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use crate::borrow_check::ArtificialField;
use crate::borrow_check::Overlap;
use crate::borrow_check::{AccessDepth, Deep, Shallow};
use rustc_hir as hir;
use rustc_middle::mir::{Body, BorrowKind, Local, Place, PlaceElem, PlaceRef, ProjectionElem};
use rustc_middle::ty::{self, TyCtxt};
use std::cmp::max;

/// When checking if a place conflicts with another place, this enum is used to influence decisions
/// where a place might be equal or disjoint with another place, such as if `a[i] == a[j]`.
/// `PlaceConflictBias::Overlap` would bias toward assuming that `i` might equal `j` and that these
/// places overlap. `PlaceConflictBias::NoOverlap` assumes that for the purposes of the predicate
/// being run in the calling context, the conservative choice is to assume the compared indices
/// are disjoint (and therefore, do not overlap).
#[derive(Copy, Clone, Debug, Eq, PartialEq)]
crate enum PlaceConflictBias {
    Overlap,
    NoOverlap,
}

/// Helper function for checking if places conflict with a mutable borrow and deep access depth.
/// This is used to check for places conflicting outside of the borrow checking code (such as in
/// dataflow).
crate fn places_conflict<'tcx>(
    tcx: TyCtxt<'tcx>,
    body: &Body<'tcx>,
    borrow_place: Place<'tcx>,
    access_place: Place<'tcx>,
    bias: PlaceConflictBias,
) -> bool {
    borrow_conflicts_with_place(
        tcx,
        body,
        borrow_place,
        BorrowKind::Mut { allow_two_phase_borrow: true },
        access_place.as_ref(),
        AccessDepth::Deep,
        bias,
    )
}

/// Checks whether the `borrow_place` conflicts with the `access_place` given a borrow kind and
/// access depth. The `bias` parameter is used to determine how the unknowable (comparing runtime
/// array indices, for example) should be interpreted - this depends on what the caller wants in
/// order to make the conservative choice and preserve soundness.
pub(super) fn borrow_conflicts_with_place<'tcx>(
    tcx: TyCtxt<'tcx>,
    body: &Body<'tcx>,
    borrow_place: Place<'tcx>,
    borrow_kind: BorrowKind,
    access_place: PlaceRef<'tcx>,
    access: AccessDepth,
    bias: PlaceConflictBias,
) -> bool {
    debug!(
        "borrow_conflicts_with_place({:?}, {:?}, {:?}, {:?})",
        borrow_place, access_place, access, bias,
    );

    // This Local/Local case is handled by the more general code below, but
    // it's so common that it's a speed win to check for it first.
    if let Some(l1) = borrow_place.as_local() {
        if let Some(l2) = access_place.as_local() {
            return l1 == l2;
        }
    }

    place_components_conflict(tcx, body, borrow_place, borrow_kind, access_place, access, bias)
}

fn place_components_conflict<'tcx>(
    tcx: TyCtxt<'tcx>,
    body: &Body<'tcx>,
    borrow_place: Place<'tcx>,
    borrow_kind: BorrowKind,
    access_place: PlaceRef<'tcx>,
    access: AccessDepth,
    bias: PlaceConflictBias,
) -> bool {
    // The borrowck rules for proving disjointness are applied from the "root" of the
    // borrow forwards, iterating over "similar" projections in lockstep until
    // we can prove overlap one way or another. Essentially, we treat `Overlap` as
    // a monoid and report a conflict if the product ends up not being `Disjoint`.
    //
    // At each step, if we didn't run out of borrow or place, we know that our elements
    // have the same type, and that they only overlap if they are the identical.
    //
    // For example, if we are comparing these:
    // BORROW:  (*x1[2].y).z.a
    // ACCESS:  (*x1[i].y).w.b
    //
    // Then our steps are:
    //       x1         |   x1          -- places are the same
    //       x1[2]      |   x1[i]       -- equal or disjoint (disjoint if indexes differ)
    //       x1[2].y    |   x1[i].y     -- equal or disjoint
    //      *x1[2].y    |  *x1[i].y     -- equal or disjoint
    //     (*x1[2].y).z | (*x1[i].y).w  -- we are disjoint and don't need to check more!
    //
    // Because `zip` does potentially bad things to the iterator inside, this loop
    // also handles the case where the access might be a *prefix* of the borrow, e.g.
    //
    // BORROW:  (*x1[2].y).z.a
    // ACCESS:  x1[i].y
    //
    // Then our steps are:
    //       x1         |   x1          -- places are the same
    //       x1[2]      |   x1[i]       -- equal or disjoint (disjoint if indexes differ)
    //       x1[2].y    |   x1[i].y     -- equal or disjoint
    //
    // -- here we run out of access - the borrow can access a part of it. If this
    // is a full deep access, then we *know* the borrow conflicts with it. However,
    // if the access is shallow, then we can proceed:
    //
    //       x1[2].y    | (*x1[i].y)    -- a deref! the access can't get past this, so we
    //                                     are disjoint
    //
    // Our invariant is, that at each step of the iteration:
    //  - If we didn't run out of access to match, our borrow and access are comparable
    //    and either equal or disjoint.
    //  - If we did run out of access, the borrow can access a part of it.

    let borrow_local = borrow_place.local;
    let access_local = access_place.local;

    match place_base_conflict(borrow_local, access_local) {
        Overlap::Arbitrary => {
            bug!("Two base can't return Arbitrary");
        }
        Overlap::EqualOrDisjoint => {
            // This is the recursive case - proceed to the next element.
        }
        Overlap::Disjoint => {
            // We have proven the borrow disjoint - further
            // projections will remain disjoint.
            debug!("borrow_conflicts_with_place: disjoint");
            return false;
        }
    }

    // loop invariant: borrow_c is always either equal to access_c or disjoint from it.
    for (i, (borrow_c, &access_c)) in
        borrow_place.projection.iter().zip(access_place.projection.iter()).enumerate()
    {
        debug!("borrow_conflicts_with_place: borrow_c = {:?}", borrow_c);
        let borrow_proj_base = &borrow_place.projection[..i];

        debug!("borrow_conflicts_with_place: access_c = {:?}", access_c);

        // Borrow and access path both have more components.
        //
        // Examples:
        //
        // - borrow of `a.(...)`, access to `a.(...)`
        // - borrow of `a.(...)`, access to `b.(...)`
        //
        // Here we only see the components we have checked so
        // far (in our examples, just the first component). We
        // check whether the components being borrowed vs
        // accessed are disjoint (as in the second example,
        // but not the first).
        match place_projection_conflict(
            tcx,
            body,
            borrow_local,
            borrow_proj_base,
            borrow_c,
            access_c,
            bias,
        ) {
            Overlap::Arbitrary => {
                // We have encountered different fields of potentially
                // the same union - the borrow now partially overlaps.
                //
                // There is no *easy* way of comparing the fields
                // further on, because they might have different types
                // (e.g., borrows of `u.a.0` and `u.b.y` where `.0` and
                // `.y` come from different structs).
                //
                // We could try to do some things here - e.g., count
                // dereferences - but that's probably not a good
                // idea, at least for now, so just give up and
                // report a conflict. This is unsafe code anyway so
                // the user could always use raw pointers.
                debug!("borrow_conflicts_with_place: arbitrary -> conflict");
                return true;
            }
            Overlap::EqualOrDisjoint => {
                // This is the recursive case - proceed to the next element.
            }
            Overlap::Disjoint => {
                // We have proven the borrow disjoint - further
                // projections will remain disjoint.
                debug!("borrow_conflicts_with_place: disjoint");
                return false;
            }
        }
    }

    if borrow_place.projection.len() > access_place.projection.len() {
        for (i, elem) in borrow_place.projection[access_place.projection.len()..].iter().enumerate()
        {
            // Borrow path is longer than the access path. Examples:
            //
            // - borrow of `a.b.c`, access to `a.b`
            //
            // Here, we know that the borrow can access a part of
            // our place. This is a conflict if that is a part our
            // access cares about.

            let proj_base = &borrow_place.projection[..access_place.projection.len() + i];
            let base_ty = Place::ty_from(borrow_local, proj_base, body, tcx).ty;

            match (elem, &base_ty.kind(), access) {
                (_, _, Shallow(Some(ArtificialField::ArrayLength)))
                | (_, _, Shallow(Some(ArtificialField::ShallowBorrow))) => {
                    // The array length is like  additional fields on the
                    // type; it does not overlap any existing data there.
                    // Furthermore, if cannot actually be a prefix of any
                    // borrowed place (at least in MIR as it is currently.)
                    //
                    // e.g., a (mutable) borrow of `a[5]` while we read the
                    // array length of `a`.
                    debug!("borrow_conflicts_with_place: implicit field");
                    return false;
                }

                (ProjectionElem::Deref, _, Shallow(None)) => {
                    // e.g., a borrow of `*x.y` while we shallowly access `x.y` or some
                    // prefix thereof - the shallow access can't touch anything behind
                    // the pointer.
                    debug!("borrow_conflicts_with_place: shallow access behind ptr");
                    return false;
                }
                (ProjectionElem::Deref, ty::Ref(_, _, hir::Mutability::Not), _) => {
                    // Shouldn't be tracked
                    bug!("Tracking borrow behind shared reference.");
                }
                (ProjectionElem::Deref, ty::Ref(_, _, hir::Mutability::Mut), AccessDepth::Drop) => {
                    // Values behind a mutable reference are not access either by dropping a
                    // value, or by StorageDead
                    debug!("borrow_conflicts_with_place: drop access behind ptr");
                    return false;
                }

                (ProjectionElem::Field { .. }, ty::Adt(def, _), AccessDepth::Drop) => {
                    // Drop can read/write arbitrary projections, so places
                    // conflict regardless of further projections.
                    if def.has_dtor(tcx) {
                        return true;
                    }
                }

                (ProjectionElem::Deref, _, Deep)
                | (ProjectionElem::Deref, _, AccessDepth::Drop)
                | (ProjectionElem::Field { .. }, _, _)
                | (ProjectionElem::Index { .. }, _, _)
                | (ProjectionElem::ConstantIndex { .. }, _, _)
                | (ProjectionElem::Subslice { .. }, _, _)
                | (ProjectionElem::Downcast { .. }, _, _) => {
                    // Recursive case. This can still be disjoint on a
                    // further iteration if this a shallow access and
                    // there's a deref later on, e.g., a borrow
                    // of `*x.y` while accessing `x`.
                }
            }
        }
    }

    // Borrow path ran out but access path may not
    // have. Examples:
    //
    // - borrow of `a.b`, access to `a.b.c`
    // - borrow of `a.b`, access to `a.b`
    //
    // In the first example, where we didn't run out of
    // access, the borrow can access all of our place, so we
    // have a conflict.
    //
    // If the second example, where we did, then we still know
    // that the borrow can access a *part* of our place that
    // our access cares about, so we still have a conflict.
    if borrow_kind == BorrowKind::Shallow
        && borrow_place.projection.len() < access_place.projection.len()
    {
        debug!("borrow_conflicts_with_place: shallow borrow");
        false
    } else {
        debug!("borrow_conflicts_with_place: full borrow, CONFLICT");
        true
    }
}

// Given that the bases of `elem1` and `elem2` are always either equal
// or disjoint (and have the same type!), return the overlap situation
// between `elem1` and `elem2`.
fn place_base_conflict(l1: Local, l2: Local) -> Overlap {
    if l1 == l2 {
        // the same local - base case, equal
        debug!("place_element_conflict: DISJOINT-OR-EQ-LOCAL");
        Overlap::EqualOrDisjoint
    } else {
        // different locals - base case, disjoint
        debug!("place_element_conflict: DISJOINT-LOCAL");
        Overlap::Disjoint
    }
}

// Given that the bases of `elem1` and `elem2` are always either equal
// or disjoint (and have the same type!), return the overlap situation
// between `elem1` and `elem2`.
fn place_projection_conflict<'tcx>(
    tcx: TyCtxt<'tcx>,
    body: &Body<'tcx>,
    pi1_local: Local,
    pi1_proj_base: &[PlaceElem<'tcx>],
    pi1_elem: PlaceElem<'tcx>,
    pi2_elem: PlaceElem<'tcx>,
    bias: PlaceConflictBias,
) -> Overlap {
    match (pi1_elem, pi2_elem) {
        (ProjectionElem::Deref, ProjectionElem::Deref) => {
            // derefs (e.g., `*x` vs. `*x`) - recur.
            debug!("place_element_conflict: DISJOINT-OR-EQ-DEREF");
            Overlap::EqualOrDisjoint
        }
        (ProjectionElem::Field(f1, _), ProjectionElem::Field(f2, _)) => {
            if f1 == f2 {
                // same field (e.g., `a.y` vs. `a.y`) - recur.
                debug!("place_element_conflict: DISJOINT-OR-EQ-FIELD");
                Overlap::EqualOrDisjoint
            } else {
                let ty = Place::ty_from(pi1_local, pi1_proj_base, body, tcx).ty;
                match ty.kind() {
                    ty::Adt(def, _) if def.is_union() => {
                        // Different fields of a union, we are basically stuck.
                        debug!("place_element_conflict: STUCK-UNION");
                        Overlap::Arbitrary
                    }
                    _ => {
                        // Different fields of a struct (`a.x` vs. `a.y`). Disjoint!
                        debug!("place_element_conflict: DISJOINT-FIELD");
                        Overlap::Disjoint
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        (ProjectionElem::Downcast(_, v1), ProjectionElem::Downcast(_, v2)) => {
            // different variants are treated as having disjoint fields,
            // even if they occupy the same "space", because it's
            // impossible for 2 variants of the same enum to exist
            // (and therefore, to be borrowed) at the same time.
            //
            // Note that this is different from unions - we *do* allow
            // this code to compile:
            //
            // ```
            // fn foo(x: &mut Result<i32, i32>) {
            //     let mut v = None;
            //     if let Ok(ref mut a) = *x {
            //         v = Some(a);
            //     }
            //     // here, you would *think* that the
            //     // *entirety* of `x` would be borrowed,
            //     // but in fact only the `Ok` variant is,
            //     // so the `Err` variant is *entirely free*:
            //     if let Err(ref mut a) = *x {
            //         v = Some(a);
            //     }
            //     drop(v);
            // }
            // ```
            if v1 == v2 {
                debug!("place_element_conflict: DISJOINT-OR-EQ-FIELD");
                Overlap::EqualOrDisjoint
            } else {
                debug!("place_element_conflict: DISJOINT-FIELD");
                Overlap::Disjoint
            }
        }
        (
            ProjectionElem::Index(..),
            ProjectionElem::Index(..)
            | ProjectionElem::ConstantIndex { .. }
            | ProjectionElem::Subslice { .. },
        )
        | (
            ProjectionElem::ConstantIndex { .. } | ProjectionElem::Subslice { .. },
            ProjectionElem::Index(..),
        ) => {
            // Array indexes (`a[0]` vs. `a[i]`). These can either be disjoint
            // (if the indexes differ) or equal (if they are the same).
            match bias {
                PlaceConflictBias::Overlap => {
                    // If we are biased towards overlapping, then this is the recursive
                    // case that gives "equal *or* disjoint" its meaning.
                    debug!("place_element_conflict: DISJOINT-OR-EQ-ARRAY-INDEX");
                    Overlap::EqualOrDisjoint
                }
                PlaceConflictBias::NoOverlap => {
                    // If we are biased towards no overlapping, then this is disjoint.
                    debug!("place_element_conflict: DISJOINT-ARRAY-INDEX");
                    Overlap::Disjoint
                }
            }
        }
        (
            ProjectionElem::ConstantIndex { offset: o1, min_length: _, from_end: false },
            ProjectionElem::ConstantIndex { offset: o2, min_length: _, from_end: false },
        )
        | (
            ProjectionElem::ConstantIndex { offset: o1, min_length: _, from_end: true },
            ProjectionElem::ConstantIndex { offset: o2, min_length: _, from_end: true },
        ) => {
            if o1 == o2 {
                debug!("place_element_conflict: DISJOINT-OR-EQ-ARRAY-CONSTANT-INDEX");
                Overlap::EqualOrDisjoint
            } else {
                debug!("place_element_conflict: DISJOINT-ARRAY-CONSTANT-INDEX");
                Overlap::Disjoint
            }
        }
        (
            ProjectionElem::ConstantIndex {
                offset: offset_from_begin,
                min_length: min_length1,
                from_end: false,
            },
            ProjectionElem::ConstantIndex {
                offset: offset_from_end,
                min_length: min_length2,
                from_end: true,
            },
        )
        | (
            ProjectionElem::ConstantIndex {
                offset: offset_from_end,
                min_length: min_length1,
                from_end: true,
            },
            ProjectionElem::ConstantIndex {
                offset: offset_from_begin,
                min_length: min_length2,
                from_end: false,
            },
        ) => {
            // both patterns matched so it must be at least the greater of the two
            let min_length = max(min_length1, min_length2);
            // `offset_from_end` can be in range `[1..min_length]`, 1 indicates the last
            // element (like -1 in Python) and `min_length` the first.
            // Therefore, `min_length - offset_from_end` gives the minimal possible
            // offset from the beginning
            if offset_from_begin >= min_length - offset_from_end {
                debug!("place_element_conflict: DISJOINT-OR-EQ-ARRAY-CONSTANT-INDEX-FE");
                Overlap::EqualOrDisjoint
            } else {
                debug!("place_element_conflict: DISJOINT-ARRAY-CONSTANT-INDEX-FE");
                Overlap::Disjoint
            }
        }
        (
            ProjectionElem::ConstantIndex { offset, min_length: _, from_end: false },
            ProjectionElem::Subslice { from, to, from_end: false },
        )
        | (
            ProjectionElem::Subslice { from, to, from_end: false },
            ProjectionElem::ConstantIndex { offset, min_length: _, from_end: false },
        ) => {
            if (from..to).contains(&offset) {
                debug!("place_element_conflict: DISJOINT-OR-EQ-ARRAY-CONSTANT-INDEX-SUBSLICE");
                Overlap::EqualOrDisjoint
            } else {
                debug!("place_element_conflict: DISJOINT-ARRAY-CONSTANT-INDEX-SUBSLICE");
                Overlap::Disjoint
            }
        }
        (
            ProjectionElem::ConstantIndex { offset, min_length: _, from_end: false },
            ProjectionElem::Subslice { from, .. },
        )
        | (
            ProjectionElem::Subslice { from, .. },
            ProjectionElem::ConstantIndex { offset, min_length: _, from_end: false },
        ) => {
            if offset >= from {
                debug!("place_element_conflict: DISJOINT-OR-EQ-SLICE-CONSTANT-INDEX-SUBSLICE");
                Overlap::EqualOrDisjoint
            } else {
                debug!("place_element_conflict: DISJOINT-SLICE-CONSTANT-INDEX-SUBSLICE");
                Overlap::Disjoint
            }
        }
        (
            ProjectionElem::ConstantIndex { offset, min_length: _, from_end: true },
            ProjectionElem::Subslice { to, from_end: true, .. },
        )
        | (
            ProjectionElem::Subslice { to, from_end: true, .. },
            ProjectionElem::ConstantIndex { offset, min_length: _, from_end: true },
        ) => {
            if offset > to {
                debug!(
                    "place_element_conflict: \
                       DISJOINT-OR-EQ-SLICE-CONSTANT-INDEX-SUBSLICE-FE"
                );
                Overlap::EqualOrDisjoint
            } else {
                debug!("place_element_conflict: DISJOINT-SLICE-CONSTANT-INDEX-SUBSLICE-FE");
                Overlap::Disjoint
            }
        }
        (
            ProjectionElem::Subslice { from: f1, to: t1, from_end: false },
            ProjectionElem::Subslice { from: f2, to: t2, from_end: false },
        ) => {
            if f2 >= t1 || f1 >= t2 {
                debug!("place_element_conflict: DISJOINT-ARRAY-SUBSLICES");
                Overlap::Disjoint
            } else {
                debug!("place_element_conflict: DISJOINT-OR-EQ-ARRAY-SUBSLICES");
                Overlap::EqualOrDisjoint
            }
        }
        (ProjectionElem::Subslice { .. }, ProjectionElem::Subslice { .. }) => {
            debug!("place_element_conflict: DISJOINT-OR-EQ-SLICE-SUBSLICES");
            Overlap::EqualOrDisjoint
        }
        (
            ProjectionElem::Deref
            | ProjectionElem::Field(..)
            | ProjectionElem::Index(..)
            | ProjectionElem::ConstantIndex { .. }
            | ProjectionElem::Subslice { .. }
            | ProjectionElem::Downcast(..),
            _,
        ) => bug!(
            "mismatched projections in place_element_conflict: {:?} and {:?}",
            pi1_elem,
            pi2_elem
        ),
    }
}