Unit testing

Tests are Rust functions that verify that the non-test code is functioning in the expected manner. The bodies of test functions typically perform some setup, run the code we want to test, then assert whether the results are what we expect.

Most unit tests go into a tests mod with the #[cfg(test)] attribute. Test functions are marked with the #[test] attribute.

Tests fail when something in the test function panics. There are some helper macros:

  • assert!(expression) - panics if expression evaluates to false.
  • assert_eq!(left, right) and assert_ne!(left, right) - testing left and right expressions for equality and inequality respectively.
pub fn add(a: i32, b: i32) -> i32 {
    a + b
}

// This is a really bad adding function, its purpose is to fail in this
// example.
#[allow(dead_code)]
fn bad_add(a: i32, b: i32) -> i32 {
    a - b
}

#[cfg(test)]
mod tests {
    // Note this useful idiom: importing names from outer (for mod tests) scope.
    use super::*;

    #[test]
    fn test_add() {
        assert_eq!(add(1, 2), 3);
    }

    #[test]
    fn test_bad_add() {
        // This assert would fire and test will fail.
        // Please note, that private functions can be tested too!
        assert_eq!(bad_add(1, 2), 3);
    }
}

Tests can be run with cargo test.

$ cargo test

running 2 tests
test tests::test_bad_add ... FAILED
test tests::test_add ... ok

failures:

---- tests::test_bad_add stdout ----
        thread 'tests::test_bad_add' panicked at 'assertion failed: `(left == right)`
  left: `-1`,
 right: `3`', src/lib.rs:21:8
note: Run with `RUST_BACKTRACE=1` for a backtrace.


failures:
    tests::test_bad_add

test result: FAILED. 1 passed; 1 failed; 0 ignored; 0 measured; 0 filtered out

Tests and ?

None of the previous unit test examples had a return type. But in Rust 2018, your unit tests can return Result<()>, which lets you use ? in them! This can make them much more concise.

fn sqrt(number: f64) -> Result<f64, String> {
    if number >= 0.0 {
        Ok(number.powf(0.5))
    } else {
        Err("negative floats don't have square roots".to_owned())
    }
}

#[cfg(test)]
mod tests {
    use super::*;

    #[test]
    fn test_sqrt() -> Result<(), String> {
        let x = 4.0;
        assert_eq!(sqrt(x)?.powf(2.0), x);
        Ok(())
    }
}

See "The Edition Guide" for more details.

Testing panics

To check functions that should panic under certain circumstances, use attribute #[should_panic]. This attribute accepts optional parameter expected = with the text of the panic message. If your function can panic in multiple ways, it helps make sure your test is testing the correct panic.

pub fn divide_non_zero_result(a: u32, b: u32) -> u32 {
    if b == 0 {
        panic!("Divide-by-zero error");
    } else if a < b {
        panic!("Divide result is zero");
    }
    a / b
}

#[cfg(test)]
mod tests {
    use super::*;

    #[test]
    fn test_divide() {
        assert_eq!(divide_non_zero_result(10, 2), 5);
    }

    #[test]
    #[should_panic]
    fn test_any_panic() {
        divide_non_zero_result(1, 0);
    }

    #[test]
    #[should_panic(expected = "Divide result is zero")]
    fn test_specific_panic() {
        divide_non_zero_result(1, 10);
    }
}

Running these tests gives us:

$ cargo test

running 3 tests
test tests::test_any_panic ... ok
test tests::test_divide ... ok
test tests::test_specific_panic ... ok

test result: ok. 3 passed; 0 failed; 0 ignored; 0 measured; 0 filtered out

   Doc-tests tmp-test-should-panic

running 0 tests

test result: ok. 0 passed; 0 failed; 0 ignored; 0 measured; 0 filtered out

Running specific tests

To run specific tests one may specify the test name to cargo test command.

$ cargo test test_any_panic
running 1 test
test tests::test_any_panic ... ok

test result: ok. 1 passed; 0 failed; 0 ignored; 0 measured; 2 filtered out

   Doc-tests tmp-test-should-panic

running 0 tests

test result: ok. 0 passed; 0 failed; 0 ignored; 0 measured; 0 filtered out

To run multiple tests one may specify part of a test name that matches all the tests that should be run.

$ cargo test panic
running 2 tests
test tests::test_any_panic ... ok
test tests::test_specific_panic ... ok

test result: ok. 2 passed; 0 failed; 0 ignored; 0 measured; 1 filtered out

   Doc-tests tmp-test-should-panic

running 0 tests

test result: ok. 0 passed; 0 failed; 0 ignored; 0 measured; 0 filtered out

Ignoring tests

Tests can be marked with the #[ignore] attribute to exclude some tests. Or to run them with command cargo test -- --ignored


# #![allow(unused_variables)]
#fn main() {
pub fn add(a: i32, b: i32) -> i32 {
    a + b
}

#[cfg(test)]
mod tests {
    use super::*;

    #[test]
    fn test_add() {
        assert_eq!(add(2, 2), 4);
    }

    #[test]
    fn test_add_hundred() {
        assert_eq!(add(100, 2), 102);
        assert_eq!(add(2, 100), 102);
    }

    #[test]
    #[ignore]
    fn ignored_test() {
        assert_eq!(add(0, 0), 0);
    }
}
#}
$ cargo test
running 3 tests
test tests::ignored_test ... ignored
test tests::test_add ... ok
test tests::test_add_hundred ... ok

test result: ok. 2 passed; 0 failed; 1 ignored; 0 measured; 0 filtered out

   Doc-tests tmp-ignore

running 0 tests

test result: ok. 0 passed; 0 failed; 0 ignored; 0 measured; 0 filtered out

$ cargo test -- --ignored
running 1 test
test tests::ignored_test ... ok

test result: ok. 1 passed; 0 failed; 0 ignored; 0 measured; 0 filtered out

   Doc-tests tmp-ignore

running 0 tests

test result: ok. 0 passed; 0 failed; 0 ignored; 0 measured; 0 filtered out