pub enum SelectionCandidate<'tcx> {
Show 16 variants BuiltinCandidate { has_nested: bool, }, ParamCandidate(PolyTraitPredicate<'tcx>), ImplCandidate(DefId), AutoImplCandidate(DefId), ProjectionCandidate(usize), ClosureCandidate, GeneratorCandidate, FnPointerCandidate { is_const: bool, }, DiscriminantKindCandidate, PointeeCandidate, TraitAliasCandidate(DefId), ObjectCandidate(usize), TraitUpcastingUnsizeCandidate(usize), BuiltinObjectCandidate, BuiltinUnsizeCandidate, ConstDestructCandidate(Option<DefId>),
}
Expand description

The selection process begins by considering all impls, where clauses, and so forth that might resolve an obligation. Sometimes we’ll be able to say definitively that (e.g.) an impl does not apply to the obligation: perhaps it is defined for usize but the obligation is for i32. In that case, we drop the impl out of the list. But the other cases are considered candidates.

For selection to succeed, there must be exactly one matching candidate. If the obligation is fully known, this is guaranteed by coherence. However, if the obligation contains type parameters or variables, there may be multiple such impls.

It is not a real problem if multiple matching impls exist because of type variables - it just means the obligation isn’t sufficiently elaborated. In that case we report an ambiguity, and the caller can try again after more type information has been gathered or report a “type annotations needed” error.

However, with type parameters, this can be a real problem - type parameters don’t unify with regular types, but they can unify with variables from blanket impls, and (unless we know its bounds will always be satisfied) picking the blanket impl will be wrong for at least some substitutions. To make this concrete, if we have

trait AsDebug { type Out: fmt::Debug; fn debug(self) -> Self::Out; }
impl<T: fmt::Debug> AsDebug for T {
    type Out = T;
    fn debug(self) -> fmt::Debug { self }
}
fn foo<T: AsDebug>(t: T) { println!("{:?}", <T as AsDebug>::debug(t)); }

we can’t just use the impl to resolve the <T as AsDebug> obligation – a type from another crate (that doesn’t implement fmt::Debug) could implement AsDebug.

Because where-clauses match the type exactly, multiple clauses can only match if there are unresolved variables, and we can mostly just report this ambiguity in that case. This is still a problem - we can’t do anything with ambiguities that involve only regions. This is issue #21974.

If a single where-clause matches and there are no inference variables left, then it definitely matches and we can just select it.

In fact, we even select the where-clause when the obligation contains inference variables. The can lead to inference making “leaps of logic”, for example in this situation:

pub trait Foo<T> { fn foo(&self) -> T; }
impl<T> Foo<()> for T { fn foo(&self) { } }
impl Foo<bool> for bool { fn foo(&self) -> bool { *self } }

pub fn foo<T>(t: T) where T: Foo<bool> {
    println!("{:?}", <T as Foo<_>>::foo(&t));
}
fn main() { foo(false); }

Here the obligation <T as Foo<$0>> can be matched by both the blanket impl and the where-clause. We select the where-clause and unify $0=bool, so the program prints “false”. However, if the where-clause is omitted, the blanket impl is selected, we unify $0=(), and the program prints “()”.

Exactly the same issues apply to projection and object candidates, except that we can have both a projection candidate and a where-clause candidate for the same obligation. In that case either would do (except that different “leaps of logic” would occur if inference variables are present), and we just pick the where-clause. This is, for example, required for associated types to work in default impls, as the bounds are visible both as projection bounds and as where-clauses from the parameter environment.

Variants

BuiltinCandidate

Fields

has_nested: bool

false if there are no further obligations.

ParamCandidate(PolyTraitPredicate<'tcx>)

ImplCandidate(DefId)

AutoImplCandidate(DefId)

ProjectionCandidate(usize)

This is a trait matching with a projected type as Self, and we found an applicable bound in the trait definition. The usize is an index into the list returned by tcx.item_bounds.

ClosureCandidate

Implementation of a Fn-family trait by one of the anonymous types generated for an || expression.

GeneratorCandidate

Implementation of a Generator trait by one of the anonymous types generated for a generator.

FnPointerCandidate

Fields

is_const: bool

Implementation of a Fn-family trait by one of the anonymous types generated for a fn pointer type (e.g., fn(int) -> int)

DiscriminantKindCandidate

Builtin implementation of DiscriminantKind.

PointeeCandidate

Builtin implementation of Pointee.

TraitAliasCandidate(DefId)

ObjectCandidate(usize)

Matching dyn Trait with a supertrait of Trait. The index is the position in the iterator returned by rustc_infer::traits::util::supertraits.

TraitUpcastingUnsizeCandidate(usize)

Perform trait upcasting coercion of dyn Trait to a supertrait of Trait. The index is the position in the iterator returned by rustc_infer::traits::util::supertraits.

BuiltinObjectCandidate

BuiltinUnsizeCandidate

ConstDestructCandidate(Option<DefId>)

Implementation of const Destruct, optionally from a custom impl const Drop.

Trait Implementations

Returns a copy of the value. Read more

Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

Traverses the type in question, typically by calling try_fold_with on each field/element. This is true even for types of interest such as Ty. This should only be called within TypeFolder methods, when non-custom traversals are desired for types of interest. Read more

Traverses the type in question, typically by calling visit_with on each field/element. This is true even for types of interest such as Ty. This should only be called within TypeVisitor methods, when non-custom traversals are desired for types of interest. Read more

The main entry point for folding. To fold a value t with a folder f call: t.try_fold_with(f). Read more

A convenient alternative to try_fold_with for use with infallible folders. Do not override this method, to ensure coherence with try_fold_with. Read more

A convenient alternative to try_super_fold_with for use with infallible folders. Do not override this method, to ensure coherence with try_super_fold_with. Read more

The entry point for visiting. To visit a value t with a visitor v call: t.visit_with(v). Read more

Returns true if self has any late-bound regions that are either bound by binder or bound by some binder outside of binder. If binder is ty::INNERMOST, this indicates whether there are any late-bound regions that appear free. Read more

Returns true if this self has any regions that escape binder (and hence are not bound by it). Read more

“Free” regions in this context means that it has any region that is not (a) erased or (b) late-bound. Read more

True if there are any un-erased free regions.

Indicates whether this value references only ‘global’ generic parameters that are the same regardless of what fn we are in. This is used for caching. Read more

True if there are any late-bound regions

Indicates whether this value still has parameters/placeholders/inference variables which could be replaced later, in a way that would change the results of impl specialization. Read more

Auto Trait Implementations

Blanket Implementations

Gets the TypeId of self. Read more

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Returns the argument unchanged.

Calls U::from(self).

That is, this conversion is whatever the implementation of From<T> for U chooses to do.

The resulting type after obtaining ownership.

Creates owned data from borrowed data, usually by cloning. Read more

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (toowned_clone_into)

Uses borrowed data to replace owned data, usually by cloning. Read more

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Performs the conversion.

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Performs the conversion.

Layout

Note: Most layout information is completely unstable and may even differ between compilations. The only exception is types with certain repr(...) attributes. Please see the Rust Reference’s “Type Layout” chapter for details on type layout guarantees.

Size: 40 bytes

Size for each variant:

  • BuiltinCandidate: 1 byte
  • ParamCandidate: 39 bytes
  • ImplCandidate: 11 bytes
  • AutoImplCandidate: 11 bytes
  • ProjectionCandidate: 15 bytes
  • ClosureCandidate: 0 bytes
  • GeneratorCandidate: 0 bytes
  • FnPointerCandidate: 1 byte
  • DiscriminantKindCandidate: 0 bytes
  • PointeeCandidate: 0 bytes
  • TraitAliasCandidate: 11 bytes
  • ObjectCandidate: 15 bytes
  • TraitUpcastingUnsizeCandidate: 15 bytes
  • BuiltinObjectCandidate: 0 bytes
  • BuiltinUnsizeCandidate: 0 bytes
  • ConstDestructCandidate: 11 bytes