Enum rustc_type_ir::Variance[][src]

pub enum Variance {
    Covariant,
    Invariant,
    Contravariant,
    Bivariant,
}

Variants

Covariant

Invariant

Contravariant

Bivariant

Implementations

a.xform(b) combines the variance of a context with the variance of a type with the following meaning. If we are in a context with variance a, and we encounter a type argument in a position with variance b, then a.xform(b) is the new variance with which the argument appears.

Example 1:

*mut Vec<i32>

Here, the “ambient” variance starts as covariant. *mut T is invariant with respect to T, so the variance in which the Vec<i32> appears is Covariant.xform(Invariant), which yields Invariant. Now, the type Vec<T> is covariant with respect to its type argument T, and hence the variance of the i32 here is Invariant.xform(Covariant), which results (again) in Invariant.

Example 2:

fn(*const Vec<i32>, *mut Vec<i32)

The ambient variance is covariant. A fn type is contravariant with respect to its parameters, so the variance within which both pointer types appear is Covariant.xform(Contravariant), or Contravariant. *const T is covariant with respect to T, so the variance within which the first Vec<i32> appears is Contravariant.xform(Covariant) or Contravariant. The same is true for its i32 argument. In the *mut T case, the variance of Vec<i32> is Contravariant.xform(Invariant), and hence the outermost type is Invariant with respect to Vec<i32> (and its i32 argument).

Source: Figure 1 of “Taming the Wildcards: Combining Definition- and Use-Site Variance” published in PLDI’11.

Trait Implementations

Returns a copy of the value. Read more

Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more

Feeds this value into the given Hasher. Read more

Feeds a slice of this type into the given Hasher. Read more

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

Auto Trait Implementations

Blanket Implementations

Gets the TypeId of self. Read more

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Performs the conversion.

Performs the conversion.

The resulting type after obtaining ownership.

Creates owned data from borrowed data, usually by cloning. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (toowned_clone_into)

Uses borrowed data to replace owned data, usually by cloning. Read more

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Performs the conversion.

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Performs the conversion.

Layout

Note: Most layout information is completely unstable and may even differ between compilations. The only exception is types with certain repr(...) attributes. Please see the Rust Reference’s “Type Layout” chapter for details on type layout guarantees.

Size: 1 byte

Size for each variant: