Application Binary Interface (ABI)

This section documents features that affect the ABI of the compiled output of a crate.

See extern functions for information on specifying the ABI for exporting functions. See external blocks for information on specifying the ABI for linking external libraries.

The used attribute

The used attribute can only be applied to static items. This attribute forces the compiler to keep the variable in the output object file (.o, .rlib, etc.) even if the variable is not used, or referenced, by any other item in the crate.

Below is an example that shows under what conditions the compiler keeps a static item in the output object file.


#![allow(unused_variables)]
fn main() {
// foo.rs

// This is kept because of `#[used]`:
#[used]
static FOO: u32 = 0;

// This is removable because it is unused:
#[allow(dead_code)]
static BAR: u32 = 0;

// This is kept because it is publicly reachable:
pub static BAZ: u32 = 0;

// This is kept because it is referenced by a public, reachable function:
static QUUX: u32 = 0;

pub fn quux() -> &'static u32 {
    &QUUX
}

// This is removable because it is referenced by a private, unused (dead) function:
static CORGE: u32 = 0;

#[allow(dead_code)]
fn corge() -> &'static u32 {
    &CORGE
}
}
$ rustc -O --emit=obj --crate-type=rlib foo.rs

$ nm -C foo.o
0000000000000000 R foo::BAZ
0000000000000000 r foo::FOO
0000000000000000 R foo::QUUX
0000000000000000 T foo::quux

The no_mangle attribute

The no_mangle attribute may be used on any item to disable standard symbol name mangling. The symbol for the item will be the identifier of the item's name.

The link_section attribute

The link_section attribute specifies the section of the object file that a function or static's content will be placed into. It uses the MetaNameValueStr syntax to specify the section name.

#[no_mangle]
#[link_section = ".example_section"]
pub static VAR1: u32 = 1;

The export_name attribute

The export_name attribute specifies the name of the symbol that will be exported on a function or static. It uses the MetaNameValueStr syntax to specify the symbol name.

#[export_name = "exported_symbol_name"]
pub fn name_in_rust() { }