1.0.0[][src]Module std::sync

Useful synchronization primitives.

The need for synchronization

Conceptually, a Rust program is a series of operations which will be executed on a computer. The timeline of events happening in the program is consistent with the order of the operations in the code.

Consider the following code, operating on some global static variables:

static mut A: u32 = 0;
static mut B: u32 = 0;
static mut C: u32 = 0;

fn main() {
    unsafe {
        A = 3;
        B = 4;
        A = A + B;
        C = B;
        println!("{} {} {}", A, B, C);
        C = A;
    }
}Run

It appears as if some variables stored in memory are changed, an addition is performed, result is stored in A and the variable C is modified twice.

When only a single thread is involved, the results are as expected: the line 7 4 4 gets printed.

As for what happens behind the scenes, when optimizations are enabled the final generated machine code might look very different from the code:

The compiler is allowed to perform any combination of these optimizations, as long as the final optimized code, when executed, produces the same results as the one without optimizations.

Due to the concurrency involved in modern computers, assumptions about the program's execution order are often wrong. Access to global variables can lead to nondeterministic results, even if compiler optimizations are disabled, and it is still possible to introduce synchronization bugs.

Note that thanks to Rust's safety guarantees, accessing global (static) variables requires unsafe code, assuming we don't use any of the synchronization primitives in this module.

Out-of-order execution

Instructions can execute in a different order from the one we define, due to various reasons:

Higher-level synchronization objects

Most of the low-level synchronization primitives are quite error-prone and inconvenient to use, which is why the standard library also exposes some higher-level synchronization objects.

These abstractions can be built out of lower-level primitives. For efficiency, the sync objects in the standard library are usually implemented with help from the operating system's kernel, which is able to reschedule the threads while they are blocked on acquiring a lock.

The following is an overview of the available synchronization objects:

Modules

atomic

Atomic types

mpsc

Multi-producer, single-consumer FIFO queue communication primitives.

Structs

Arc

A thread-safe reference-counting pointer. 'Arc' stands for 'Atomically Reference Counted'.

Barrier

A barrier enables multiple threads to synchronize the beginning of some computation.

BarrierWaitResult

A BarrierWaitResult is returned by wait when all threads in the Barrier have rendezvoused.

Condvar

A Condition Variable

Mutex

A mutual exclusion primitive useful for protecting shared data

MutexGuard

An RAII implementation of a "scoped lock" of a mutex. When this structure is dropped (falls out of scope), the lock will be unlocked.

Once

A synchronization primitive which can be used to run a one-time global initialization. Useful for one-time initialization for FFI or related functionality. This type can only be constructed with the ONCE_INIT value or the equivalent Once::new constructor.

PoisonError

A type of error which can be returned whenever a lock is acquired.

RwLock

A reader-writer lock

RwLockReadGuard

RAII structure used to release the shared read access of a lock when dropped.

RwLockWriteGuard

RAII structure used to release the exclusive write access of a lock when dropped.

WaitTimeoutResult

A type indicating whether a timed wait on a condition variable returned due to a time out or not.

Weak

Weak is a version of Arc that holds a non-owning reference to the managed value. The value is accessed by calling upgrade on the Weak pointer, which returns an Option<Arc<T>>.

OnceState [
Experimental
]

State yielded to call_once_force’s closure parameter. The state can be used to query the poison status of the Once.

Enums

TryLockError

An enumeration of possible errors associated with a TryLockResult which can occur while trying to acquire a lock, from the try_lock method on a Mutex or the try_read and try_write methods on an RwLock.

Constants

ONCE_INIT

Initialization value for static Once values.

Type Definitions

LockResult

A type alias for the result of a lock method which can be poisoned.

TryLockResult

A type alias for the result of a nonblocking locking method.