Behavior not considered unsafe

The Rust compiler does not consider the following behaviors unsafe, though a programmer may (should) find them undesirable, unexpected, or erroneous.

Leaks of memory and other resources
Exiting without calling destructors
Exposing randomized base addresses through pointer leaks
Integer overflow

If a program contains arithmetic overflow, the programmer has made an error. In the following discussion, we maintain a distinction between arithmetic overflow and wrapping arithmetic. The first is erroneous, while the second is intentional.

When the programmer has enabled debug_assert! assertions (for example, by enabling a non-optimized build), implementations must insert dynamic checks that panic on overflow. Other kinds of builds may result in panics or silently wrapped values on overflow, at the implementation's discretion.

In the case of implicitly-wrapped overflow, implementations must provide well-defined (even if still considered erroneous) results by using two's complement overflow conventions.

The integral types provide inherent methods to allow programmers explicitly to perform wrapping arithmetic. For example, i32::wrapping_add provides two's complement, wrapping addition.

The standard library also provides a Wrapping<T> newtype which ensures all standard arithmetic operations for T have wrapping semantics.

See RFC 560 for error conditions, rationale, and more details about integer overflow.

Logic errors

Safe code may impose extra logical constraints that can be checked at neither compile-time nor runtime. If a program breaks such a constraint, the behavior may be unspecified but will not result in undefined behavior. This could include panics, incorrect results, aborts, and non-termination. The behavior may also differ between runs, builds, or kinds of build.

For example, implementing both Hash and Eq requires that values considered equal have equal hashes. Another example are data structures like BinaryHeap, BTreeMap, BTreeSet, HashMap and HashSet which describe constraints on the modification of their keys while they are in the data structure. Violating such constraints is not considered unsafe, yet the program is considered erroneous and its behavior unpredictable.