For now, this reference is a best-effort document. We strive for validity and completeness, but are not yet there. In the future, the docs and lang teams will work together to figure out how best to do this. Until then, this is a best-effort attempt. If you find something wrong or missing, file an issue or send in a pull request.

Macros

A number of minor features of Rust are not central enough to have their own syntax, and yet are not implementable as functions. Instead, they are given names, and invoked through a consistent syntax: some_extension!(...).

There are two ways to define new macros:

Macro Invocation

Syntax
MacroInvocation :
   SimplePath ! DelimTokenTree

DelimTokenTree :
      ( TokenTree* )
   | [ TokenTree* ]
   | { TokenTree* }

TokenTree :
   Tokenexcept delimiters | DelimTokenTree

MacroInvocationSemi :
      SimplePath ! ( TokenTree* ) ;
   | SimplePath ! [ TokenTree* ] ;
   | SimplePath ! { TokenTree* }

A macro invocation executes a macro at compile time and replaces the invocation with the result of the macro. Macros may be invoked in the following situations:

When used as an item or a statement, the MacroInvocationSemi form is used where a semicolon is required at the end when not using curly braces. Visibility qualifiers are never allowed before a macro invocation or macro_rules definition.


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
// Used as an expression.
let x = vec![1,2,3];

// Used as a statement.
println!("Hello!");

// Used in a pattern.
macro_rules! pat {
    ($i:ident) => (Some($i))
}

if let pat!(x) = Some(1) {
    assert_eq!(x, 1);
}

// Used in a type.
macro_rules! Tuple {
    { $A:ty, $B:ty } => { ($A, $B) };
}

type N2 = Tuple!(i32, i32);

// Used as an item.
# use std::cell::RefCell;
thread_local!(static FOO: RefCell<u32> = RefCell::new(1));

// Used as an associated item.
macro_rules! const_maker {
    ($t:ty, $v:tt) => { const CONST: $t = $v; };
}
trait T {
    const_maker!{i32, 7}
}

// Macro calls within macros.
macro_rules! example {
    () => { println!("Macro call in a macro!") };
}
// Outer macro `example` is expanded, then inner macro `println` is expanded.
example!();
#}