Warn-by-default lints

These lints are all set to the 'warn' level by default.

const-err

This lint detects an erroneous expression while doing constant evaluation. Some example code that triggers this lint:

let b = 200u8 + 200u8;

This will produce:

warning: attempt to add with overflow
 --> src/main.rs:2:9
  |
2 | let b = 200u8 + 200u8;
  |         ^^^^^^^^^^^^^
  |

dead-code

This lint detects detect unused, unexported items. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
fn foo() {}
#}

This will produce:

warning: function is never used: `foo`
 --> src/lib.rs:2:1
  |
2 | fn foo() {}
  | ^^^^^^^^
  |

deprecated

This lint detects detects use of deprecated items. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
#[deprecated]
fn foo() {}

fn bar() {
    foo();
}
#}

This will produce:

warning: use of deprecated item 'foo'
 --> src/lib.rs:7:5
  |
7 |     foo();
  |     ^^^
  |

illegal-floating-point-literal-pattern

This lint detects floating-point literals used in patterns. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
let x = 42.0;

match x {
    5.0 => {},
    _ => {},
}
#}

This will produce:

warning: floating-point literals cannot be used in patterns
 --> src/main.rs:4:9
  |
4 |         5.0 => {},
  |         ^^^
  |
  = note: #[warn(illegal_floating_point_literal_pattern)] on by default
  = warning: this was previously accepted by the compiler but is being phased out; it will become a hard error in a future release!
  = note: for more information, see issue #41620 <https://github.com/rust-lang/rust/issues/41620>

improper-ctypes

This lint detects proper use of libc types in foreign modules. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
extern "C" {
    static STATIC: String;
}
#}

This will produce:

warning: found struct without foreign-function-safe representation annotation in foreign module, consider adding a #[repr(C)] attribute to the type
 --> src/main.rs:2:20
  |
2 |     static STATIC: String;
  |                    ^^^^^^
  |

late-bound-lifetime-arguments

This lint detects detects generic lifetime arguments in path segments with late bound lifetime parameters. Some example code that triggers this lint:

struct S;

impl S {
    fn late<'a, 'b>(self, _: &'a u8, _: &'b u8) {}
}

fn main() {
    S.late::<'static>(&0, &0);
}

This will produce:

warning: cannot specify lifetime arguments explicitly if late bound lifetime parameters are present
 --> src/main.rs:8:14
  |
4 |     fn late<'a, 'b>(self, _: &'a u8, _: &'b u8) {}
  |             -- the late bound lifetime parameter is introduced here
...
8 |     S.late::<'static>(&0, &0);
  |              ^^^^^^^
  |
  = note: #[warn(late_bound_lifetime_arguments)] on by default
  = warning: this was previously accepted by the compiler but is being phased out; it will become a hard error in a future release!
  = note: for more information, see issue #42868 <https://github.com/rust-lang/rust/issues/42868>

non-camel-case-types

This lint detects types, variants, traits and type parameters that don't have camel case names. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
struct s;
#}

This will produce:

warning: type `s` should have a camel case name such as `S`
 --> src/main.rs:1:1
  |
1 | struct s;
  | ^^^^^^^^^
  |

non-shorthand-field-patterns

This lint detects using Struct { x: x } instead of Struct { x } in a pattern. Some example code that triggers this lint:

struct Point {
    x: i32,
    y: i32,
}


fn main() {
    let p = Point {
        x: 5,
        y: 5,
    };

    match p {
        Point { x: x, y: y } => (),
    }
}

This will produce:

warning: the `x:` in this pattern is redundant
  --> src/main.rs:14:17
   |
14 |         Point { x: x, y: y } => (),
   |                 --^^
   |                 |
   |                 help: remove this
   |

warning: the `y:` in this pattern is redundant
  --> src/main.rs:14:23
   |
14 |         Point { x: x, y: y } => (),
   |                       --^^
   |                       |
   |                       help: remove this

non-snake-case

This lint detects variables, methods, functions, lifetime parameters and modules that don't have snake case names. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
let X = 5;
#}

This will produce:

warning: variable `X` should have a snake case name such as `x`
 --> src/main.rs:2:9
  |
2 |     let X = 5;
  |         ^
  |

non-upper-case-globals

This lint detects static constants that don't have uppercase identifiers. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
static x: i32 = 5;
#}

This will produce:

warning: static variable `x` should have an upper case name such as `X`
 --> src/main.rs:1:1
  |
1 | static x: i32 = 5;
  | ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
  |

no-mangle-generic-items

This lint detects generic items must be mangled. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
#[no_mangle]
fn foo<T>(t: T) {

}
#}

This will produce:

warning: functions generic over types must be mangled
 --> src/main.rs:2:1
  |
1 |   #[no_mangle]
  |   ------------ help: remove this attribute
2 | / fn foo<T>(t: T) {
3 | |
4 | | }
  | |_^
  |

overflowing-literals

This lint detects literal out of range for its type. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
let x: u8 = 1000;
#}

This will produce:

warning: literal out of range for u8
 --> src/main.rs:2:17
  |
2 |     let x: u8 = 1000;
  |                 ^^^^
  |

path-statements

This lint detects path statements with no effect. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
let x = 42;

x;
#}

This will produce:

warning: path statement with no effect
 --> src/main.rs:3:5
  |
3 |     x;
  |     ^^
  |

patterns-in-fns-without-body

This lint detects patterns in functions without body were that were previously erroneously allowed. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
trait Trait {
    fn foo(mut arg: u8);
}
#}

This will produce:

warning: patterns aren't allowed in methods without bodies
 --> src/main.rs:2:12
  |
2 |     fn foo(mut arg: u8);
  |            ^^^^^^^
  |
  = note: #[warn(patterns_in_fns_without_body)] on by default
  = warning: this was previously accepted by the compiler but is being phased out; it will become a hard error in a future release!
  = note: for more information, see issue #35203 <https://github.com/rust-lang/rust/issues/35203>

To fix this, remove the pattern; it can be used in the implementation without being used in the definition. That is:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
trait Trait {
    fn foo(arg: u8);
}

impl Trait for i32 {
    fn foo(mut arg: u8) {

    }
}
#}

plugin-as-library

This lint detects when compiler plugins are used as ordinary library in non-plugin crate. Some example code that triggers this lint:

#![feature(plugin)]
#![plugin(macro_crate_test)]

extern crate macro_crate_test;

private-in-public

This lint detects detect private items in public interfaces not caught by the old implementation. Some example code that triggers this lint:

pub trait Trait {
    type A;
}

pub struct S;

mod foo {
    struct Z;

    impl ::Trait for ::S {
        type A = Z;
    }
}
# fn main() {}

This will produce:

error[E0446]: private type `foo::Z` in public interface
  --> src/main.rs:11:9
   |
11 |         type A = Z;
   |         ^^^^^^^^^^^ can't leak private type

private-no-mangle-fns

This lint detects functions marked #[no_mangle] that are also private. Given that private functions aren't exposed publicly, and #[no_mangle] controls the public symbol, this combination is erroneous. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
#[no_mangle]
fn foo() {}
#}

This will produce:

warning: function is marked #[no_mangle], but not exported
 --> src/main.rs:2:1
  |
2 | fn foo() {}
  | -^^^^^^^^^^
  | |
  | help: try making it public: `pub`
  |

To fix this, either make it public or remove the #[no_mangle].

private-no-mangle-statics

This lint detects any statics marked #[no_mangle] that are private. Given that private statics aren't exposed publicly, and #[no_mangle] controls the public symbol, this combination is erroneous. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
#[no_mangle]
static X: i32 = 4;
#}

This will produce:

warning: static is marked #[no_mangle], but not exported
 --> src/main.rs:2:1
  |
2 | static X: i32 = 4;
  | -^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
  | |
  | help: try making it public: `pub`
  |

To fix this, either make it public or remove the #[no_mangle].

renamed-and-removed-lints

This lint detects lints that have been renamed or removed. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#![deny(raw_pointer_derive)]
#fn main() {
#}

This will produce:

warning: lint raw_pointer_derive has been removed: using derive with raw pointers is ok
 --> src/main.rs:1:9
  |
1 | #![deny(raw_pointer_derive)]
  |         ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
  |

To fix this, either remove the lint or use the new name.

safe-packed-borrows

This lint detects borrowing a field in the interior of a packed structure with alignment other than 1. Some example code that triggers this lint:

#[repr(packed)]
pub struct Unaligned<T>(pub T);

pub struct Foo {
    start: u8,
    data: Unaligned<u32>,
}

fn main() {
    let x = Foo { start: 0, data: Unaligned(1) };
    let y = &x.data.0;
}

This will produce:

warning: borrow of packed field requires unsafe function or block (error E0133)
  --> src/main.rs:11:13
   |
11 |     let y = &x.data.0;
   |             ^^^^^^^^^
   |
   = note: #[warn(safe_packed_borrows)] on by default
   = warning: this was previously accepted by the compiler but is being phased out; it will become a hard error in a future release!
   = note: for more information, see issue #46043 <https://github.com/rust-lang/rust/issues/46043>

stable-features

This lint detects a #[feature] attribute that's since been made stable. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#![feature(test_accepted_feature)]
#fn main() {
#}

This will produce:

warning: this feature has been stable since 1.0.0. Attribute no longer needed
 --> src/main.rs:1:12
  |
1 | #![feature(test_accepted_feature)]
  |            ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
  |

To fix, simply remove the #![feature] attribute, as it's no longer needed.

type-alias-bounds

This lint detects bounds in type aliases. These are not currently enforced. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
type SendVec<T: Send> = Vec<T>;
#}

This will produce:

warning: type alias is never used: `SendVec`
 --> src/main.rs:1:1
  |
1 | type SendVec<T: Send> = Vec<T>;
  | ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
  |

tyvar-behind-raw-pointer

This lint detects raw pointer to an inference variable. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
let data = std::ptr::null();
let _ = &data as *const *const ();

if data.is_null() {}
#}

This will produce:

warning: type annotations needed
 --> src/main.rs:4:13
  |
4 |     if data.is_null() {}
  |             ^^^^^^^
  |
  = note: #[warn(tyvar_behind_raw_pointer)] on by default
  = warning: this was previously accepted by the compiler but is being phased out; it will become a hard error in the 2018 edition!
  = note: for more information, see issue #46906 <https://github.com/rust-lang/rust/issues/46906>

unconditional-recursion

This lint detects functions that cannot return without calling themselves. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
fn foo() {
    foo();
}
#}

This will produce:

warning: function cannot return without recursing
 --> src/main.rs:1:1
  |
1 | fn foo() {
  | ^^^^^^^^ cannot return without recursing
2 |     foo();
  |     ----- recursive call site
  |

unions-with-drop-fields

This lint detects use of unions that contain fields with possibly non-trivial drop code. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#![feature(untagged_unions)]

#fn main() {
union U {
    s: String,
}
#}

This will produce:

warning: union contains a field with possibly non-trivial drop code, drop code of union fields is ignored when dropping the union
 --> src/main.rs:4:5
  |
4 |     s: String,
  |     ^^^^^^^^^
  |

unknown-lints

This lint detects unrecognized lint attribute. Some example code that triggers this lint:

#[allow(not_a_real_lint)]

This will produce:

warning: unknown lint: `not_a_real_lint`
 --> src/main.rs:1:10
  |
1 | #![allow(not_a_real_lint)]
  |          ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
  |

unreachable-code

This lint detects detects unreachable code paths. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
panic!("we never go past here!");

let x = 5;
#}

This will produce:

warning: unreachable statement
 --> src/main.rs:4:5
  |
4 |     let x = 5;
  |     ^^^^^^^^^^
  |

unreachable-patterns

This lint detects detects unreachable patterns. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
let x = 5;
match x {
    y => (),
    5 => (),
}
#}

This will produce:

warning: unreachable pattern
 --> src/main.rs:5:5
  |
5 |     5 => (),
  |     ^
  |

The y pattern will always match, so the five is impossible to reach. Remember, match arms match in order, you probably wanted to put the 5 case above the y case.

unstable-name-collision

This lint detects that you've used a name that the standard library plans to add in the future, which means that your code may fail to compile without additional type annotations in the future. Either rename, or add those annotations now.

unused-allocation

This lint detects detects unnecessary allocations that can be eliminated.

unused-assignments

This lint detects detect assignments that will never be read. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
let mut x = 5;
x = 6;
#}

This will produce:

warning: value assigned to `x` is never read
 --> src/main.rs:4:5
  |
4 |     x = 6;
  |     ^
  |

unused-attributes

This lint detects detects attributes that were not used by the compiler. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#![feature(custom_attribute)]

#![mutable_doc]
#fn main() {
#}

This will produce:

warning: unused attribute
 --> src/main.rs:4:1
  |
4 | #![mutable_doc]
  | ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
  |

unused-comparisons

This lint detects comparisons made useless by limits of the types involved. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
fn foo(x: u8) {
    x >= 0;
}
#}

This will produce:

warning: comparison is useless due to type limits
 --> src/main.rs:6:5
  |
6 |     x >= 0;
  |     ^^^^^^
  |

unused-doc-comment

This lint detects detects doc comments that aren't used by rustdoc. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
/// docs for x
let x = 12;
#}

This will produce:

warning: doc comment not used by rustdoc
 --> src/main.rs:2:5
  |
2 |     /// docs for x
  |     ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
  |

unused-features

This lint detects unused or unknown features found in crate-level #[feature] directives. To fix this, simply remove the feature flag.

unused-imports

This lint detects imports that are never used. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
use std::collections::HashMap;
#}

This will produce:

warning: unused import: `std::collections::HashMap`
 --> src/main.rs:1:5
  |
1 | use std::collections::HashMap;
  |     ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
  |

unused-macros

This lint detects detects macros that were not used. Some example code that triggers this lint:

macro_rules! unused {
    () => {};
}

fn main() {
}

This will produce:

warning: unused macro definition
 --> src/main.rs:1:1
  |
1 | / macro_rules! unused {
2 | |     () => {};
3 | | }
  | |_^
  |

unused-must-use

This lint detects unused result of a type flagged as #[must_use]. Some example code that triggers this lint:

fn returns_result() -> Result<(), ()> {
    Ok(())
}

fn main() {
    returns_result();
}

This will produce:

warning: unused `std::result::Result` that must be used
 --> src/main.rs:6:5
  |
6 |     returns_result();
  |     ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
  |

unused-mut

This lint detects detect mut variables which don't need to be mutable. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
let mut x = 5;
#}

This will produce:

warning: variable does not need to be mutable
 --> src/main.rs:2:9
  |
2 |     let mut x = 5;
  |         ----^
  |         |
  |         help: remove this `mut`
  |

unused-parens

This lint detects if, match, while and return with parentheses; they do not need them. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
if(true) {}
#}

This will produce:

warning: unnecessary parentheses around `if` condition
 --> src/main.rs:2:7
  |
2 |     if(true) {}
  |       ^^^^^^ help: remove these parentheses
  |

unused-unsafe

This lint detects unnecessary use of an unsafe block. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
unsafe {}
#}

This will produce:

warning: unnecessary `unsafe` block
 --> src/main.rs:2:5
  |
2 |     unsafe {}
  |     ^^^^^^ unnecessary `unsafe` block
  |

unused-variables

This lint detects detect variables which are not used in any way. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
let x = 5;
#}

This will produce:

warning: unused variable: `x`
 --> src/main.rs:2:9
  |
2 |     let x = 5;
  |         ^ help: consider using `_x` instead
  |

warnings

This lint is a bit special; by changing its level, you change every other warning that would produce a warning to whatever value you'd like:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#![deny(warnings)]
#fn main() {
#}

As such, you won't ever trigger this lint in your code directly.

while-true

This lint detects while true { }. Some example code that triggers this lint:


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
while true {

}
#}

This will produce:

warning: denote infinite loops with `loop { ... }`
 --> src/main.rs:2:5
  |
2 |     while true {
  |     ^^^^^^^^^^ help: use `loop`
  |