements, as determined by f. Apart from that, it’s equivalent to is_sorted; see its documentation for more information.

Examples
#![feature(is_sorted)]

assert!(["c", "bb", "aaa"].is_sorted_by_key(|s| s.len()));
assert!(![-2i32, -1, 0, 3].is_sorted_by_key(|n| n.abs()));
Run

Returns the index of the partition point according to the given predicate (the index of the first element of the second partition).

The slice is assumed to be partitioned according to the given predicate. This means that all elements for which the predicate returns true are at the start of the slice and all elements for which the predicate returns false are at the end. For example, [7, 15, 3, 5, 4, 12, 6] is a partitioned under the predicate x % 2 != 0 (all odd numbers are at the start, all even at the end).

If this slice is not partitioned, the returned result is unspecified and meaningless, as this method performs a kind of binary search.

See also binary_search, binary_search_by, and binary_search_by_key.

Examples
let v = [1, 2, 3, 3, 5, 6, 7];
let i = v.partition_point(|&x| x < 5);

assert_eq!(i, 4);
assert!(v[..i].iter().all(|&x| x < 5));
assert!(v[i..].iter().all(|&x| !(x < 5)));
Run

Checks if all bytes in this slice are within the ASCII range.

Checks that two slices are an ASCII case-insensitive match.

Same as to_ascii_lowercase(a) == to_ascii_lowercase(b), but without allocating and copying temporaries.

Converts this slice to its ASCII upper case equivalent in-place.

ASCII letters ‘a’ to ‘z’ are mapped to ‘A’ to ‘Z’, but non-ASCII letters are unchanged.

To return a new uppercased value without modifying the existing one, use to_ascii_uppercase.

Converts this slice to its ASCII lower case equivalent in-place.

ASCII letters ‘A’ to ‘Z’ are mapped to ‘a’ to ‘z’, but non-ASCII letters are unchanged.

To return a new lowercased value without modifying the existing one, use to_ascii_lowercase.

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (inherent_ascii_escape #77174)

Returns an iterator that produces an escaped version of this slice, treating it as an ASCII string.

Examples
#![feature(inherent_ascii_escape)]

let s = b"0\t\r\n'\"\\\x9d";
let escaped = s.escape_ascii().to_string();
assert_eq!(escaped, "0\\t\\r\\n\\'\\\"\\\\\\x9d");
Run

Sorts the slice.

This sort is stable (i.e., does not reorder equal elements) and O(n * log(n)) worst-case.

When applicable, unstable sorting is preferred because it is generally faster than stable sorting and it doesn’t allocate auxiliary memory. See sort_unstable.

Current implementation

The current algorithm is an adaptive, iterative merge sort inspired by timsort. It is designed to be very fast in cases where the slice is nearly sorted, or consists of two or more sorted sequences concatenated one after another.

Also, it allocates temporary storage half the size of self, but for short slices a non-allocating insertion sort is used instead.

Examples
let mut v = [-5, 4, 1, -3, 2];

v.sort();
assert!(v == [-5, -3, 1, 2, 4]);
Run

Sorts the slice with a comparator function.

This sort is stable (i.e., does not reorder equal elements) and O(n * log(n)) worst-case.

The comparator function must define a total ordering for the elements in the slice. If the ordering is not total, the order of the elements is unspecified. An order is a total order if it is (for all a, b and c):

  • total and antisymmetric: exactly one of a < b, a == b or a > b is true, and
  • transitive, a < b and b < c implies a < c. The same must hold for both == and >.

For example, while f64 doesn’t implement Ord because NaN != NaN, we can use partial_cmp as our sort function when we know the slice doesn’t contain a NaN.

let mut floats = [5f64, 4.0, 1.0, 3.0, 2.0];
floats.sort_by(|a, b| a.partial_cmp(b).unwrap());
assert_eq!(floats, [1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0]);
Run

When applicable, unstable sorting is preferred because it is generally faster than stable sorting and it doesn’t allocate auxiliary memory. See sort_unstable_by.

Current implementation

The current algorithm is an adaptive, iterative merge sort inspired by timsort. It is designed to be very fast in cases where the slice is nearly sorted, or consists of two or more sorted sequences concatenated one after another.

Also, it allocates temporary storage half the size of self, but for short slices a non-allocating insertion sort is used instead.

Examples
let mut v = [5, 4, 1, 3, 2];
v.sort_by(|a, b| a.cmp(b));
assert!(v == [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]);

// reverse sorting
v.sort_by(|a, b| b.cmp(a));
assert!(v == [5, 4, 3, 2, 1]);
Run

Sorts the slice with a key extraction function.

This sort is stable (i.e., does not reorder equal elements) and O(m * n * log(n)) worst-case, where the key function is O(m).

For expensive key functions (e.g. functions that are not simple property accesses or basic operations), sort_by_cached_key is likely to be significantly faster, as it does not recompute element keys.

When applicable, unstable sorting is preferred because it is generally faster than stable sorting and it doesn’t allocate auxiliary memory. See sort_unstable_by_key.

Current implementation

The current algorithm is an adaptive, iterative merge sort inspired by timsort. It is designed to be very fast in cases where the slice is nearly sorted, or consists of two or more sorted sequences concatenated one after another.

Also, it allocates temporary storage half the size of self, but for short slices a non-allocating insertion sort is used instead.

Examples
let mut v = [-5i32, 4, 1, -3, 2];

v.sort_by_key(|k| k.abs());
assert!(v == [1, 2, -3, 4, -5]);
Run

Sorts the slice with a key extraction function.

During sorting, the key function is called only once per element.

This sort is stable (i.e., does not reorder equal elements) and O(m * n + n * log(n)) worst-case, where the key function is O(m).

For simple key functions (e.g., functions that are property accesses or basic operations), sort_by_key is likely to be faster.

Current implementation

The current algorithm is based on pattern-defeating quicksort by Orson Peters, which combines the fast average case of randomized quicksort with the fast worst case of heapsort, while achieving linear time on slices with certain patterns. It uses some randomization to avoid degenerate cases, but with a fixed seed to always provide deterministic behavior.

In the worst case, the algorithm allocates temporary storage in a Vec<(K, usize)> the length of the slice.

Examples
let mut v = [-5i32, 4, 32, -3, 2];

v.sort_by_cached_key(|k| k.to_string());
assert!(v == [-3, -5, 2, 32, 4]);
Run

Copies self into a new Vec.

Examples
let s = [10, 40, 30];
let x = s.to_vec();
// Here, `s` and `x` can be modified independently.
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (allocator_api #32838)

Copies self into a new Vec with an allocator.

Examples
#![feature(allocator_api)]

use std::alloc::System;

let s = [10, 40, 30];
let x = s.to_vec_in(System);
// Here, `s` and `x` can be modified independently.
Run

Creates a vector by repeating a slice n times.

Panics

This function will panic if the capacity would overflow.

Examples

Basic usage:

assert_eq!([1, 2].repeat(3), vec![1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 2]);
Run

A panic upon overflow:

// this will panic at runtime
b"0123456789abcdef".repeat(usize::MAX);
Run

Flattens a slice of T into a single value Self::Output.

Examples
assert_eq!(["hello", "world"].concat(), "helloworld");
assert_eq!([[1, 2], [3, 4]].concat(), [1, 2, 3, 4]);
Run

Flattens a slice of T into a single value Self::Output, placing a given separator between each.

Examples
assert_eq!(["hello", "world"].join(" "), "hello world");
assert_eq!([[1, 2], [3, 4]].join(&0), [1, 2, 0, 3, 4]);
assert_eq!([[1, 2], [3, 4]].join(&[0, 0][..]), [1, 2, 0, 0, 3, 4]);
Run
👎 Deprecated since 1.3.0:

renamed to join

Flattens a slice of T into a single value Self::Output, placing a given separator between each.

Examples
assert_eq!(["hello", "world"].connect(" "), "hello world");
assert_eq!([[1, 2], [3, 4]].connect(&0), [1, 2, 0, 3, 4]);
Run

Returns a vector containing a copy of this slice where each byte is mapped to its ASCII upper case equivalent.

ASCII letters ‘a’ to ‘z’ are mapped to ‘A’ to ‘Z’, but non-ASCII letters are unchanged.

To uppercase the value in-place, use make_ascii_uppercase.

Returns a vector containing a copy of this slice where each byte is mapped to its ASCII lower case equivalent.

ASCII letters ‘A’ to ‘Z’ are mapped to ‘a’ to ‘z’, but non-ASCII letters are unchanged.

To lowercase the value in-place, use make_ascii_lowercase.

Trait Implementations

Performs the conversion.

Performs the conversion.

Performs the conversion.

Performs the conversion.

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Returns a copy of the value. Read more

Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more

Creates an empty Vec<T>.

The resulting type after dereferencing.

Dereferences the value.

Mutably dereferences the value.

Executes the destructor for this type. Read more

Extend implementation that copies elements out of references before pushing them onto the Vec.

This implementation is specialized for slice iterators, where it uses copy_from_slice to append the entire slice at once.

Extends a collection with the contents of an iterator. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (extend_one #72631)

Extends a collection with exactly one element.

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (extend_one #72631)

Reserves capacity in a collection for the given number of additional elements. Read more

Extends a collection with the contents of an iterator. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (extend_one #72631)

Extends a collection with exactly one element.

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (extend_one #72631)

Reserves capacity in a collection for the given number of additional elements. Read more

Allocate a Vec<T> and fill it by cloning s’s items.

Examples
assert_eq!(Vec::from(&[1, 2, 3][..]), vec![1, 2, 3]);
Run

Allocate a Vec<T> and fill it by cloning s’s items.

Examples
assert_eq!(Vec::from(&mut [1, 2, 3][..]), vec![1, 2, 3]);
Run

Allocate a Vec<u8> and fill it with a UTF-8 string.

Examples
assert_eq!(Vec::from("123"), vec![b'1', b'2', b'3']);
Run

Creates a Borrowed variant of Cow from a reference to Vec.

This conversion does not allocate or clone the data.

Performs the conversion.

Converts a BinaryHeap<T> into a Vec<T>.

This conversion requires no data movement or allocation, and has constant time complexity.

Convert a boxed slice into a vector by transferring ownership of the existing heap allocation.

Examples
let b: Box<[i32]> = vec![1, 2, 3].into_boxed_slice();
assert_eq!(Vec::from(b), vec![1, 2, 3]);
Run

Converts a CString into a Vec<u8>.

The conversion consumes the CString, and removes the terminating NUL byte.

Convert a clone-on-write slice into a vector.

If s already owns a Vec<T>, it will be returned directly. If s is borrowing a slice, a new Vec<T> will be allocated and filled by cloning s’s items into it.

Examples
let o: Cow<[i32]> = Cow::Owned(vec![1, 2, 3]);
let b: Cow<[i32]> = Cow::Borrowed(&[1, 2, 3]);
assert_eq!(Vec::from(o), Vec::from(b));
Run

Converts the given String to a vector Vec that holds values of type u8.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s1 = String::from("hello world");
let v1 = Vec::from(s1);

for b in v1 {
    println!("{}", b);
}
Run

Converts a Vec<NonZeroU8> into a CString without copying nor checking for inner null bytes.

Turn a Vec<T> into a VecDeque<T>.

This avoids reallocating where possible, but the conditions for that are strict, and subject to change, and so shouldn’t be relied upon unless the Vec<T> came from From<VecDeque<T>> and hasn’t been reallocated.

Convert a vector into a boxed slice.

If v has excess capacity, its items will be moved into a newly-allocated buffer with exactly the right capacity.

Examples
assert_eq!(Box::from(vec![1, 2, 3]), vec![1, 2, 3].into_boxed_slice());
Run

Allocate a reference-counted slice and move v’s items into it.

Example
let unique: Vec<i32> = vec![1, 2, 3];
let shared: Arc<[i32]> = Arc::from(unique);
assert_eq!(&[1, 2, 3], &shared[..]);
Run

Allocate a reference-counted slice and move v’s items into it.

Example
let original: Box<Vec<i32>> = Box::new(vec![1, 2, 3]);
let shared: Rc<Vec<i32>> = Rc::from(original);
assert_eq!(vec![1, 2, 3], *shared);
Run

Creates an Owned variant of Cow from an owned instance of Vec.

This conversion does not allocate or clone the data.

Converts a Vec<T> into a BinaryHeap<T>.

This conversion happens in-place, and has O(n) time complexity.

Turn a VecDeque<T> into a Vec<T>.

This never needs to re-allocate, but does need to do O(n) data movement if the circular buffer doesn’t happen to be at the beginning of the allocation.

Examples
use std::collections::VecDeque;

// This one is *O*(1).
let deque: VecDeque<_> = (1..5).collect();
let ptr = deque.as_slices().0.as_ptr();
let vec = Vec::from(deque);
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2, 3, 4]);
assert_eq!(vec.as_ptr(), ptr);

// This one needs data rearranging.
let mut deque: VecDeque<_> = (1..5).collect();
deque.push_front(9);
deque.push_front(8);
let ptr = deque.as_slices().1.as_ptr();
let vec = Vec::from(deque);
assert_eq!(vec, [8, 9, 1, 2, 3, 4]);
assert_eq!(vec.as_ptr(), ptr);
Run

Creates a value from an iterator. Read more

The hash of a vector is the same as that of the corresponding slice, as required by the core::borrow::Borrow implementation.

#![feature(build_hasher_simple_hash_one)]
use std::hash::BuildHasher;

let b = std::collections::hash_map::RandomState::new();
let v: Vec<u8> = vec![0xa8, 0x3c, 0x09];
let s: &[u8] = &[0xa8, 0x3c, 0x09];
assert_eq!(b.hash_one(v), b.hash_one(s));
Run

Feeds this value into the given Hasher. Read more

Feeds a slice of this type into the given Hasher. Read more

The returned type after indexing.

Performs the indexing (container[index]) operation. Read more

Performs the mutable indexing (container[index]) operation. Read more

Creates a consuming iterator, that is, one that moves each value out of the vector (from start to end). The vector cannot be used after calling this.

Examples
let v = vec!["a".to_string(), "b".to_string()];
for s in v.into_iter() {
    // s has type String, not &String
    println!("{}", s);
}
Run

The type of the elements being iterated over.

Which kind of iterator are we turning this into?

The type of the elements being iterated over.

Which kind of iterator are we turning this into?

Creates an iterator from a value. Read more

The type of the elements being iterated over.

Which kind of iterator are we turning this into?

Creates an iterator from a value. Read more

Implements ordering of vectors, lexicographically.

This method returns an Ordering between self and other. Read more

Compares and returns the maximum of two values. Read more

Compares and returns the minimum of two values. Read more

Restrict a value to a certain interval. Read more

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

Implements comparison of vectors, lexicographically.

This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more

This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more

This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more

This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more

This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more

Gets the entire contents of the Vec<T> as an array, if its size exactly matches that of the requested array.

Examples
use std::convert::TryInto;
assert_eq!(vec![1, 2, 3].try_into(), Ok([1, 2, 3]));
assert_eq!(<Vec<i32>>::new().try_into(), Ok([]));
Run

If the length doesn’t match, the input comes back in Err:

use std::convert::TryInto;
let r: Result<[i32; 4], _> = (0..10).collect::<Vec<_>>().try_into();
assert_eq!(r, Err(vec![0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]));
Run

If you’re fine with just getting a prefix of the Vec<T>, you can call .truncate(N) first.

use std::convert::TryInto;
let mut v = String::from("hello world").into_bytes();
v.sort();
v.truncate(2);
let [a, b]: [_; 2] = v.try_into().unwrap();
assert_eq!(a, b' ');
assert_eq!(b, b'd');
Run

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Write is implemented for Vec<u8> by appending to the vector. The vector will grow as needed.

Write a buffer into this writer, returning how many bytes were written. Read more

Like write, except that it writes from a slice of buffers. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (can_vector #69941)

Determines if this Writer has an efficient write_vectored implementation. Read more

Attempts to write an entire buffer into this writer. Read more

Flush this output stream, ensuring that all intermediately buffered contents reach their destination. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (write_all_vectored #70436)

Attempts to write multiple buffers into this writer. Read more

Writes a formatted string into this writer, returning any error encountered. Read more

Creates a “by reference” adapter for this instance of Write. Read more

Auto Trait Implementations

Blanket Implementations

Gets the TypeId of self. Read more

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Performs the conversion.

Performs the conversion.

The resulting type after obtaining ownership.

Creates owned data from borrowed data, usually by cloning. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (toowned_clone_into #41263)

recently added

Uses borrowed data to replace owned data, usually by cloning. Read more

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Performs the conversion.

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Performs the conversion.