Behavior not considered
The Rust compiler does not consider the following behaviors unsafe, though a programmer may (should) find them undesirable, unexpected, or erroneous.
Leaks of memory and other resources
Exiting without calling destructors
Exposing randomized base addresses through pointer leaks
If a program contains arithmetic overflow, the programmer has made an error. In the following discussion, we maintain a distinction between arithmetic overflow and wrapping arithmetic. The first is erroneous, while the second is intentional.
When the programmer has enabled
debug_assert! assertions (for
example, by enabling a non-optimized build), implementations must
insert dynamic checks that
panic on overflow. Other kinds of builds
may result in
panics or silently wrapped values on overflow, at the
In the case of implicitly-wrapped overflow, implementations must provide well-defined (even if still considered erroneous) results by using two's complement overflow conventions.
The integral types provide inherent methods to allow programmers
explicitly to perform wrapping arithmetic. For example,
i32::wrapping_add provides two's complement, wrapping addition.
The standard library also provides a
Wrapping<T> newtype which
ensures all standard arithmetic operations for
T have wrapping
See RFC 560 for error conditions, rationale, and more details about integer overflow.
Safe code may impose extra logical constraints that can be checked at neither compile-time nor runtime. If a program breaks such a constraint, the behavior may be unspecified but will not result in undefined behavior. This could include panics, incorrect results, aborts, and non-termination. The behavior may also differ between runs, builds, or kinds of build.
For example, implementing both
Eq requires that values
considered equal have equal hashes. Another example are data structures
which describe constraints on the modification of their keys while
they are in the data structure. Violating such constraints is not
considered unsafe, yet the program is considered erroneous and
its behavior unpredictable.