Enum rustc_type_ir::Variance

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pub enum Variance {
    Covariant,
    Invariant,
    Contravariant,
    Bivariant,
}

Variants§

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Covariant

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Invariant

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Contravariant

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Bivariant

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impl Variance

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pub fn xform(self, v: Variance) -> Variance

a.xform(b) combines the variance of a context with the variance of a type with the following meaning. If we are in a context with variance a, and we encounter a type argument in a position with variance b, then a.xform(b) is the new variance with which the argument appears.

Example 1:

*mut Vec<i32>

Here, the “ambient” variance starts as covariant. *mut T is invariant with respect to T, so the variance in which the Vec<i32> appears is Covariant.xform(Invariant), which yields Invariant. Now, the type Vec<T> is covariant with respect to its type argument T, and hence the variance of the i32 here is Invariant.xform(Covariant), which results (again) in Invariant.

Example 2:

fn(*const Vec<i32>, *mut Vec<i32)

The ambient variance is covariant. A fn type is contravariant with respect to its parameters, so the variance within which both pointer types appear is Covariant.xform(Contravariant), or Contravariant. *const T is covariant with respect to T, so the variance within which the first Vec<i32> appears is Contravariant.xform(Covariant) or Contravariant. The same is true for its i32 argument. In the *mut T case, the variance of Vec<i32> is Contravariant.xform(Invariant), and hence the outermost type is Invariant with respect to Vec<i32> (and its i32 argument).

Source: Figure 1 of “Taming the Wildcards: Combining Definition- and Use-Site Variance” published in PLDI’11.

Trait Implementations§

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impl Clone for Variance

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fn clone(&self) -> Variance

Returns a copy of the value. Read more
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fn clone_from(&mut self, source: &Self)

Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more
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impl Debug for Variance

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fn fmt(&self, f: &mut Formatter<'_>) -> Result

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more
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impl<__D: SpanDecoder> Decodable<__D> for Variance

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fn decode(__decoder: &mut __D) -> Self

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impl<__E: SpanEncoder> Encodable<__E> for Variance

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fn encode(&self, __encoder: &mut __E)

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impl Hash for Variance

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fn hash<__H: Hasher>(&self, state: &mut __H)

Feeds this value into the given Hasher. Read more
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fn hash_slice<H>(data: &[Self], state: &mut H)
where H: Hasher, Self: Sized,

Feeds a slice of this type into the given Hasher. Read more
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impl<__CTX> HashStable<__CTX> for Variance

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fn hash_stable(&self, __hcx: &mut __CTX, __hasher: &mut StableHasher)

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impl PartialEq for Variance

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fn eq(&self, other: &Variance) -> bool

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==.
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fn ne(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests for !=. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
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impl<I: Interner> TypeFoldable<I> for Variance

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fn try_fold_with<F: FallibleTypeFolder<I>>( self, _: &mut F, ) -> Result<Self, F::Error>

The entry point for folding. To fold a value t with a folder f call: t.try_fold_with(f). Read more
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fn fold_with<F: TypeFolder<I>>(self, _: &mut F) -> Self

A convenient alternative to try_fold_with for use with infallible folders. Do not override this method, to ensure coherence with try_fold_with.
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impl<I: Interner> TypeVisitable<I> for Variance

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fn visit_with<F: TypeVisitor<I>>(&self, _: &mut F) -> F::Result

The entry point for visiting. To visit a value t with a visitor v call: t.visit_with(v). Read more
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impl Copy for Variance

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impl Eq for Variance

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impl StructuralPartialEq for Variance

Auto Trait Implementations§

Blanket Implementations§

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impl<T> Aligned for T

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const ALIGN: Alignment = _

Alignment of Self.
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impl<T> Any for T
where T: 'static + ?Sized,

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fn type_id(&self) -> TypeId

Gets the TypeId of self. Read more
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impl<T> Borrow<T> for T
where T: ?Sized,

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fn borrow(&self) -> &T

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
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impl<T> BorrowMut<T> for T
where T: ?Sized,

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fn borrow_mut(&mut self) -> &mut T

Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
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impl<T, R> CollectAndApply<T, R> for T

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fn collect_and_apply<I, F>(iter: I, f: F) -> R
where I: Iterator<Item = T>, F: FnOnce(&[T]) -> R,

Equivalent to f(&iter.collect::<Vec<_>>()).

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type Output = R

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impl<Q, K> Equivalent<K> for Q
where Q: Eq + ?Sized, K: Borrow<Q> + ?Sized,

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fn equivalent(&self, key: &K) -> bool

Checks if this value is equivalent to the given key. Read more
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impl<Q, K> Equivalent<K> for Q
where Q: Eq + ?Sized, K: Borrow<Q> + ?Sized,

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fn equivalent(&self, key: &K) -> bool

Checks if this value is equivalent to the given key. Read more
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impl<Q, K> Equivalent<K> for Q
where Q: Eq + ?Sized, K: Borrow<Q> + ?Sized,

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fn equivalent(&self, key: &K) -> bool

Compare self to key and return true if they are equal.
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impl<T> From<T> for T

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fn from(t: T) -> T

Returns the argument unchanged.

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impl<T> Instrument for T

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fn instrument(self, span: Span) -> Instrumented<Self>

Instruments this type with the provided Span, returning an Instrumented wrapper. Read more
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fn in_current_span(self) -> Instrumented<Self>

Instruments this type with the current Span, returning an Instrumented wrapper. Read more
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impl<T, U> Into<U> for T
where U: From<T>,

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fn into(self) -> U

Calls U::from(self).

That is, this conversion is whatever the implementation of From<T> for U chooses to do.

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impl<T> IntoEither for T

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fn into_either(self, into_left: bool) -> Either<Self, Self>

Converts self into a Left variant of Either<Self, Self> if into_left is true. Converts self into a Right variant of Either<Self, Self> otherwise. Read more
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fn into_either_with<F>(self, into_left: F) -> Either<Self, Self>
where F: FnOnce(&Self) -> bool,

Converts self into a Left variant of Either<Self, Self> if into_left(&self) returns true. Converts self into a Right variant of Either<Self, Self> otherwise. Read more
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impl<T> Pointable for T

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const ALIGN: usize = _

The alignment of pointer.
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type Init = T

The type for initializers.
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unsafe fn init(init: <T as Pointable>::Init) -> usize

Initializes a with the given initializer. Read more
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unsafe fn deref<'a>(ptr: usize) -> &'a T

Dereferences the given pointer. Read more
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unsafe fn deref_mut<'a>(ptr: usize) -> &'a mut T

Mutably dereferences the given pointer. Read more
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unsafe fn drop(ptr: usize)

Drops the object pointed to by the given pointer. Read more
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impl<T> Same for T

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type Output = T

Should always be Self
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impl<T> ToOwned for T
where T: Clone,

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type Owned = T

The resulting type after obtaining ownership.
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fn to_owned(&self) -> T

Creates owned data from borrowed data, usually by cloning. Read more
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fn clone_into(&self, target: &mut T)

Uses borrowed data to replace owned data, usually by cloning. Read more
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impl<T, U> TryFrom<U> for T
where U: Into<T>,

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type Error = Infallible

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
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fn try_from(value: U) -> Result<T, <T as TryFrom<U>>::Error>

Performs the conversion.
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impl<T, U> TryInto<U> for T
where U: TryFrom<T>,

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type Error = <U as TryFrom<T>>::Error

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
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fn try_into(self) -> Result<U, <U as TryFrom<T>>::Error>

Performs the conversion.
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impl<I, T> TypeVisitableExt<I> for T
where I: Interner, T: TypeVisitable<I>,

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fn has_type_flags(&self, flags: TypeFlags) -> bool

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fn has_vars_bound_at_or_above(&self, binder: DebruijnIndex) -> bool

Returns true if self has any late-bound regions that are either bound by binder or bound by some binder outside of binder. If binder is ty::INNERMOST, this indicates whether there are any late-bound regions that appear free.
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fn error_reported(&self) -> Result<(), <I as Interner>::ErrorGuaranteed>

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fn has_vars_bound_above(&self, binder: DebruijnIndex) -> bool

Returns true if this type has any regions that escape binder (and hence are not bound by it).
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fn has_escaping_bound_vars(&self) -> bool

Return true if this type has regions that are not a part of the type. For example, for<'a> fn(&'a i32) return false, while fn(&'a i32) would return true. The latter can occur when traversing through the former. Read more
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fn has_aliases(&self) -> bool

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fn has_inherent_projections(&self) -> bool

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fn has_opaque_types(&self) -> bool

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fn has_coroutines(&self) -> bool

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fn references_error(&self) -> bool

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fn has_non_region_param(&self) -> bool

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fn has_infer_regions(&self) -> bool

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fn has_infer_types(&self) -> bool

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fn has_non_region_infer(&self) -> bool

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fn has_infer(&self) -> bool

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fn has_placeholders(&self) -> bool

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fn has_non_region_placeholders(&self) -> bool

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fn has_param(&self) -> bool

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fn has_free_regions(&self) -> bool

“Free” regions in this context means that it has any region that is not (a) erased or (b) late-bound.
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fn has_erased_regions(&self) -> bool

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fn has_erasable_regions(&self) -> bool

True if there are any un-erased free regions.
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fn is_global(&self) -> bool

Indicates whether this value references only ‘global’ generic parameters that are the same regardless of what fn we are in. This is used for caching.
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fn has_bound_regions(&self) -> bool

True if there are any late-bound regions
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fn has_non_region_bound_vars(&self) -> bool

True if there are any late-bound non-region variables
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fn has_bound_vars(&self) -> bool

True if there are any bound variables
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fn still_further_specializable(&self) -> bool

Indicates whether this value still has parameters/placeholders/inference variables which could be replaced later, in a way that would change the results of impl specialization.
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impl<I, T, U> Upcast<I, U> for T
where U: UpcastFrom<I, T>,

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fn upcast(self, interner: I) -> U

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impl<I, T> UpcastFrom<I, T> for T

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fn upcast_from(from: T, _tcx: I) -> T

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impl<T> WithSubscriber for T

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fn with_subscriber<S>(self, subscriber: S) -> WithDispatch<Self>
where S: Into<Dispatch>,

Attaches the provided Subscriber to this type, returning a WithDispatch wrapper. Read more
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fn with_current_subscriber(self) -> WithDispatch<Self>

Attaches the current default Subscriber to this type, returning a WithDispatch wrapper. Read more
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impl<'a, T> Captures<'a> for T
where T: ?Sized,

Layout§

Note: Most layout information is completely unstable and may even differ between compilations. The only exception is types with certain repr(...) attributes. Please see the Rust Reference's “Type Layout” chapter for details on type layout guarantees.

Size: 1 byte

Size for each variant:

  • Covariant: 0 bytes
  • Invariant: 0 bytes
  • Contravariant: 0 bytes
  • Bivariant: 0 bytes