1.0.0[][src]Enum std::option::Option

pub enum Option<T> {
    None,
    Some(T),
}

The Option type. See the module level documentation for more.

Variants

No value

Some value T

Methods

impl<T> Option<T>
[src]

Returns true if the option is a Some value.

Examples

let x: Option<u32> = Some(2);
assert_eq!(x.is_some(), true);

let x: Option<u32> = None;
assert_eq!(x.is_some(), false);Run

Returns true if the option is a None value.

Examples

let x: Option<u32> = Some(2);
assert_eq!(x.is_none(), false);

let x: Option<u32> = None;
assert_eq!(x.is_none(), true);Run

Converts from Option<T> to Option<&T>.

Examples

Convert an Option<String> into an Option<usize>, preserving the original. The map method takes the self argument by value, consuming the original, so this technique uses as_ref to first take an Option to a reference to the value inside the original.

let text: Option<String> = Some("Hello, world!".to_string());
// First, cast `Option<String>` to `Option<&String>` with `as_ref`,
// then consume *that* with `map`, leaving `text` on the stack.
let text_length: Option<usize> = text.as_ref().map(|s| s.len());
println!("still can print text: {:?}", text);Run

Converts from Option<T> to Option<&mut T>.

Examples

let mut x = Some(2);
match x.as_mut() {
    Some(v) => *v = 42,
    None => {},
}
assert_eq!(x, Some(42));Run

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (pin #49150)

Converts from Pin<&Option<T>> to Option<Pin<&T>>

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (pin #49150)

Converts from Pin<&mut Option<T>> to Option<Pin<&mut T>>

Unwraps an option, yielding the content of a Some.

Panics

Panics if the value is a None with a custom panic message provided by msg.

Examples

let x = Some("value");
assert_eq!(x.expect("the world is ending"), "value");Run
let x: Option<&str> = None;
x.expect("the world is ending"); // panics with `the world is ending`Run

Moves the value v out of the Option<T> if it is Some(v).

In general, because this function may panic, its use is discouraged. Instead, prefer to use pattern matching and handle the None case explicitly.

Panics

Panics if the self value equals None.

Examples

let x = Some("air");
assert_eq!(x.unwrap(), "air");Run
let x: Option<&str> = None;
assert_eq!(x.unwrap(), "air"); // failsRun

Returns the contained value or a default.

Arguments passed to unwrap_or are eagerly evaluated; if you are passing the result of a function call, it is recommended to use unwrap_or_else, which is lazily evaluated.

Examples

assert_eq!(Some("car").unwrap_or("bike"), "car");
assert_eq!(None.unwrap_or("bike"), "bike");Run

Returns the contained value or computes it from a closure.

Examples

let k = 10;
assert_eq!(Some(4).unwrap_or_else(|| 2 * k), 4);
assert_eq!(None.unwrap_or_else(|| 2 * k), 20);Run

Maps an Option<T> to Option<U> by applying a function to a contained value.

Examples

Convert an Option<String> into an Option<usize>, consuming the original:

let maybe_some_string = Some(String::from("Hello, World!"));
// `Option::map` takes self *by value*, consuming `maybe_some_string`
let maybe_some_len = maybe_some_string.map(|s| s.len());

assert_eq!(maybe_some_len, Some(13));Run

Applies a function to the contained value (if any), or returns the provided default (if not).

Examples

let x = Some("foo");
assert_eq!(x.map_or(42, |v| v.len()), 3);

let x: Option<&str> = None;
assert_eq!(x.map_or(42, |v| v.len()), 42);Run

Applies a function to the contained value (if any), or computes a default (if not).

Examples

let k = 21;

let x = Some("foo");
assert_eq!(x.map_or_else(|| 2 * k, |v| v.len()), 3);

let x: Option<&str> = None;
assert_eq!(x.map_or_else(|| 2 * k, |v| v.len()), 42);Run

Transforms the Option<T> into a Result<T, E>, mapping Some(v) to Ok(v) and None to Err(err).

Arguments passed to ok_or are eagerly evaluated; if you are passing the result of a function call, it is recommended to use ok_or_else, which is lazily evaluated.

Examples

let x = Some("foo");
assert_eq!(x.ok_or(0), Ok("foo"));

let x: Option<&str> = None;
assert_eq!(x.ok_or(0), Err(0));Run

Transforms the Option<T> into a Result<T, E>, mapping Some(v) to Ok(v) and None to Err(err()).

Examples

let x = Some("foo");
assert_eq!(x.ok_or_else(|| 0), Ok("foo"));

let x: Option<&str> = None;
assert_eq!(x.ok_or_else(|| 0), Err(0));Run

Important traits for Iter<'a, A>

Returns an iterator over the possibly contained value.

Examples

let x = Some(4);
assert_eq!(x.iter().next(), Some(&4));

let x: Option<u32> = None;
assert_eq!(x.iter().next(), None);Run

Important traits for IterMut<'a, A>

Returns a mutable iterator over the possibly contained value.

Examples

let mut x = Some(4);
match x.iter_mut().next() {
    Some(v) => *v = 42,
    None => {},
}
assert_eq!(x, Some(42));

let mut x: Option<u32> = None;
assert_eq!(x.iter_mut().next(), None);Run

Returns None if the option is None, otherwise returns optb.

Examples

let x = Some(2);
let y: Option<&str> = None;
assert_eq!(x.and(y), None);

let x: Option<u32> = None;
let y = Some("foo");
assert_eq!(x.and(y), None);

let x = Some(2);
let y = Some("foo");
assert_eq!(x.and(y), Some("foo"));

let x: Option<u32> = None;
let y: Option<&str> = None;
assert_eq!(x.and(y), None);Run

Returns None if the option is None, otherwise calls f with the wrapped value and returns the result.

Some languages call this operation flatmap.

Examples

fn sq(x: u32) -> Option<u32> { Some(x * x) }
fn nope(_: u32) -> Option<u32> { None }

assert_eq!(Some(2).and_then(sq).and_then(sq), Some(16));
assert_eq!(Some(2).and_then(sq).and_then(nope), None);
assert_eq!(Some(2).and_then(nope).and_then(sq), None);
assert_eq!(None.and_then(sq).and_then(sq), None);Run

Returns None if the option is None, otherwise calls predicate with the wrapped value and returns:

  • Some(t) if predicate returns true (where t is the wrapped value), and
  • None if predicate returns false.

This function works similar to Iterator::filter(). You can imagine the Option<T> being an iterator over one or zero elements. filter() lets you decide which elements to keep.

Examples

fn is_even(n: &i32) -> bool {
    n % 2 == 0
}

assert_eq!(None.filter(is_even), None);
assert_eq!(Some(3).filter(is_even), None);
assert_eq!(Some(4).filter(is_even), Some(4));Run

Returns the option if it contains a value, otherwise returns optb.

Arguments passed to or are eagerly evaluated; if you are passing the result of a function call, it is recommended to use or_else, which is lazily evaluated.

Examples

let x = Some(2);
let y = None;
assert_eq!(x.or(y), Some(2));

let x = None;
let y = Some(100);
assert_eq!(x.or(y), Some(100));

let x = Some(2);
let y = Some(100);
assert_eq!(x.or(y), Some(2));

let x: Option<u32> = None;
let y = None;
assert_eq!(x.or(y), None);Run

Returns the option if it contains a value, otherwise calls f and returns the result.

Examples

fn nobody() -> Option<&'static str> { None }
fn vikings() -> Option<&'static str> { Some("vikings") }

assert_eq!(Some("barbarians").or_else(vikings), Some("barbarians"));
assert_eq!(None.or_else(vikings), Some("vikings"));
assert_eq!(None.or_else(nobody), None);Run

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (option_xor #50512)

Returns Some if exactly one of self, optb is Some, otherwise returns None.

Examples

#![feature(option_xor)]

let x = Some(2);
let y: Option<u32> = None;
assert_eq!(x.xor(y), Some(2));

let x: Option<u32> = None;
let y = Some(2);
assert_eq!(x.xor(y), Some(2));

let x = Some(2);
let y = Some(2);
assert_eq!(x.xor(y), None);

let x: Option<u32> = None;
let y: Option<u32> = None;
assert_eq!(x.xor(y), None);Run

Important traits for &'_ mut I

Inserts v into the option if it is None, then returns a mutable reference to the contained value.

Examples

let mut x = None;

{
    let y: &mut u32 = x.get_or_insert(5);
    assert_eq!(y, &5);

    *y = 7;
}

assert_eq!(x, Some(7));Run

Important traits for &'_ mut I

Inserts a value computed from f into the option if it is None, then returns a mutable reference to the contained value.

Examples

let mut x = None;

{
    let y: &mut u32 = x.get_or_insert_with(|| 5);
    assert_eq!(y, &5);

    *y = 7;
}

assert_eq!(x, Some(7));Run

Takes the value out of the option, leaving a None in its place.

Examples

let mut x = Some(2);
let y = x.take();
assert_eq!(x, None);
assert_eq!(y, Some(2));

let mut x: Option<u32> = None;
let y = x.take();
assert_eq!(x, None);
assert_eq!(y, None);Run

Replaces the actual value in the option by the value given in parameter, returning the old value if present, leaving a Some in its place without deinitializing either one.

Examples

let mut x = Some(2);
let old = x.replace(5);
assert_eq!(x, Some(5));
assert_eq!(old, Some(2));

let mut x = None;
let old = x.replace(3);
assert_eq!(x, Some(3));
assert_eq!(old, None);Run

impl<'a, T> Option<&'a T> where
    T: Clone
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Maps an Option<&T> to an Option<T> by cloning the contents of the option.

Examples

let x = 12;
let opt_x = Some(&x);
assert_eq!(opt_x, Some(&12));
let cloned = opt_x.cloned();
assert_eq!(cloned, Some(12));Run

impl<'a, T> Option<&'a mut T> where
    T: Clone
[src]

Maps an Option<&mut T> to an Option<T> by cloning the contents of the option.

Examples

let mut x = 12;
let opt_x = Some(&mut x);
assert_eq!(opt_x, Some(&mut 12));
let cloned = opt_x.cloned();
assert_eq!(cloned, Some(12));Run

impl<T> Option<T> where
    T: Default
[src]

Returns the contained value or a default

Consumes the self argument then, if Some, returns the contained value, otherwise if None, returns the default value for that type.

Examples

Convert a string to an integer, turning poorly-formed strings into 0 (the default value for integers). parse converts a string to any other type that implements FromStr, returning None on error.

let good_year_from_input = "1909";
let bad_year_from_input = "190blarg";
let good_year = good_year_from_input.parse().ok().unwrap_or_default();
let bad_year = bad_year_from_input.parse().ok().unwrap_or_default();

assert_eq!(1909, good_year);
assert_eq!(0, bad_year);Run

impl<T> Option<T> where
    T: Deref
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🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (inner_deref #50264)

newly added

Converts from &Option<T> to Option<&T::Target>.

Leaves the original Option in-place, creating a new one with a reference to the original one, additionally coercing the contents via Deref.

impl<T, E> Option<Result<T, E>>
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🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (transpose_result #47338)

Transposes an Option of a Result into a Result of an Option.

None will be mapped to Ok(None). Some(Ok(_)) and Some(Err(_)) will be mapped to Ok(Some(_)) and Err(_).

Examples

#![feature(transpose_result)]

#[derive(Debug, Eq, PartialEq)]
struct SomeErr;

let x: Result<Option<i32>, SomeErr> = Ok(Some(5));
let y: Option<Result<i32, SomeErr>> = Some(Ok(5));
assert_eq!(x, y.transpose());Run

Trait Implementations

impl<T> From<T> for Option<T>
1.12.0
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Performs the conversion.

impl<'a, T> From<&'a mut Option<T>> for Option<&'a mut T>
1.30.0
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Performs the conversion.

impl<'a, T> From<&'a Option<T>> for Option<&'a T>
1.30.0
[src]

Performs the conversion.

impl<A, V> FromIterator<Option<A>> for Option<V> where
    V: FromIterator<A>, 
[src]

Takes each element in the Iterator: if it is None, no further elements are taken, and the None is returned. Should no None occur, a container with the values of each Option is returned.

Here is an example which increments every integer in a vector, checking for overflow:

use std::u16;

let v = vec![1, 2];
let res: Option<Vec<u16>> = v.iter().map(|&x: &u16|
    if x == u16::MAX { None }
    else { Some(x + 1) }
).collect();
assert!(res == Some(vec![2, 3]));Run

impl<T> Try for Option<T>
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🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (try_trait #42327)

The type of this value when viewed as successful.

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (try_trait #42327)

The type of this value when viewed as failed.

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (try_trait #42327)

Applies the "?" operator. A return of Ok(t) means that the execution should continue normally, and the result of ? is the value t. A return of Err(e) means that execution should branch to the innermost enclosing catch, or return from the function. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (try_trait #42327)

Wrap an OK value to construct the composite result. For example, Result::Ok(x) and Result::from_ok(x) are equivalent. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (try_trait #42327)

Wrap an error value to construct the composite result. For example, Result::Err(x) and Result::from_error(x) are equivalent. Read more

impl<T> Copy for Option<T> where
    T: Copy
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impl<T> Default for Option<T>
[src]

Returns None.

impl<T> Hash for Option<T> where
    T: Hash
[src]

Feeds this value into the given [Hasher]. Read more

Feeds a slice of this type into the given [Hasher]. Read more

impl<'a, T> IntoIterator for &'a mut Option<T>
1.4.0
[src]

The type of the elements being iterated over.

Which kind of iterator are we turning this into?

Important traits for IterMut<'a, A>

Creates an iterator from a value. Read more

impl<'a, T> IntoIterator for &'a Option<T>
1.4.0
[src]

The type of the elements being iterated over.

Which kind of iterator are we turning this into?

Important traits for Iter<'a, A>

Creates an iterator from a value. Read more

impl<T> IntoIterator for Option<T>
[src]

The type of the elements being iterated over.

Which kind of iterator are we turning this into?

Important traits for IntoIter<A>

Returns a consuming iterator over the possibly contained value.

Examples

let x = Some("string");
let v: Vec<&str> = x.into_iter().collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["string"]);

let x = None;
let v: Vec<&str> = x.into_iter().collect();
assert!(v.is_empty());Run

impl<T> Clone for Option<T> where
    T: Clone
[src]

Returns a copy of the value. Read more

Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more

impl<T> PartialOrd<Option<T>> for Option<T> where
    T: PartialOrd<T>, 
[src]

This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more

This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more

This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more

This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more

This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more

impl<T> Ord for Option<T> where
    T: Ord
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This method returns an Ordering between self and other. Read more

Compares and returns the maximum of two values. Read more

Compares and returns the minimum of two values. Read more

impl<T> Eq for Option<T> where
    T: Eq
[src]

impl<T> Debug for Option<T> where
    T: Debug
[src]

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more

impl<T> PartialEq<Option<T>> for Option<T> where
    T: PartialEq<T>, 
[src]

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

Auto Trait Implementations

impl<T> Send for Option<T> where
    T: Send

impl<T> Sync for Option<T> where
    T: Sync

Blanket Implementations

impl<T, U> TryFrom for T where
    T: From<U>, 
[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (try_from #33417)

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (try_from #33417)

Performs the conversion.

impl<I> IntoIterator for I where
    I: Iterator
[src]

The type of the elements being iterated over.

Which kind of iterator are we turning this into?

Creates an iterator from a value. Read more

impl<T> From for T
[src]

Performs the conversion.

impl<T, U> TryInto for T where
    U: TryFrom<T>, 
[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (try_from #33417)

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (try_from #33417)

Performs the conversion.

impl<T, U> Into for T where
    U: From<T>, 
[src]

Performs the conversion.

impl<T> Borrow for T where
    T: ?Sized
[src]

Important traits for &'_ mut I

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

impl<T> BorrowMut for T where
    T: ?Sized
[src]

Important traits for &'_ mut I

Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

impl<T> Any for T where
    T: 'static + ?Sized
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🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (get_type_id #27745)

this method will likely be replaced by an associated static

Gets the TypeId of self. Read more

impl<T> ToOwned for T where
    T: Clone
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Creates owned data from borrowed data, usually by cloning. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (toowned_clone_into #41263)

recently added

Uses borrowed data to replace owned data, usually by cloning. Read more