# Primitive Type u81.0.0[−]

## Expand description

The 8-bit unsigned integer type.

## Implementations

Converts a string slice in a given base to an integer.

The string is expected to be an optional `+`

sign
followed by digits.
Leading and trailing whitespace represent an error.
Digits are a subset of these characters, depending on `radix`

:

`0-9`

`a-z`

`A-Z`

##### Panics

This function panics if `radix`

is not in the range from 2 to 36.

##### Examples

Basic usage:

`assert_eq!(u8::from_str_radix("A", 16), Ok(10));`

RunUnchecked integer addition. Computes `self + rhs`

, assuming overflow
cannot occur.

##### Safety

This results in undefined behavior when
`self + rhs > u8::MAX`

or `self + rhs < u8::MIN`

,
i.e. when `checked_add`

would return `None`

.

Unchecked integer subtraction. Computes `self - rhs`

, assuming overflow
cannot occur.

##### Safety

This results in undefined behavior when
`self - rhs > u8::MAX`

or `self - rhs < u8::MIN`

,
i.e. when `checked_sub`

would return `None`

.

Unchecked integer multiplication. Computes `self * rhs`

, assuming overflow
cannot occur.

##### Safety

This results in undefined behavior when
`self * rhs > u8::MAX`

or `self * rhs < u8::MIN`

,
i.e. when `checked_mul`

would return `None`

.

Returns the logarithm of the number with respect to an arbitrary base, rounded down.

This method might not be optimized owing to implementation details;
`log2`

can produce results more efficiently for base 2, and `log10`

can produce results more efficiently for base 10.

##### Panics

When the number is negative, zero, or if the base is not at least 2; it panics in debug mode and the return value is 0 in release mode.

##### Examples

```
#![feature(int_log)]
assert_eq!(5u8.log(5), 1);
```

RunReturns the logarithm of the number with respect to an arbitrary base, rounded down.

Returns `None`

if the number is zero, or if the base is not at least 2.

This method might not be optimized owing to implementation details;
`checked_log2`

can produce results more efficiently for base 2, and
`checked_log10`

can produce results more efficiently for base 10.

##### Examples

```
#![feature(int_log)]
assert_eq!(5u8.checked_log(5), Some(1));
```

RunUnchecked shift left. Computes `self << rhs`

, assuming that
`rhs`

is less than the number of bits in `self`

.

##### Safety

This results in undefined behavior if `rhs`

is larger than
or equal to the number of bits in `self`

,
i.e. when `checked_shl`

would return `None`

.

Unchecked shift right. Computes `self >> rhs`

, assuming that
`rhs`

is less than the number of bits in `self`

.

##### Safety

This results in undefined behavior if `rhs`

is larger than
or equal to the number of bits in `self`

,
i.e. when `checked_shr`

would return `None`

.

Wrapping (modular) multiplication. Computes `self * rhs`

, wrapping around at the boundary of the type.

##### Examples

Basic usage:

Please note that this example is shared between integer types.
Which explains why `u8`

is used here.

```
assert_eq!(10u8.wrapping_mul(12), 120);
assert_eq!(25u8.wrapping_mul(12), 44);
```

RunWrapping (modular) division. Computes `self / rhs`

.
Wrapped division on unsigned types is just normal division.
There’s no way wrapping could ever happen.
This function exists, so that all operations
are accounted for in the wrapping operations.

##### Examples

Basic usage:

`assert_eq!(100u8.wrapping_div(10), 10);`

RunWrapping Euclidean division. Computes `self.div_euclid(rhs)`

.
Wrapped division on unsigned types is just normal division.
There’s no way wrapping could ever happen.
This function exists, so that all operations
are accounted for in the wrapping operations.
Since, for the positive integers, all common
definitions of division are equal, this
is exactly equal to `self.wrapping_div(rhs)`

.

##### Examples

Basic usage:

`assert_eq!(100u8.wrapping_div_euclid(10), 10);`

RunWrapping (modular) remainder. Computes `self % rhs`

.
Wrapped remainder calculation on unsigned types is
just the regular remainder calculation.
There’s no way wrapping could ever happen.
This function exists, so that all operations
are accounted for in the wrapping operations.

##### Examples

Basic usage:

`assert_eq!(100u8.wrapping_rem(10), 0);`

RunWrapping Euclidean modulo. Computes `self.rem_euclid(rhs)`

.
Wrapped modulo calculation on unsigned types is
just the regular remainder calculation.
There’s no way wrapping could ever happen.
This function exists, so that all operations
are accounted for in the wrapping operations.
Since, for the positive integers, all common
definitions of division are equal, this
is exactly equal to `self.wrapping_rem(rhs)`

.

##### Examples

Basic usage:

`assert_eq!(100u8.wrapping_rem_euclid(10), 0);`

RunWrapping (modular) negation. Computes `-self`

,
wrapping around at the boundary of the type.

Since unsigned types do not have negative equivalents
all applications of this function will wrap (except for `-0`

).
For values smaller than the corresponding signed type’s maximum
the result is the same as casting the corresponding signed value.
Any larger values are equivalent to `MAX + 1 - (val - MAX - 1)`

where
`MAX`

is the corresponding signed type’s maximum.

##### Examples

Basic usage:

Please note that this example is shared between integer types.
Which explains why `i8`

is used here.

```
assert_eq!(100i8.wrapping_neg(), -100);
assert_eq!((-128i8).wrapping_neg(), -128);
```

RunPanic-free bitwise shift-left; yields `self << mask(rhs)`

,
where `mask`

removes any high-order bits of `rhs`

that
would cause the shift to exceed the bitwidth of the type.

Note that this is *not* the same as a rotate-left; the
RHS of a wrapping shift-left is restricted to the range
of the type, rather than the bits shifted out of the LHS
being returned to the other end. The primitive integer
types all implement a `rotate_left`

function,
which may be what you want instead.

##### Examples

Basic usage:

```
assert_eq!(1u8.wrapping_shl(7), 128);
assert_eq!(1u8.wrapping_shl(128), 1);
```

RunPanic-free bitwise shift-right; yields `self >> mask(rhs)`

,
where `mask`

removes any high-order bits of `rhs`

that
would cause the shift to exceed the bitwidth of the type.

Note that this is *not* the same as a rotate-right; the
RHS of a wrapping shift-right is restricted to the range
of the type, rather than the bits shifted out of the LHS
being returned to the other end. The primitive integer
types all implement a `rotate_right`

function,
which may be what you want instead.

##### Examples

Basic usage:

```
assert_eq!(128u8.wrapping_shr(7), 1);
assert_eq!(128u8.wrapping_shr(128), 128);
```

RunCalculates `self`

+ `rhs`

Returns a tuple of the addition along with a boolean indicating whether an arithmetic overflow would occur. If an overflow would have occurred then the wrapped value is returned.

##### Examples

Basic usage

```
assert_eq!(5u8.overflowing_add(2), (7, false));
assert_eq!(u8::MAX.overflowing_add(1), (0, true));
```

RunCalculates `self + rhs + carry`

without the ability to overflow.

Performs “ternary addition” which takes in an extra bit to add, and may return an additional bit of overflow. This allows for chaining together multiple additions to create “big integers” which represent larger values.

This can be thought of as a 8-bit “full adder”, in the electronics sense.

##### Examples

Basic usage

```
#![feature(bigint_helper_methods)]
assert_eq!(5u8.carrying_add(2, false), (7, false));
assert_eq!(5u8.carrying_add(2, true), (8, false));
assert_eq!(u8::MAX.carrying_add(1, false), (0, true));
assert_eq!(u8::MAX.carrying_add(0, true), (0, true));
assert_eq!(u8::MAX.carrying_add(1, true), (1, true));
assert_eq!(u8::MAX.carrying_add(u8::MAX, true), (u8::MAX, true));
```

RunIf `carry`

is false, this method is equivalent to `overflowing_add`

:

```
#![feature(bigint_helper_methods)]
assert_eq!(5_u8.carrying_add(2, false), 5_u8.overflowing_add(2));
assert_eq!(u8::MAX.carrying_add(1, false), u8::MAX.overflowing_add(1));
```

RunCalculates `self`

+ `rhs`

with a signed `rhs`

Returns a tuple of the addition along with a boolean indicating whether an arithmetic overflow would occur. If an overflow would have occurred then the wrapped value is returned.

##### Examples

Basic usage:

```
assert_eq!(1u8.overflowing_add_signed(2), (3, false));
assert_eq!(1u8.overflowing_add_signed(-2), (u8::MAX, true));
assert_eq!((u8::MAX - 2).overflowing_add_signed(4), (1, true));
```

RunCalculates `self`

- `rhs`

Returns a tuple of the subtraction along with a boolean indicating whether an arithmetic overflow would occur. If an overflow would have occurred then the wrapped value is returned.

##### Examples

Basic usage

```
assert_eq!(5u8.overflowing_sub(2), (3, false));
assert_eq!(0u8.overflowing_sub(1), (u8::MAX, true));
```

RunCalculates `self - rhs - borrow`

without the ability to overflow.

Performs “ternary subtraction” which takes in an extra bit to subtract, and may return an additional bit of overflow. This allows for chaining together multiple subtractions to create “big integers” which represent larger values.

##### Examples

Basic usage

```
#![feature(bigint_helper_methods)]
assert_eq!(5u8.borrowing_sub(2, false), (3, false));
assert_eq!(5u8.borrowing_sub(2, true), (2, false));
assert_eq!(0u8.borrowing_sub(1, false), (u8::MAX, true));
assert_eq!(0u8.borrowing_sub(1, true), (u8::MAX - 1, true));
```

RunCalculates the multiplication of `self`

and `rhs`

.

Returns a tuple of the multiplication along with a boolean indicating whether an arithmetic overflow would occur. If an overflow would have occurred then the wrapped value is returned.

##### Examples

Basic usage:

Please note that this example is shared between integer types.
Which explains why `u32`

is used here.

```
assert_eq!(5u32.overflowing_mul(2), (10, false));
assert_eq!(1_000_000_000u32.overflowing_mul(10), (1410065408, true));
```

RunCalculates the divisor when `self`

is divided by `rhs`

.

Returns a tuple of the divisor along with a boolean indicating
whether an arithmetic overflow would occur. Note that for unsigned
integers overflow never occurs, so the second value is always
`false`

.

##### Panics

This function will panic if `rhs`

is 0.

##### Examples

Basic usage

`assert_eq!(5u8.overflowing_div(2), (2, false));`

RunCalculates the quotient of Euclidean division `self.div_euclid(rhs)`

.

Returns a tuple of the divisor along with a boolean indicating
whether an arithmetic overflow would occur. Note that for unsigned
integers overflow never occurs, so the second value is always
`false`

.
Since, for the positive integers, all common
definitions of division are equal, this
is exactly equal to `self.overflowing_div(rhs)`

.

##### Panics

This function will panic if `rhs`

is 0.

##### Examples

Basic usage

`assert_eq!(5u8.overflowing_div_euclid(2), (2, false));`

RunCalculates the remainder when `self`

is divided by `rhs`

.

Returns a tuple of the remainder after dividing along with a boolean
indicating whether an arithmetic overflow would occur. Note that for
unsigned integers overflow never occurs, so the second value is
always `false`

.

##### Panics

This function will panic if `rhs`

is 0.

##### Examples

Basic usage

`assert_eq!(5u8.overflowing_rem(2), (1, false));`

RunCalculates the remainder `self.rem_euclid(rhs)`

as if by Euclidean division.

Returns a tuple of the modulo after dividing along with a boolean
indicating whether an arithmetic overflow would occur. Note that for
unsigned integers overflow never occurs, so the second value is
always `false`

.
Since, for the positive integers, all common
definitions of division are equal, this operation
is exactly equal to `self.overflowing_rem(rhs)`

.

##### Panics

This function will panic if `rhs`

is 0.

##### Examples

Basic usage

`assert_eq!(5u8.overflowing_rem_euclid(2), (1, false));`

RunNegates self in an overflowing fashion.

Returns `!self + 1`

using wrapping operations to return the value
that represents the negation of this unsigned value. Note that for
positive unsigned values overflow always occurs, but negating 0 does
not overflow.

##### Examples

Basic usage

```
assert_eq!(0u8.overflowing_neg(), (0, false));
assert_eq!(2u8.overflowing_neg(), (-2i32 as u8, true));
```

RunShifts self left by `rhs`

bits.

Returns a tuple of the shifted version of self along with a boolean indicating whether the shift value was larger than or equal to the number of bits. If the shift value is too large, then value is masked (N-1) where N is the number of bits, and this value is then used to perform the shift.

##### Examples

Basic usage

```
assert_eq!(0x1u8.overflowing_shl(4), (0x10, false));
assert_eq!(0x1u8.overflowing_shl(132), (0x10, true));
```

RunShifts self right by `rhs`

bits.

Returns a tuple of the shifted version of self along with a boolean indicating whether the shift value was larger than or equal to the number of bits. If the shift value is too large, then value is masked (N-1) where N is the number of bits, and this value is then used to perform the shift.

##### Examples

Basic usage

```
assert_eq!(0x10u8.overflowing_shr(4), (0x1, false));
assert_eq!(0x10u8.overflowing_shr(132), (0x1, true));
```

RunCalculates the smallest value greater than or equal to `self`

that
is a multiple of `rhs`

.

##### Panics

This function will panic if `rhs`

is 0 or the operation results in overflow.

##### Examples

Basic usage:

```
#![feature(int_roundings)]
assert_eq!(16_u8.unstable_next_multiple_of(8), 16);
assert_eq!(23_u8.unstable_next_multiple_of(8), 24);
```

RunCalculates the smallest value greater than or equal to `self`

that
is a multiple of `rhs`

. Returns `None`

is `rhs`

is zero or the
operation would result in overflow.

##### Examples

Basic usage:

```
#![feature(int_roundings)]
assert_eq!(16_u8.checked_next_multiple_of(8), Some(16));
assert_eq!(23_u8.checked_next_multiple_of(8), Some(24));
assert_eq!(1_u8.checked_next_multiple_of(0), None);
assert_eq!(u8::MAX.checked_next_multiple_of(2), None);
```

RunReturns the smallest power of two greater than or equal to `self`

.

When return value overflows (i.e., `self > (1 << (N-1))`

for type
`uN`

), it panics in debug mode and the return value is wrapped to 0 in
release mode (the only situation in which method can return 0).

##### Examples

Basic usage:

```
assert_eq!(2u8.next_power_of_two(), 2);
assert_eq!(3u8.next_power_of_two(), 4);
```

RunReturns the smallest power of two greater than or equal to `n`

. If
the next power of two is greater than the type’s maximum value,
`None`

is returned, otherwise the power of two is wrapped in `Some`

.

##### Examples

Basic usage:

```
assert_eq!(2u8.checked_next_power_of_two(), Some(2));
assert_eq!(3u8.checked_next_power_of_two(), Some(4));
assert_eq!(u8::MAX.checked_next_power_of_two(), None);
```

RunReturns the smallest power of two greater than or equal to `n`

. If
the next power of two is greater than the type’s maximum value,
the return value is wrapped to `0`

.

##### Examples

Basic usage:

```
#![feature(wrapping_next_power_of_two)]
assert_eq!(2u8.wrapping_next_power_of_two(), 2);
assert_eq!(3u8.wrapping_next_power_of_two(), 4);
assert_eq!(u8::MAX.wrapping_next_power_of_two(), 0);
```

RunReturn the memory representation of this integer as a byte array in native byte order.

As the target platform’s native endianness is used, portable code
should use `to_be_bytes`

or `to_le_bytes`

, as appropriate,
instead.

##### Examples

```
let bytes = 0x12u8.to_ne_bytes();
assert_eq!(
bytes,
if cfg!(target_endian = "big") {
[0x12]
} else {
[0x12]
}
);
```

RunCreate a native endian integer value from its representation as a byte array in big endian.

##### Examples

```
let value = u8::from_be_bytes([0x12]);
assert_eq!(value, 0x12);
```

RunWhen starting from a slice rather than an array, fallible conversion APIs can be used:

```
use std::convert::TryInto;
fn read_be_u8(input: &mut &[u8]) -> u8 {
let (int_bytes, rest) = input.split_at(std::mem::size_of::<u8>());
*input = rest;
u8::from_be_bytes(int_bytes.try_into().unwrap())
}
```

RunCreate a native endian integer value from its representation as a byte array in little endian.

##### Examples

```
let value = u8::from_le_bytes([0x12]);
assert_eq!(value, 0x12);
```

RunWhen starting from a slice rather than an array, fallible conversion APIs can be used:

```
use std::convert::TryInto;
fn read_le_u8(input: &mut &[u8]) -> u8 {
let (int_bytes, rest) = input.split_at(std::mem::size_of::<u8>());
*input = rest;
u8::from_le_bytes(int_bytes.try_into().unwrap())
}
```

RunCreate a native endian integer value from its memory representation as a byte array in native endianness.

As the target platform’s native endianness is used, portable code
likely wants to use `from_be_bytes`

or `from_le_bytes`

, as
appropriate instead.

##### Examples

```
let value = u8::from_ne_bytes(if cfg!(target_endian = "big") {
[0x12]
} else {
[0x12]
});
assert_eq!(value, 0x12);
```

RunWhen starting from a slice rather than an array, fallible conversion APIs can be used:

```
use std::convert::TryInto;
fn read_ne_u8(input: &mut &[u8]) -> u8 {
let (int_bytes, rest) = input.split_at(std::mem::size_of::<u8>());
*input = rest;
u8::from_ne_bytes(int_bytes.try_into().unwrap())
}
```

Run## 👎 Deprecating in a future Rust version: replaced by the `MIN`

associated constant on this type

replaced by the `MIN`

associated constant on this type

New code should prefer to use
`u8::MIN`

instead.

Returns the smallest value that can be represented by this integer type.

## 👎 Deprecating in a future Rust version: replaced by the `MAX`

associated constant on this type

replaced by the `MAX`

associated constant on this type

New code should prefer to use
`u8::MAX`

instead.

Returns the largest value that can be represented by this integer type.

Calculates the complete product `self * rhs`

without the possibility to overflow.

This returns the low-order (wrapping) bits and the high-order (overflow) bits of the result as two separate values, in that order.

##### Examples

Basic usage:

Please note that this example is shared between integer types.
Which explains why `u32`

is used here.

```
#![feature(bigint_helper_methods)]
assert_eq!(5u32.widening_mul(2), (10, 0));
assert_eq!(1_000_000_000u32.widening_mul(10), (1410065408, 2));
```

RunCalculates the “full multiplication” `self * rhs + carry`

without the possibility to overflow.

This returns the low-order (wrapping) bits and the high-order (overflow) bits of the result as two separate values, in that order.

Performs “long multiplication” which takes in an extra amount to add, and may return an additional amount of overflow. This allows for chaining together multiple multiplications to create “big integers” which represent larger values.

##### Examples

Basic usage:

Please note that this example is shared between integer types.
Which explains why `u32`

is used here.

```
#![feature(bigint_helper_methods)]
assert_eq!(5u32.carrying_mul(2, 0), (10, 0));
assert_eq!(5u32.carrying_mul(2, 10), (20, 0));
assert_eq!(1_000_000_000u32.carrying_mul(10, 0), (1410065408, 2));
assert_eq!(1_000_000_000u32.carrying_mul(10, 10), (1410065418, 2));
assert_eq!(u8::MAX.carrying_mul(u8::MAX, u8::MAX), (0, u8::MAX));
```

RunIf `carry`

is zero, this is similar to `overflowing_mul`

,
except that it gives the value of the overflow instead of just whether one happened:

```
#![feature(bigint_helper_methods)]
let r = u8::carrying_mul(7, 13, 0);
assert_eq!((r.0, r.1 != 0), u8::overflowing_mul(7, 13));
let r = u8::carrying_mul(13, 42, 0);
assert_eq!((r.0, r.1 != 0), u8::overflowing_mul(13, 42));
```

RunThe value of the first field in the returned tuple matches what you’d get
by combining the `wrapping_mul`

and
`wrapping_add`

methods:

```
#![feature(bigint_helper_methods)]
assert_eq!(
789_u16.carrying_mul(456, 123).0,
789_u16.wrapping_mul(456).wrapping_add(123),
);
```

RunMakes a copy of the value in its ASCII upper case equivalent.

ASCII letters ‘a’ to ‘z’ are mapped to ‘A’ to ‘Z’, but non-ASCII letters are unchanged.

To uppercase the value in-place, use `make_ascii_uppercase`

.

##### Examples

```
let lowercase_a = 97u8;
assert_eq!(65, lowercase_a.to_ascii_uppercase());
```

RunMakes a copy of the value in its ASCII lower case equivalent.

ASCII letters ‘A’ to ‘Z’ are mapped to ‘a’ to ‘z’, but non-ASCII letters are unchanged.

To lowercase the value in-place, use `make_ascii_lowercase`

.

##### Examples

```
let uppercase_a = 65u8;
assert_eq!(97, uppercase_a.to_ascii_lowercase());
```

RunConverts this value to its ASCII upper case equivalent in-place.

ASCII letters ‘a’ to ‘z’ are mapped to ‘A’ to ‘Z’, but non-ASCII letters are unchanged.

To return a new uppercased value without modifying the existing one, use
`to_ascii_uppercase`

.

##### Examples

```
let mut byte = b'a';
byte.make_ascii_uppercase();
assert_eq!(b'A', byte);
```

RunConverts this value to its ASCII lower case equivalent in-place.

ASCII letters ‘A’ to ‘Z’ are mapped to ‘a’ to ‘z’, but non-ASCII letters are unchanged.

To return a new lowercased value without modifying the existing one, use
`to_ascii_lowercase`

.

##### Examples

```
let mut byte = b'A';
byte.make_ascii_lowercase();
assert_eq!(b'a', byte);
```

RunChecks if the value is an ASCII alphabetic character:

- U+0041 ‘A’ ..= U+005A ‘Z’, or
- U+0061 ‘a’ ..= U+007A ‘z’.

##### Examples

```
let uppercase_a = b'A';
let uppercase_g = b'G';
let a = b'a';
let g = b'g';
let zero = b'0';
let percent = b'%';
let space = b' ';
let lf = b'\n';
let esc = b'\x1b';
assert!(uppercase_a.is_ascii_alphabetic());
assert!(uppercase_g.is_ascii_alphabetic());
assert!(a.is_ascii_alphabetic());
assert!(g.is_ascii_alphabetic());
assert!(!zero.is_ascii_alphabetic());
assert!(!percent.is_ascii_alphabetic());
assert!(!space.is_ascii_alphabetic());
assert!(!lf.is_ascii_alphabetic());
assert!(!esc.is_ascii_alphabetic());
```

RunChecks if the value is an ASCII uppercase character: U+0041 ‘A’ ..= U+005A ‘Z’.

##### Examples

```
let uppercase_a = b'A';
let uppercase_g = b'G';
let a = b'a';
let g = b'g';
let zero = b'0';
let percent = b'%';
let space = b' ';
let lf = b'\n';
let esc = b'\x1b';
assert!(uppercase_a.is_ascii_uppercase());
assert!(uppercase_g.is_ascii_uppercase());
assert!(!a.is_ascii_uppercase());
assert!(!g.is_ascii_uppercase());
assert!(!zero.is_ascii_uppercase());
assert!(!percent.is_ascii_uppercase());
assert!(!space.is_ascii_uppercase());
assert!(!lf.is_ascii_uppercase());
assert!(!esc.is_ascii_uppercase());
```

RunChecks if the value is an ASCII lowercase character: U+0061 ‘a’ ..= U+007A ‘z’.

##### Examples

```
let uppercase_a = b'A';
let uppercase_g = b'G';
let a = b'a';
let g = b'g';
let zero = b'0';
let percent = b'%';
let space = b' ';
let lf = b'\n';
let esc = b'\x1b';
assert!(!uppercase_a.is_ascii_lowercase());
assert!(!uppercase_g.is_ascii_lowercase());
assert!(a.is_ascii_lowercase());
assert!(g.is_ascii_lowercase());
assert!(!zero.is_ascii_lowercase());
assert!(!percent.is_ascii_lowercase());
assert!(!space.is_ascii_lowercase());
assert!(!lf.is_ascii_lowercase());
assert!(!esc.is_ascii_lowercase());
```

RunChecks if the value is an ASCII alphanumeric character:

- U+0041 ‘A’ ..= U+005A ‘Z’, or
- U+0061 ‘a’ ..= U+007A ‘z’, or
- U+0030 ‘0’ ..= U+0039 ‘9’.

##### Examples

```
let uppercase_a = b'A';
let uppercase_g = b'G';
let a = b'a';
let g = b'g';
let zero = b'0';
let percent = b'%';
let space = b' ';
let lf = b'\n';
let esc = b'\x1b';
assert!(uppercase_a.is_ascii_alphanumeric());
assert!(uppercase_g.is_ascii_alphanumeric());
assert!(a.is_ascii_alphanumeric());
assert!(g.is_ascii_alphanumeric());
assert!(zero.is_ascii_alphanumeric());
assert!(!percent.is_ascii_alphanumeric());
assert!(!space.is_ascii_alphanumeric());
assert!(!lf.is_ascii_alphanumeric());
assert!(!esc.is_ascii_alphanumeric());
```

RunChecks if the value is an ASCII decimal digit: U+0030 ‘0’ ..= U+0039 ‘9’.

##### Examples

```
let uppercase_a = b'A';
let uppercase_g = b'G';
let a = b'a';
let g = b'g';
let zero = b'0';
let percent = b'%';
let space = b' ';
let lf = b'\n';
let esc = b'\x1b';
assert!(!uppercase_a.is_ascii_digit());
assert!(!uppercase_g.is_ascii_digit());
assert!(!a.is_ascii_digit());
assert!(!g.is_ascii_digit());
assert!(zero.is_ascii_digit());
assert!(!percent.is_ascii_digit());
assert!(!space.is_ascii_digit());
assert!(!lf.is_ascii_digit());
assert!(!esc.is_ascii_digit());
```

RunChecks if the value is an ASCII hexadecimal digit:

- U+0030 ‘0’ ..= U+0039 ‘9’, or
- U+0041 ‘A’ ..= U+0046 ‘F’, or
- U+0061 ‘a’ ..= U+0066 ‘f’.

##### Examples

```
let uppercase_a = b'A';
let uppercase_g = b'G';
let a = b'a';
let g = b'g';
let zero = b'0';
let percent = b'%';
let space = b' ';
let lf = b'\n';
let esc = b'\x1b';
assert!(uppercase_a.is_ascii_hexdigit());
assert!(!uppercase_g.is_ascii_hexdigit());
assert!(a.is_ascii_hexdigit());
assert!(!g.is_ascii_hexdigit());
assert!(zero.is_ascii_hexdigit());
assert!(!percent.is_ascii_hexdigit());
assert!(!space.is_ascii_hexdigit());
assert!(!lf.is_ascii_hexdigit());
assert!(!esc.is_ascii_hexdigit());
```

RunChecks if the value is an ASCII punctuation character:

- U+0021 ..= U+002F
`! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /`

, or - U+003A ..= U+0040
`: ; < = > ? @`

, or - U+005B ..= U+0060
`[ \ ] ^ _ ``

, or - U+007B ..= U+007E
`{ | } ~`

##### Examples

```
let uppercase_a = b'A';
let uppercase_g = b'G';
let a = b'a';
let g = b'g';
let zero = b'0';
let percent = b'%';
let space = b' ';
let lf = b'\n';
let esc = b'\x1b';
assert!(!uppercase_a.is_ascii_punctuation());
assert!(!uppercase_g.is_ascii_punctuation());
assert!(!a.is_ascii_punctuation());
assert!(!g.is_ascii_punctuation());
assert!(!zero.is_ascii_punctuation());
assert!(percent.is_ascii_punctuation());
assert!(!space.is_ascii_punctuation());
assert!(!lf.is_ascii_punctuation());
assert!(!esc.is_ascii_punctuation());
```

RunChecks if the value is an ASCII graphic character: U+0021 ‘!’ ..= U+007E ‘~’.

##### Examples

```
let uppercase_a = b'A';
let uppercase_g = b'G';
let a = b'a';
let g = b'g';
let zero = b'0';
let percent = b'%';
let space = b' ';
let lf = b'\n';
let esc = b'\x1b';
assert!(uppercase_a.is_ascii_graphic());
assert!(uppercase_g.is_ascii_graphic());
assert!(a.is_ascii_graphic());
assert!(g.is_ascii_graphic());
assert!(zero.is_ascii_graphic());
assert!(percent.is_ascii_graphic());
assert!(!space.is_ascii_graphic());
assert!(!lf.is_ascii_graphic());
assert!(!esc.is_ascii_graphic());
```

RunChecks if the value is an ASCII whitespace character: U+0020 SPACE, U+0009 HORIZONTAL TAB, U+000A LINE FEED, U+000C FORM FEED, or U+000D CARRIAGE RETURN.

Rust uses the WhatWG Infra Standard’s definition of ASCII
whitespace. There are several other definitions in
wide use. For instance, the POSIX locale includes
U+000B VERTICAL TAB as well as all the above characters,
but—from the very same specification—the default rule for
“field splitting” in the Bourne shell considers *only*
SPACE, HORIZONTAL TAB, and LINE FEED as whitespace.

If you are writing a program that will process an existing file format, check what that format’s definition of whitespace is before using this function.

##### Examples

```
let uppercase_a = b'A';
let uppercase_g = b'G';
let a = b'a';
let g = b'g';
let zero = b'0';
let percent = b'%';
let space = b' ';
let lf = b'\n';
let esc = b'\x1b';
assert!(!uppercase_a.is_ascii_whitespace());
assert!(!uppercase_g.is_ascii_whitespace());
assert!(!a.is_ascii_whitespace());
assert!(!g.is_ascii_whitespace());
assert!(!zero.is_ascii_whitespace());
assert!(!percent.is_ascii_whitespace());
assert!(space.is_ascii_whitespace());
assert!(lf.is_ascii_whitespace());
assert!(!esc.is_ascii_whitespace());
```

RunChecks if the value is an ASCII control character: U+0000 NUL ..= U+001F UNIT SEPARATOR, or U+007F DELETE. Note that most ASCII whitespace characters are control characters, but SPACE is not.

##### Examples

```
let uppercase_a = b'A';
let uppercase_g = b'G';
let a = b'a';
let g = b'g';
let zero = b'0';
let percent = b'%';
let space = b' ';
let lf = b'\n';
let esc = b'\x1b';
assert!(!uppercase_a.is_ascii_control());
assert!(!uppercase_g.is_ascii_control());
assert!(!a.is_ascii_control());
assert!(!g.is_ascii_control());
assert!(!zero.is_ascii_control());
assert!(!percent.is_ascii_control());
assert!(!space.is_ascii_control());
assert!(lf.is_ascii_control());
assert!(esc.is_ascii_control());
```

Run#### pub fn escape_ascii(&self) -> EscapeDefaultⓘNotable traits for EscapeDefault`impl Iterator for EscapeDefault type Item = u8;`

#### pub fn escape_ascii(&self) -> EscapeDefaultⓘNotable traits for EscapeDefault`impl Iterator for EscapeDefault type Item = u8;`

`impl Iterator for EscapeDefault type Item = u8;`

Returns an iterator that produces an escaped version of a `u8`

,
treating it as an ASCII character.

The behavior is identical to `ascii::escape_default`

.

##### Examples

```
#![feature(inherent_ascii_escape)]
assert_eq!("0", b'0'.escape_ascii().to_string());
assert_eq!("\\t", b'\t'.escape_ascii().to_string());
assert_eq!("\\r", b'\r'.escape_ascii().to_string());
assert_eq!("\\n", b'\n'.escape_ascii().to_string());
assert_eq!("\\'", b'\''.escape_ascii().to_string());
assert_eq!("\\\"", b'"'.escape_ascii().to_string());
assert_eq!("\\\\", b'\\'.escape_ascii().to_string());
assert_eq!("\\x9d", b'\x9d'.escape_ascii().to_string());
```

Run## Trait Implementations

Performs the `+=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `+=`

operation. Read more

use inherent methods instead

Container type for copied ASCII characters.

use inherent methods instead

Checks if the value is within the ASCII range. Read more

use inherent methods instead

Makes a copy of the value in its ASCII upper case equivalent. Read more

use inherent methods instead

Makes a copy of the value in its ASCII lower case equivalent. Read more

use inherent methods instead

Checks that two values are an ASCII case-insensitive match. Read more

use inherent methods instead

Converts this type to its ASCII upper case equivalent in-place. Read more

use inherent methods instead

Converts this type to its ASCII lower case equivalent in-place. Read more

Performs the `&=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `&=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `|=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `|=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `|=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `^=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `^=`

operation. Read more

This operation rounds towards zero, truncating any fractional part of the exact result.

#### Panics

This operation will panic if `other == 0`

.

Performs the `/=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `/=`

operation. Read more

Maps a byte in 0x00..=0xFF to a `char`

whose code point has the same value, in U+0000..=U+00FF.

Unicode is designed such that this effectively decodes bytes with the character encoding that IANA calls ISO-8859-1. This encoding is compatible with ASCII.

Note that this is different from ISO/IEC 8859-1 a.k.a. ISO 8859-1 (with one less hyphen), which leaves some “blanks”, byte values that are not assigned to any character. ISO-8859-1 (the IANA one) assigns them to the C0 and C1 control codes.

Note that this is *also* different from Windows-1252 a.k.a. code page 1252,
which is a superset ISO/IEC 8859-1 that assigns some (not all!) blanks
to punctuation and various Latin characters.

To confuse things further, on the Web
`ascii`

, `iso-8859-1`

, and `windows-1252`

are all aliases
for a superset of Windows-1252 that fills the remaining blanks with corresponding
C0 and C1 control codes.

#### type Err = ParseIntError

#### type Err = ParseIntError

The associated error which can be returned from parsing.

Performs the `*=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `*=`

operation. Read more

This method returns an ordering between `self`

and `other`

values if one exists. Read more

This method tests less than (for `self`

and `other`

) and is used by the `<`

operator. Read more

This method tests less than or equal to (for `self`

and `other`

) and is used by the `<=`

operator. Read more

This method tests greater than or equal to (for `self`

and `other`

) and is used by the `>=`

operator. Read more

This operation satisfies `n % d == n - (n / d) * d`

. The
result has the same sign as the left operand.

#### Panics

This operation will panic if `other == 0`

.

Performs the `%=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `%=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `<<=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `>>=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `-=`

operation. Read more

Performs the `-=`

operation. Read more

Try to create the target number type from a source number type. This returns an error if the source value is outside of the range of the target type.

#### type Error = TryFromIntError

#### type Error = TryFromIntError

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Try to create the target number type from a source number type. This returns an error if the source value is outside of the range of the target type.

#### type Error = TryFromIntError

#### type Error = TryFromIntError

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Try to create the target number type from a source number type. This returns an error if the source value is outside of the range of the target type.

#### type Error = TryFromIntError

#### type Error = TryFromIntError

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

#### type Error = TryFromIntError

#### type Error = TryFromIntError

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

#### type Error = TryFromIntError

#### type Error = TryFromIntError

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

#### type Error = TryFromIntError

#### type Error = TryFromIntError

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

#### type Error = TryFromIntError

#### type Error = TryFromIntError

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

#### type Error = TryFromIntError

#### type Error = TryFromIntError

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.