Trait core::hash::Hasher

1.0.0 · source ·
pub trait Hasher {
Show 16 methods fn finish(&self) -> u64; fn write(&mut self, bytes: &[u8]); fn write_u8(&mut self, i: u8) { ... } fn write_u16(&mut self, i: u16) { ... } fn write_u32(&mut self, i: u32) { ... } fn write_u64(&mut self, i: u64) { ... } fn write_u128(&mut self, i: u128) { ... } fn write_usize(&mut self, i: usize) { ... } fn write_i8(&mut self, i: i8) { ... } fn write_i16(&mut self, i: i16) { ... } fn write_i32(&mut self, i: i32) { ... } fn write_i64(&mut self, i: i64) { ... } fn write_i128(&mut self, i: i128) { ... } fn write_isize(&mut self, i: isize) { ... } fn write_length_prefix(&mut self, len: usize) { ... } fn write_str(&mut self, s: &str) { ... }
}
Expand description

A trait for hashing an arbitrary stream of bytes.

Instances of Hasher usually represent state that is changed while hashing data.

Hasher provides a fairly basic interface for retrieving the generated hash (with finish), and writing integers as well as slices of bytes into an instance (with write and write_u8 etc.). Most of the time, Hasher instances are used in conjunction with the Hash trait.

This trait provides no guarantees about how the various write_* methods are defined and implementations of Hash should not assume that they work one way or another. You cannot assume, for example, that a write_u32 call is equivalent to four calls of write_u8. Nor can you assume that adjacent write calls are merged, so it’s possible, for example, that

hasher.write(&[1, 2]);
hasher.write(&[3, 4, 5, 6]);
Run

and

hasher.write(&[1, 2, 3, 4]);
hasher.write(&[5, 6]);
Run

end up producing different hashes.

Thus to produce the same hash value, Hash implementations must ensure for equivalent items that exactly the same sequence of calls is made – the same methods with the same parameters in the same order.

Examples

use std::collections::hash_map::DefaultHasher;
use std::hash::Hasher;

let mut hasher = DefaultHasher::new();

hasher.write_u32(1989);
hasher.write_u8(11);
hasher.write_u8(9);
hasher.write(b"Huh?");

println!("Hash is {:x}!", hasher.finish());
Run

Required Methods§

source

fn finish(&self) -> u64

Returns the hash value for the values written so far.

Despite its name, the method does not reset the hasher’s internal state. Additional writes will continue from the current value. If you need to start a fresh hash value, you will have to create a new hasher.

Examples
use std::collections::hash_map::DefaultHasher;
use std::hash::Hasher;

let mut hasher = DefaultHasher::new();
hasher.write(b"Cool!");

println!("Hash is {:x}!", hasher.finish());
Run
source

fn write(&mut self, bytes: &[u8])

Writes some data into this Hasher.

Examples
use std::collections::hash_map::DefaultHasher;
use std::hash::Hasher;

let mut hasher = DefaultHasher::new();
let data = [0x01, 0x23, 0x45, 0x67, 0x89, 0xab, 0xcd, 0xef];

hasher.write(&data);

println!("Hash is {:x}!", hasher.finish());
Run
Note to Implementers

You generally should not do length-prefixing as part of implementing this method. It’s up to the Hash implementation to call Hasher::write_length_prefix before sequences that need it.

Provided Methods§

1.3.0 · source

fn write_u8(&mut self, i: u8)

Writes a single u8 into this hasher.

1.3.0 · source

fn write_u16(&mut self, i: u16)

Writes a single u16 into this hasher.

1.3.0 · source

fn write_u32(&mut self, i: u32)

Writes a single u32 into this hasher.

1.3.0 · source

fn write_u64(&mut self, i: u64)

Writes a single u64 into this hasher.

1.26.0 · source

fn write_u128(&mut self, i: u128)

Writes a single u128 into this hasher.

1.3.0 · source

fn write_usize(&mut self, i: usize)

Writes a single usize into this hasher.

1.3.0 · source

fn write_i8(&mut self, i: i8)

Writes a single i8 into this hasher.

1.3.0 · source

fn write_i16(&mut self, i: i16)

Writes a single i16 into this hasher.

1.3.0 · source

fn write_i32(&mut self, i: i32)

Writes a single i32 into this hasher.

1.3.0 · source

fn write_i64(&mut self, i: i64)

Writes a single i64 into this hasher.

1.26.0 · source

fn write_i128(&mut self, i: i128)

Writes a single i128 into this hasher.

1.3.0 · source

fn write_isize(&mut self, i: isize)

Writes a single isize into this hasher.

source

fn write_length_prefix(&mut self, len: usize)

🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (hasher_prefixfree_extras #96762)

Writes a length prefix into this hasher, as part of being prefix-free.

If you’re implementing Hash for a custom collection, call this before writing its contents to this Hasher. That way (collection![1, 2, 3], collection![4, 5]) and (collection![1, 2], collection![3, 4, 5]) will provide different sequences of values to the Hasher

The impl<T> Hash for [T] includes a call to this method, so if you’re hashing a slice (or array or vector) via its Hash::hash method, you should not call this yourself.

This method is only for providing domain separation. If you want to hash a usize that represents part of the data, then it’s important that you pass it to Hasher::write_usize instead of to this method.

Examples
#![feature(hasher_prefixfree_extras)]

use std::hash::{Hash, Hasher};
impl<T: Hash> Hash for MyCollection<T> {
    fn hash<H: Hasher>(&self, state: &mut H) {
        state.write_length_prefix(self.len());
        for elt in self {
            elt.hash(state);
        }
    }
}
Run
Note to Implementers

If you’ve decided that your Hasher is willing to be susceptible to Hash-DoS attacks, then you might consider skipping hashing some or all of the len provided in the name of increased performance.

source

fn write_str(&mut self, s: &str)

🔬This is a nightly-only experimental API. (hasher_prefixfree_extras #96762)

Writes a single str into this hasher.

If you’re implementing Hash, you generally do not need to call this, as the impl Hash for str does, so you should prefer that instead.

This includes the domain separator for prefix-freedom, so you should not call Self::write_length_prefix before calling this.

Note to Implementers

There are at least two reasonable default ways to implement this. Which one will be the default is not yet decided, so for now you probably want to override it specifically.

The general answer

It’s always correct to implement this with a length prefix:

fn write_str(&mut self, s: &str) {
    self.write_length_prefix(s.len());
    self.write(s.as_bytes());
}
Run

And, if your Hasher works in usize chunks, this is likely a very efficient way to do it, as anything more complicated may well end up slower than just running the round with the length.

If your Hasher works byte-wise

One nice thing about str being UTF-8 is that the b'\xFF' byte never happens. That means that you can append that to the byte stream being hashed and maintain prefix-freedom:

fn write_str(&mut self, s: &str) {
    self.write(s.as_bytes());
    self.write_u8(0xff);
}
Run

This does require that your implementation not add extra padding, and thus generally requires that you maintain a buffer, running a round only once that buffer is full (or finish is called).

That’s because if write pads data out to a fixed chunk size, it’s likely that it does it in such a way that "a" and "a\x00" would end up hashing the same sequence of things, introducing conflicts.

Implementors§

const: unstable · source§

impl Hasher for SipHasher

1.22.0 (const: unstable) · source§

impl<H: Hasher + ?Sized> Hasher for &mut H