Macros

The functionality and syntax of Rust can be extended with custom definitions called macros. They are given names, and invoked through a consistent syntax:some_extension!(...).

There are two ways to define new macros:

Macro Invocation

Syntax
MacroInvocation :
   SimplePath ! DelimTokenTree

DelimTokenTree :
      ( TokenTree* )
   | [ TokenTree* ]
   | { TokenTree* }

TokenTree :
   Tokenexcept delimiters | DelimTokenTree

MacroInvocationSemi :
      SimplePath ! ( TokenTree* ) ;
   | SimplePath ! [ TokenTree* ] ;
   | SimplePath ! { TokenTree* }

A macro invocation executes a macro at compile time and replaces the invocation with the result of the macro. Macros may be invoked in the following situations:

When used as an item or a statement, the MacroInvocationSemi form is used where a semicolon is required at the end when not using curly braces. Visibility qualifiers are never allowed before a macro invocation or macro_rules definition.


#![allow(unused_variables)]
fn main() {
// Used as an expression.
let x = vec![1,2,3];

// Used as a statement.
println!("Hello!");

// Used in a pattern.
macro_rules! pat {
    ($i:ident) => (Some($i))
}

if let pat!(x) = Some(1) {
    assert_eq!(x, 1);
}

// Used in a type.
macro_rules! Tuple {
    { $A:ty, $B:ty } => { ($A, $B) };
}

type N2 = Tuple!(i32, i32);

// Used as an item.
use std::cell::RefCell;
thread_local!(static FOO: RefCell<u32> = RefCell::new(1));

// Used as an associated item.
macro_rules! const_maker {
    ($t:ty, $v:tt) => { const CONST: $t = $v; };
}
trait T {
    const_maker!{i32, 7}
}

// Macro calls within macros.
macro_rules! example {
    () => { println!("Macro call in a macro!") };
}
// Outer macro `example` is expanded, then inner macro `println` is expanded.
example!();
}