pub enum Variance {
    Covariant,
    Invariant,
    Contravariant,
    Bivariant,
}

Variants§

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Covariant

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Invariant

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Contravariant

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Bivariant

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impl Variance

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pub fn xform(self, v: Variance) -> Variance

a.xform(b) combines the variance of a context with the variance of a type with the following meaning. If we are in a context with variance a, and we encounter a type argument in a position with variance b, then a.xform(b) is the new variance with which the argument appears.

Example 1:

*mut Vec<i32>

Here, the “ambient” variance starts as covariant. *mut T is invariant with respect to T, so the variance in which the Vec<i32> appears is Covariant.xform(Invariant), which yields Invariant. Now, the type Vec<T> is covariant with respect to its type argument T, and hence the variance of the i32 here is Invariant.xform(Covariant), which results (again) in Invariant.

Example 2:

fn(*const Vec<i32>, *mut Vec<i32)

The ambient variance is covariant. A fn type is contravariant with respect to its parameters, so the variance within which both pointer types appear is Covariant.xform(Contravariant), or Contravariant. *const T is covariant with respect to T, so the variance within which the first Vec<i32> appears is Contravariant.xform(Covariant) or Contravariant. The same is true for its i32 argument. In the *mut T case, the variance of Vec<i32> is Contravariant.xform(Invariant), and hence the outermost type is Invariant with respect to Vec<i32> (and its i32 argument).

Source: Figure 1 of “Taming the Wildcards: Combining Definition- and Use-Site Variance” published in PLDI’11.

Trait Implementations§

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impl Clone for Variance

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fn clone(&self) -> Variance

Returns a copy of the value. Read more
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fn clone_from(&mut self, source: &Self)

Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more
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impl Debug for Variance

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fn fmt(&self, f: &mut Formatter<'_>) -> Result

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more
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impl<__D: Decoder> Decodable<__D> for Variance

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fn decode(__decoder: &mut __D) -> Self

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impl<__E: Encoder> Encodable<__E> for Variance

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fn encode(&self, __encoder: &mut __E)

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impl Hash for Variance

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fn hash<__H: Hasher>(&self, state: &mut __H)

Feeds this value into the given Hasher. Read more
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fn hash_slice<H>(data: &[Self], state: &mut H)where H: Hasher, Self: Sized,

Feeds a slice of this type into the given Hasher. Read more
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impl<__CTX> HashStable<__CTX> for Variancewhere __CTX: HashStableContext,

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fn hash_stable(&self, __hcx: &mut __CTX, __hasher: &mut StableHasher)

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impl PartialEq<Variance> for Variance

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fn eq(&self, other: &Variance) -> bool

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
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fn ne(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
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impl Copy for Variance

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impl StructuralPartialEq for Variance

Auto Trait Implementations§

Blanket Implementations§

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impl<T> Any for Twhere T: 'static + ?Sized,

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fn type_id(&self) -> TypeId

Gets the TypeId of self. Read more
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impl<T> Borrow<T> for Twhere T: ?Sized,

const: unstable · source§

fn borrow(&self) -> &T

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
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impl<T> BorrowMut<T> for Twhere T: ?Sized,

const: unstable · source§

fn borrow_mut(&mut self) -> &mut T

Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
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impl<T, R> CollectAndApply<T, R> for T

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fn collect_and_apply<I, F>(iter: I, f: F) -> Rwhere I: Iterator<Item = T>, F: FnOnce(&[T]) -> R,

Equivalent to f(&iter.collect::<Vec<_>>()).

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type Output = R

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impl<T> From<T> for T

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fn from(t: T) -> T

Returns the argument unchanged.

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impl<T, U> Into<U> for Twhere U: From<T>,

const: unstable · source§

fn into(self) -> U

Calls U::from(self).

That is, this conversion is whatever the implementation of From<T> for U chooses to do.

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impl<T> ToOwned for Twhere T: Clone,

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type Owned = T

The resulting type after obtaining ownership.
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fn to_owned(&self) -> T

Creates owned data from borrowed data, usually by cloning. Read more
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fn clone_into(&self, target: &mut T)

Uses borrowed data to replace owned data, usually by cloning. Read more
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impl<T, U> TryFrom<U> for Twhere U: Into<T>,

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type Error = Infallible

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
const: unstable · source§

fn try_from(value: U) -> Result<T, <T as TryFrom<U>>::Error>

Performs the conversion.
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impl<T, U> TryInto<U> for Twhere U: TryFrom<T>,

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type Error = <U as TryFrom<T>>::Error

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
const: unstable · source§

fn try_into(self) -> Result<U, <U as TryFrom<T>>::Error>

Performs the conversion.

Layout§

Note: Most layout information is completely unstable and may even differ between compilations. The only exception is types with certain repr(...) attributes. Please see the Rust Reference’s “Type Layout” chapter for details on type layout guarantees.

Size: 1 byte

Size for each variant:

  • Covariant: 0 bytes
  • Invariant: 0 bytes
  • Contravariant: 0 bytes
  • Bivariant: 0 bytes