Struct core::ptr::NonNull1.25.0[][src]

#[repr(transparent)]
pub struct NonNull<T: ?Sized> { /* fields omitted */ }
Expand description

*mut T but non-zero and covariant.

This is often the correct thing to use when building data structures using raw pointers, but is ultimately more dangerous to use because of its additional properties. If you’re not sure if you should use NonNull<T>, just use *mut T!

Unlike *mut T, the pointer must always be non-null, even if the pointer is never dereferenced. This is so that enums may use this forbidden value as a discriminant – Option<NonNull<T>> has the same size as *mut T. However the pointer may still dangle if it isn’t dereferenced.

Unlike *mut T, NonNull<T> was chosen to be covariant over T. This makes it possible to use NonNull<T> when building covariant types, but introduces the risk of unsoundness if used in a type that shouldn’t actually be covariant. (The opposite choice was made for *mut T even though technically the unsoundness could only be caused by calling unsafe functions.)

Covariance is correct for most safe abstractions, such as Box, Rc, Arc, Vec, and LinkedList. This is the case because they provide a public API that follows the normal shared XOR mutable rules of Rust.

If your type cannot safely be covariant, you must ensure it contains some additional field to provide invariance. Often this field will be a PhantomData type like PhantomData<Cell<T>> or PhantomData<&'a mut T>.

Notice that NonNull<T> has a From instance for &T. However, this does not change the fact that mutating through a (pointer derived from a) shared reference is undefined behavior unless the mutation happens inside an UnsafeCell<T>. The same goes for creating a mutable reference from a shared reference. When using this From instance without an UnsafeCell<T>, it is your responsibility to ensure that as_mut is never called, and as_ptr is never used for mutation.

Implementations

Creates a new NonNull that is dangling, but well-aligned.

This is useful for initializing types which lazily allocate, like Vec::new does.

Note that the pointer value may potentially represent a valid pointer to a T, which means this must not be used as a “not yet initialized” sentinel value. Types that lazily allocate must track initialization by some other means.

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (ptr_as_uninit #75402)

Returns a shared references to the value. In contrast to as_ref, this does not require that the value has to be initialized.

For the mutable counterpart see as_uninit_mut.

Safety

When calling this method, you have to ensure that all of the following is true:

  • The pointer must be properly aligned.

  • It must be “dereferencable” in the sense defined in the module documentation.

  • You must enforce Rust’s aliasing rules, since the returned lifetime 'a is arbitrarily chosen and does not necessarily reflect the actual lifetime of the data. In particular, for the duration of this lifetime, the memory the pointer points to must not get mutated (except inside UnsafeCell).

This applies even if the result of this method is unused!

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (ptr_as_uninit #75402)

Returns a unique references to the value. In contrast to as_mut, this does not require that the value has to be initialized.

For the shared counterpart see as_uninit_ref.

Safety

When calling this method, you have to ensure that all of the following is true:

  • The pointer must be properly aligned.

  • It must be “dereferencable” in the sense defined in the module documentation.

  • You must enforce Rust’s aliasing rules, since the returned lifetime 'a is arbitrarily chosen and does not necessarily reflect the actual lifetime of the data. In particular, for the duration of this lifetime, the memory the pointer points to must not get accessed (read or written) through any other pointer.

This applies even if the result of this method is unused!

Creates a new NonNull.

Safety

ptr must be non-null.

Creates a new NonNull if ptr is non-null.

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (ptr_metadata #81513)

Performs the same functionality as std::ptr::from_raw_parts, except that a NonNull pointer is returned, as opposed to a raw *const pointer.

See the documentation of std::ptr::from_raw_parts for more details.

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (ptr_metadata #81513)

Decompose a (possibly wide) pointer into is address and metadata components.

The pointer can be later reconstructed with NonNull::from_raw_parts.

Acquires the underlying *mut pointer.

Returns a shared reference to the value. If the value may be uninitialized, as_uninit_ref must be used instead.

For the mutable counterpart see as_mut.

Safety

When calling this method, you have to ensure that all of the following is true:

  • The pointer must be properly aligned.

  • It must be “dereferencable” in the sense defined in the module documentation.

  • The pointer must point to an initialized instance of T.

  • You must enforce Rust’s aliasing rules, since the returned lifetime 'a is arbitrarily chosen and does not necessarily reflect the actual lifetime of the data. In particular, for the duration of this lifetime, the memory the pointer points to must not get mutated (except inside UnsafeCell).

This applies even if the result of this method is unused! (The part about being initialized is not yet fully decided, but until it is, the only safe approach is to ensure that they are indeed initialized.)

Returns a unique reference to the value. If the value may be uninitialized, as_uninit_mut must be used instead.

For the shared counterpart see as_ref.

Safety

When calling this method, you have to ensure that all of the following is true:

  • The pointer must be properly aligned.

  • It must be “dereferencable” in the sense defined in the module documentation.

  • The pointer must point to an initialized instance of T.

  • You must enforce Rust’s aliasing rules, since the returned lifetime 'a is arbitrarily chosen and does not necessarily reflect the actual lifetime of the data. In particular, for the duration of this lifetime, the memory the pointer points to must not get accessed (read or written) through any other pointer.

This applies even if the result of this method is unused! (The part about being initialized is not yet fully decided, but until it is, the only safe approach is to ensure that they are indeed initialized.)

Casts to a pointer of another type.

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (nonnull_slice_from_raw_parts #71941)

Creates a non-null raw slice from a thin pointer and a length.

The len argument is the number of elements, not the number of bytes.

This function is safe, but dereferencing the return value is unsafe. See the documentation of slice::from_raw_parts for slice safety requirements.

Examples

#![feature(nonnull_slice_from_raw_parts)]

use std::ptr::NonNull;

// create a slice pointer when starting out with a pointer to the first element
let mut x = [5, 6, 7];
let nonnull_pointer = NonNull::new(x.as_mut_ptr()).unwrap();
let slice = NonNull::slice_from_raw_parts(nonnull_pointer, 3);
assert_eq!(unsafe { slice.as_ref()[2] }, 7);
Run

(Note that this example artificially demonstrates a use of this method, but let slice = NonNull::from(&x[..]); would be a better way to write code like this.)

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_ptr_len #71146)

Returns the length of a non-null raw slice.

The returned value is the number of elements, not the number of bytes.

This function is safe, even when the non-null raw slice cannot be dereferenced to a slice because the pointer does not have a valid address.

Examples

#![feature(slice_ptr_len, nonnull_slice_from_raw_parts)]
use std::ptr::NonNull;

let slice: NonNull<[i8]> = NonNull::slice_from_raw_parts(NonNull::dangling(), 3);
assert_eq!(slice.len(), 3);
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_ptr_get #74265)

Returns a non-null pointer to the slice’s buffer.

Examples

#![feature(slice_ptr_get, nonnull_slice_from_raw_parts)]
use std::ptr::NonNull;

let slice: NonNull<[i8]> = NonNull::slice_from_raw_parts(NonNull::dangling(), 3);
assert_eq!(slice.as_non_null_ptr(), NonNull::new(1 as *mut i8).unwrap());
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_ptr_get #74265)

Returns a raw pointer to the slice’s buffer.

Examples

#![feature(slice_ptr_get, nonnull_slice_from_raw_parts)]
use std::ptr::NonNull;

let slice: NonNull<[i8]> = NonNull::slice_from_raw_parts(NonNull::dangling(), 3);
assert_eq!(slice.as_mut_ptr(), 1 as *mut i8);
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (ptr_as_uninit #75402)

Returns a shared reference to a slice of possibly uninitialized values. In contrast to as_ref, this does not require that the value has to be initialized.

For the mutable counterpart see as_uninit_slice_mut.

Safety

When calling this method, you have to ensure that all of the following is true:

  • The pointer must be valid for reads for ptr.len() * mem::size_of::<T>() many bytes, and it must be properly aligned. This means in particular:

    • The entire memory range of this slice must be contained within a single allocated object! Slices can never span across multiple allocated objects.

    • The pointer must be aligned even for zero-length slices. One reason for this is that enum layout optimizations may rely on references (including slices of any length) being aligned and non-null to distinguish them from other data. You can obtain a pointer that is usable as data for zero-length slices using NonNull::dangling().

  • The total size ptr.len() * mem::size_of::<T>() of the slice must be no larger than isize::MAX. See the safety documentation of pointer::offset.

  • You must enforce Rust’s aliasing rules, since the returned lifetime 'a is arbitrarily chosen and does not necessarily reflect the actual lifetime of the data. In particular, for the duration of this lifetime, the memory the pointer points to must not get mutated (except inside UnsafeCell).

This applies even if the result of this method is unused!

See also slice::from_raw_parts.

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (ptr_as_uninit #75402)

Returns a unique reference to a slice of possibly uninitialized values. In contrast to as_mut, this does not require that the value has to be initialized.

For the shared counterpart see as_uninit_slice.

Safety

When calling this method, you have to ensure that all of the following is true:

  • The pointer must be valid for reads and writes for ptr.len() * mem::size_of::<T>() many bytes, and it must be properly aligned. This means in particular:

    • The entire memory range of this slice must be contained within a single allocated object! Slices can never span across multiple allocated objects.

    • The pointer must be aligned even for zero-length slices. One reason for this is that enum layout optimizations may rely on references (including slices of any length) being aligned and non-null to distinguish them from other data. You can obtain a pointer that is usable as data for zero-length slices using NonNull::dangling().

  • The total size ptr.len() * mem::size_of::<T>() of the slice must be no larger than isize::MAX. See the safety documentation of pointer::offset.

  • You must enforce Rust’s aliasing rules, since the returned lifetime 'a is arbitrarily chosen and does not necessarily reflect the actual lifetime of the data. In particular, for the duration of this lifetime, the memory the pointer points to must not get accessed (read or written) through any other pointer.

This applies even if the result of this method is unused!

See also slice::from_raw_parts_mut.

Examples

#![feature(allocator_api, ptr_as_uninit)]

use std::alloc::{Allocator, Layout, Global};
use std::mem::MaybeUninit;
use std::ptr::NonNull;

let memory: NonNull<[u8]> = Global.allocate(Layout::new::<[u8; 32]>())?;
// This is safe as `memory` is valid for reads and writes for `memory.len()` many bytes.
// Note that calling `memory.as_mut()` is not allowed here as the content may be uninitialized.
let slice: &mut [MaybeUninit<u8>] = unsafe { memory.as_uninit_slice_mut() };
Run
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_ptr_get #74265)

Returns a raw pointer to an element or subslice, without doing bounds checking.

Calling this method with an out-of-bounds index or when self is not dereferencable is undefined behavior even if the resulting pointer is not used.

Examples

#![feature(slice_ptr_get, nonnull_slice_from_raw_parts)]
use std::ptr::NonNull;

let x = &mut [1, 2, 4];
let x = NonNull::slice_from_raw_parts(NonNull::new(x.as_mut_ptr()).unwrap(), x.len());

unsafe {
    assert_eq!(x.get_unchecked_mut(1).as_ptr(), x.as_non_null_ptr().as_ptr().add(1));
}
Run

Trait Implementations

Returns a copy of the value. Read more

Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more

Performs the conversion.

Performs the conversion.

Feeds this value into the given Hasher. Read more

Feeds a slice of this type into the given Hasher. Read more

This method returns an Ordering between self and other. Read more

Compares and returns the maximum of two values. Read more

Compares and returns the minimum of two values. Read more

Restrict a value to a certain interval. Read more

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more

This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more

This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more

This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more

This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more

Formats the value using the given formatter.

NonNull pointers are not Send because the data they reference may be aliased.

NonNull pointers are not Sync because the data they reference may be aliased.

Auto Trait Implementations

Blanket Implementations

Gets the TypeId of self. Read more

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Performs the conversion.

Performs the conversion.

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Performs the conversion.

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Performs the conversion.