Most of the time, we'd like to access data without taking ownership over it. To accomplish this, Rust uses a borrowing mechanism. Instead of passing objects by value (T), objects can be passed by reference (&T).

The compiler statically guarantees (via its borrow checker) that references always point to valid objects. That is, while references to an object exist, the object cannot be destroyed.

// This function takes ownership of a box and destroys it
fn eat_box_i32(boxed_i32: Box<i32>) {
    println!("Destroying box that contains {}", boxed_i32);

// This function borrows an i32
fn borrow_i32(borrowed_i32: &i32) {
    println!("This int is: {}", borrowed_i32);

fn main() {
    // Create a boxed i32 in the heap, and a i32 on the stack
    // Remember: numbers can have arbitrary underscores added for readability
    // 5_i32 is the same as 5i32
    let boxed_i32 = Box::new(5_i32);
    let stacked_i32 = 6_i32;

    // Borrow the contents of the box. Ownership is not taken,
    // so the contents can be borrowed again.

        // Take a reference to the data contained inside the box
        let _ref_to_i32: &i32 = &boxed_i32;

        // Error!
        // Can't destroy `boxed_i32` while the inner value is borrowed later in scope.
        // FIXME ^ Comment out this line

        // Attempt to borrow `_ref_to_i32` after inner value is destroyed
        // `_ref_to_i32` goes out of scope and is no longer borrowed.

    // `boxed_i32` can now give up ownership to `eat_box_i32` and be destroyed