First off, we need to come up with the struct layout. A Vec has three parts: a pointer to the allocation, the size of the allocation, and the number of elements that have been initialized.

Naively, this means we just want this design:

pub struct Vec<T> {
    ptr: *mut T,
    cap: usize,
    len: usize,

And indeed this would compile. Unfortunately, it would be incorrect. First, the compiler will give us too strict variance. So a &Vec<&'static str> couldn't be used where an &Vec<&'a str> was expected. More importantly, it will give incorrect ownership information to the drop checker, as it will conservatively assume we don't own any values of type T. See the chapter on ownership and lifetimes for all the details on variance and drop check.

As we saw in the ownership chapter, we should use Unique<T> in place of *mut T when we have a raw pointer to an allocation we own. Unique is unstable, so we'd like to not use it if possible, though.

As a recap, Unique is a wrapper around a raw pointer that declares that:

  • We are variant over T
  • We may own a value of type T (for drop check)
  • We are Send/Sync if T is Send/Sync
  • Our pointer is never null (so Option<Vec<T>> is null-pointer-optimized)

We can implement all of the above requirements except for the last one in stable Rust:

use std::marker::PhantomData;
use std::ops::Deref;
use std::mem;

struct Unique<T> {
    ptr: *const T,              // *const for variance
    _marker: PhantomData<T>,    // For the drop checker

// Deriving Send and Sync is safe because we are the Unique owners
// of this data. It's like Unique<T> is "just" T.
unsafe impl<T: Send> Send for Unique<T> {}
unsafe impl<T: Sync> Sync for Unique<T> {}

impl<T> Unique<T> {
    pub fn new(ptr: *mut T) -> Self {
        Unique { ptr: ptr, _marker: PhantomData }

    pub fn as_ptr(&self) -> *mut T {
        self.ptr as *mut T

Unfortunately the mechanism for stating that your value is non-zero is unstable and unlikely to be stabilized soon. As such we're just going to take the hit and use std's Unique:

pub struct Vec<T> {
    ptr: Unique<T>,
    cap: usize,
    len: usize,

If you don't care about the null-pointer optimization, then you can use the stable code. However we will be designing the rest of the code around enabling this optimization. It should be noted that Unique::new is unsafe to call, because putting null inside of it is Undefined Behavior. Our stable Unique doesn't need new to be unsafe because it doesn't make any interesting guarantees about its contents.