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//! Error Reporting Code for the inference engine
//!
//! Because of the way inference, and in particular region inference,
//! works, it often happens that errors are not detected until far after
//! the relevant line of code has been type-checked. Therefore, there is
//! an elaborate system to track why a particular constraint in the
//! inference graph arose so that we can explain to the user what gave
//! rise to a particular error.
//!
//! The system is based around a set of "origin" types. An "origin" is the
//! reason that a constraint or inference variable arose. There are
//! different "origin" enums for different kinds of constraints/variables
//! (e.g., `TypeOrigin`, `RegionVariableOrigin`). An origin always has
//! a span, but also more information so that we can generate a meaningful
//! error message.
//!
//! Having a catalog of all the different reasons an error can arise is
//! also useful for other reasons, like cross-referencing FAQs etc, though
//! we are not really taking advantage of this yet.
//!
//! # Region Inference
//!
//! Region inference is particularly tricky because it always succeeds "in
//! the moment" and simply registers a constraint. Then, at the end, we
//! can compute the full graph and report errors, so we need to be able to
//! store and later report what gave rise to the conflicting constraints.
//!
//! # Subtype Trace
//!
//! Determining whether `T1 <: T2` often involves a number of subtypes and
//! subconstraints along the way. A "TypeTrace" is an extended version
//! of an origin that traces the types and other values that were being
//! compared. It is not necessarily comprehensive (in fact, at the time of
//! this writing it only tracks the root values being compared) but I'd
//! like to extend it to include significant "waypoints". For example, if
//! you are comparing `(T1, T2) <: (T3, T4)`, and the problem is that `T2
//! <: T4` fails, I'd like the trace to include enough information to say
//! "in the 2nd element of the tuple". Similarly, failures when comparing
//! arguments or return types in fn types should be able to cite the
//! specific position, etc.
//!
//! # Reality vs plan
//!
//! Of course, there is still a LOT of code in typeck that has yet to be
//! ported to this system, and which relies on string concatenation at the
//! time of error detection.

use super::lexical_region_resolve::RegionResolutionError;
use super::region_constraints::GenericKind;
use super::{InferCtxt, RegionVariableOrigin, SubregionOrigin, TypeTrace, ValuePairs};

use crate::errors::{self, ObligationCauseFailureCode, TypeErrorAdditionalDiags};
use crate::infer;
use crate::infer::error_reporting::nice_region_error::find_anon_type::find_anon_type;
use crate::infer::ExpectedFound;
use crate::traits::{
    IfExpressionCause, MatchExpressionArmCause, ObligationCause, ObligationCauseCode,
    PredicateObligation,
};

use rustc_data_structures::fx::{FxIndexMap, FxIndexSet};
use rustc_errors::{pluralize, struct_span_err, Diagnostic, ErrorGuaranteed, IntoDiagnosticArg};
use rustc_errors::{Applicability, DiagnosticBuilder, DiagnosticStyledString};
use rustc_hir as hir;
use rustc_hir::def::DefKind;
use rustc_hir::def_id::{DefId, LocalDefId};
use rustc_hir::intravisit::Visitor;
use rustc_hir::lang_items::LangItem;
use rustc_hir::Node;
use rustc_middle::dep_graph::DepContext;
use rustc_middle::ty::print::with_forced_trimmed_paths;
use rustc_middle::ty::relate::{self, RelateResult, TypeRelation};
use rustc_middle::ty::{
    self, error::TypeError, List, Region, Ty, TyCtxt, TypeFoldable, TypeSuperVisitable,
    TypeVisitable, TypeVisitableExt,
};
use rustc_span::{sym, symbol::kw, BytePos, DesugaringKind, Pos, Span};
use rustc_target::spec::abi;
use std::borrow::Cow;
use std::ops::{ControlFlow, Deref};
use std::path::PathBuf;
use std::{cmp, fmt, iter};

mod note;
mod note_and_explain;
mod suggest;

pub(crate) mod need_type_info;
pub use need_type_info::TypeAnnotationNeeded;

pub mod nice_region_error;

/// Makes a valid string literal from a string by escaping special characters (" and \),
/// unless they are already escaped.
fn escape_literal(s: &str) -> String {
    let mut escaped = String::with_capacity(s.len());
    let mut chrs = s.chars().peekable();
    while let Some(first) = chrs.next() {
        match (first, chrs.peek()) {
            ('\\', Some(&delim @ '"') | Some(&delim @ '\'')) => {
                escaped.push('\\');
                escaped.push(delim);
                chrs.next();
            }
            ('"' | '\'', _) => {
                escaped.push('\\');
                escaped.push(first)
            }
            (c, _) => escaped.push(c),
        };
    }
    escaped
}

/// A helper for building type related errors. The `typeck_results`
/// field is only populated during an in-progress typeck.
/// Get an instance by calling `InferCtxt::err_ctxt` or `FnCtxt::err_ctxt`.
///
/// You must only create this if you intend to actually emit an error.
/// This provides a lot of utility methods which should not be used
/// during the happy path.
pub struct TypeErrCtxt<'a, 'tcx> {
    pub infcx: &'a InferCtxt<'tcx>,
    pub typeck_results: Option<std::cell::Ref<'a, ty::TypeckResults<'tcx>>>,
    pub fallback_has_occurred: bool,

    pub normalize_fn_sig: Box<dyn Fn(ty::PolyFnSig<'tcx>) -> ty::PolyFnSig<'tcx> + 'a>,

    pub autoderef_steps:
        Box<dyn Fn(Ty<'tcx>) -> Vec<(Ty<'tcx>, Vec<PredicateObligation<'tcx>>)> + 'a>,
}

impl Drop for TypeErrCtxt<'_, '_> {
    fn drop(&mut self) {
        if let Some(_) = self.infcx.tcx.sess.has_errors_or_delayed_span_bugs() {
            // ok, emitted an error.
        } else {
            self.infcx
                .tcx
                .sess
                .delay_good_path_bug("used a `TypeErrCtxt` without raising an error or lint");
        }
    }
}

impl TypeErrCtxt<'_, '_> {
    /// This is just to avoid a potential footgun of accidentally
    /// dropping `typeck_results` by calling `InferCtxt::err_ctxt`
    #[deprecated(note = "you already have a `TypeErrCtxt`")]
    #[allow(unused)]
    pub fn err_ctxt(&self) -> ! {
        bug!("called `err_ctxt` on `TypeErrCtxt`. Try removing the call");
    }
}

impl<'tcx> Deref for TypeErrCtxt<'_, 'tcx> {
    type Target = InferCtxt<'tcx>;
    fn deref(&self) -> &InferCtxt<'tcx> {
        &self.infcx
    }
}

pub(super) fn note_and_explain_region<'tcx>(
    tcx: TyCtxt<'tcx>,
    err: &mut Diagnostic,
    prefix: &str,
    region: ty::Region<'tcx>,
    suffix: &str,
    alt_span: Option<Span>,
) {
    let (description, span) = match *region {
        ty::ReEarlyBound(_) | ty::ReFree(_) | ty::RePlaceholder(_) | ty::ReStatic => {
            msg_span_from_named_region(tcx, region, alt_span)
        }

        ty::ReError(_) => return,

        // We shouldn't really be having unification failures with ReVar
        // and ReLateBound though.
        ty::ReVar(_) | ty::ReLateBound(..) | ty::ReErased => {
            (format!("lifetime `{region}`"), alt_span)
        }
    };

    emit_msg_span(err, prefix, description, span, suffix);
}

fn explain_free_region<'tcx>(
    tcx: TyCtxt<'tcx>,
    err: &mut Diagnostic,
    prefix: &str,
    region: ty::Region<'tcx>,
    suffix: &str,
) {
    let (description, span) = msg_span_from_named_region(tcx, region, None);

    label_msg_span(err, prefix, description, span, suffix);
}

fn msg_span_from_named_region<'tcx>(
    tcx: TyCtxt<'tcx>,
    region: ty::Region<'tcx>,
    alt_span: Option<Span>,
) -> (String, Option<Span>) {
    match *region {
        ty::ReEarlyBound(ref br) => {
            let scope = region.free_region_binding_scope(tcx).expect_local();
            let span = if let Some(param) =
                tcx.hir().get_generics(scope).and_then(|generics| generics.get_named(br.name))
            {
                param.span
            } else {
                tcx.def_span(scope)
            };
            let text = if br.has_name() {
                format!("the lifetime `{}` as defined here", br.name)
            } else {
                "the anonymous lifetime as defined here".to_string()
            };
            (text, Some(span))
        }
        ty::ReFree(ref fr) => {
            if !fr.bound_region.is_named()
                && let Some((ty, _)) = find_anon_type(tcx, region, &fr.bound_region)
            {
                ("the anonymous lifetime defined here".to_string(), Some(ty.span))
            } else {
                let scope = region.free_region_binding_scope(tcx).expect_local();
                match fr.bound_region {
                    ty::BoundRegionKind::BrNamed(_, name) => {
                        let span = if let Some(param) =
                            tcx.hir().get_generics(scope).and_then(|generics| generics.get_named(name))
                        {
                            param.span
                        } else {
                            tcx.def_span(scope)
                        };
                        let text = if name == kw::UnderscoreLifetime {
                            "the anonymous lifetime as defined here".to_string()
                        } else {
                            format!("the lifetime `{}` as defined here", name)
                        };
                        (text, Some(span))
                    }
                    ty::BrAnon(span) => (
                        "the anonymous lifetime as defined here".to_string(),
                        Some(match span {
                            Some(span) => span,
                            None => tcx.def_span(scope)
                        })
                    ),
                    _ => (
                        format!("the lifetime `{}` as defined here", region),
                        Some(tcx.def_span(scope)),
                    ),
                }
            }
        }
        ty::ReStatic => ("the static lifetime".to_owned(), alt_span),
        ty::RePlaceholder(ty::PlaceholderRegion {
            bound: ty::BoundRegion { kind: ty::BoundRegionKind::BrNamed(def_id, name), .. },
            ..
        }) => (format!("the lifetime `{name}` as defined here"), Some(tcx.def_span(def_id))),
        ty::RePlaceholder(ty::PlaceholderRegion {
            bound: ty::BoundRegion { kind: ty::BoundRegionKind::BrAnon(Some(span)), .. },
            ..
        }) => (format!("the anonymous lifetime defined here"), Some(span)),
        ty::RePlaceholder(ty::PlaceholderRegion {
            bound: ty::BoundRegion { kind: ty::BoundRegionKind::BrAnon(None), .. },
            ..
        }) => (format!("an anonymous lifetime"), None),
        _ => bug!("{:?}", region),
    }
}

fn emit_msg_span(
    err: &mut Diagnostic,
    prefix: &str,
    description: String,
    span: Option<Span>,
    suffix: &str,
) {
    let message = format!("{}{}{}", prefix, description, suffix);

    if let Some(span) = span {
        err.span_note(span, message);
    } else {
        err.note(message);
    }
}

fn label_msg_span(
    err: &mut Diagnostic,
    prefix: &str,
    description: String,
    span: Option<Span>,
    suffix: &str,
) {
    let message = format!("{}{}{}", prefix, description, suffix);

    if let Some(span) = span {
        err.span_label(span, message);
    } else {
        err.note(message);
    }
}

#[instrument(level = "trace", skip(tcx))]
pub fn unexpected_hidden_region_diagnostic<'tcx>(
    tcx: TyCtxt<'tcx>,
    span: Span,
    hidden_ty: Ty<'tcx>,
    hidden_region: ty::Region<'tcx>,
    opaque_ty_key: ty::OpaqueTypeKey<'tcx>,
) -> DiagnosticBuilder<'tcx, ErrorGuaranteed> {
    let mut err = tcx.sess.create_err(errors::OpaqueCapturesLifetime {
        span,
        opaque_ty: tcx.mk_opaque(opaque_ty_key.def_id.to_def_id(), opaque_ty_key.substs),
        opaque_ty_span: tcx.def_span(opaque_ty_key.def_id),
    });

    // Explain the region we are capturing.
    match *hidden_region {
        ty::ReEarlyBound(_) | ty::ReFree(_) | ty::ReStatic => {
            // Assuming regionck succeeded (*), we ought to always be
            // capturing *some* region from the fn header, and hence it
            // ought to be free. So under normal circumstances, we will go
            // down this path which gives a decent human readable
            // explanation.
            //
            // (*) if not, the `tainted_by_errors` field would be set to
            // `Some(ErrorGuaranteed)` in any case, so we wouldn't be here at all.
            explain_free_region(
                tcx,
                &mut err,
                &format!("hidden type `{}` captures ", hidden_ty),
                hidden_region,
                "",
            );
            if let Some(reg_info) = tcx.is_suitable_region(hidden_region) {
                let fn_returns = tcx.return_type_impl_or_dyn_traits(reg_info.def_id);
                nice_region_error::suggest_new_region_bound(
                    tcx,
                    &mut err,
                    fn_returns,
                    hidden_region.to_string(),
                    None,
                    format!("captures `{}`", hidden_region),
                    None,
                    Some(reg_info.def_id),
                )
            }
        }
        ty::ReError(_) => {
            err.delay_as_bug();
        }
        _ => {
            // Ugh. This is a painful case: the hidden region is not one
            // that we can easily summarize or explain. This can happen
            // in a case like
            // `tests/ui/multiple-lifetimes/ordinary-bounds-unsuited.rs`:
            //
            // ```
            // fn upper_bounds<'a, 'b>(a: Ordinary<'a>, b: Ordinary<'b>) -> impl Trait<'a, 'b> {
            //   if condition() { a } else { b }
            // }
            // ```
            //
            // Here the captured lifetime is the intersection of `'a` and
            // `'b`, which we can't quite express.

            // We can at least report a really cryptic error for now.
            note_and_explain_region(
                tcx,
                &mut err,
                &format!("hidden type `{}` captures ", hidden_ty),
                hidden_region,
                "",
                None,
            );
        }
    }

    err
}

impl<'tcx> InferCtxt<'tcx> {
    pub fn get_impl_future_output_ty(&self, ty: Ty<'tcx>) -> Option<Ty<'tcx>> {
        let (def_id, substs) = match *ty.kind() {
            ty::Alias(_, ty::AliasTy { def_id, substs, .. })
                if matches!(self.tcx.def_kind(def_id), DefKind::OpaqueTy) =>
            {
                (def_id, substs)
            }
            ty::Alias(_, ty::AliasTy { def_id, substs, .. })
                if self.tcx.is_impl_trait_in_trait(def_id) =>
            {
                (def_id, substs)
            }
            _ => return None,
        };

        let future_trait = self.tcx.require_lang_item(LangItem::Future, None);
        let item_def_id = self.tcx.associated_item_def_ids(future_trait)[0];

        self.tcx.explicit_item_bounds(def_id).subst_iter_copied(self.tcx, substs).find_map(
            |(predicate, _)| {
                predicate
                    .kind()
                    .map_bound(|kind| match kind {
                        ty::PredicateKind::Clause(ty::Clause::Projection(projection_predicate))
                            if projection_predicate.projection_ty.def_id == item_def_id =>
                        {
                            projection_predicate.term.ty()
                        }
                        _ => None,
                    })
                    .no_bound_vars()
                    .flatten()
            },
        )
    }
}

impl<'tcx> TypeErrCtxt<'_, 'tcx> {
    pub fn report_region_errors(
        &self,
        generic_param_scope: LocalDefId,
        errors: &[RegionResolutionError<'tcx>],
    ) -> ErrorGuaranteed {
        if let Some(guaranteed) = self.infcx.tainted_by_errors() {
            return guaranteed;
        }

        debug!("report_region_errors(): {} errors to start", errors.len());

        // try to pre-process the errors, which will group some of them
        // together into a `ProcessedErrors` group:
        let errors = self.process_errors(errors);

        debug!("report_region_errors: {} errors after preprocessing", errors.len());

        for error in errors {
            debug!("report_region_errors: error = {:?}", error);

            if !self.try_report_nice_region_error(&error) {
                match error.clone() {
                    // These errors could indicate all manner of different
                    // problems with many different solutions. Rather
                    // than generate a "one size fits all" error, what we
                    // attempt to do is go through a number of specific
                    // scenarios and try to find the best way to present
                    // the error. If all of these fails, we fall back to a rather
                    // general bit of code that displays the error information
                    RegionResolutionError::ConcreteFailure(origin, sub, sup) => {
                        if sub.is_placeholder() || sup.is_placeholder() {
                            self.report_placeholder_failure(origin, sub, sup).emit();
                        } else {
                            self.report_concrete_failure(origin, sub, sup).emit();
                        }
                    }

                    RegionResolutionError::GenericBoundFailure(origin, param_ty, sub) => {
                        self.report_generic_bound_failure(
                            generic_param_scope,
                            origin.span(),
                            Some(origin),
                            param_ty,
                            sub,
                        );
                    }

                    RegionResolutionError::SubSupConflict(
                        _,
                        var_origin,
                        sub_origin,
                        sub_r,
                        sup_origin,
                        sup_r,
                        _,
                    ) => {
                        if sub_r.is_placeholder() {
                            self.report_placeholder_failure(sub_origin, sub_r, sup_r).emit();
                        } else if sup_r.is_placeholder() {
                            self.report_placeholder_failure(sup_origin, sub_r, sup_r).emit();
                        } else {
                            self.report_sub_sup_conflict(
                                var_origin, sub_origin, sub_r, sup_origin, sup_r,
                            );
                        }
                    }

                    RegionResolutionError::UpperBoundUniverseConflict(
                        _,
                        _,
                        _,
                        sup_origin,
                        sup_r,
                    ) => {
                        assert!(sup_r.is_placeholder());

                        // Make a dummy value for the "sub region" --
                        // this is the initial value of the
                        // placeholder. In practice, we expect more
                        // tailored errors that don't really use this
                        // value.
                        let sub_r = self.tcx.lifetimes.re_erased;

                        self.report_placeholder_failure(sup_origin, sub_r, sup_r).emit();
                    }
                }
            }
        }

        self.tcx
            .sess
            .delay_span_bug(self.tcx.def_span(generic_param_scope), "expected region errors")
    }

    // This method goes through all the errors and try to group certain types
    // of error together, for the purpose of suggesting explicit lifetime
    // parameters to the user. This is done so that we can have a more
    // complete view of what lifetimes should be the same.
    // If the return value is an empty vector, it means that processing
    // failed (so the return value of this method should not be used).
    //
    // The method also attempts to weed out messages that seem like
    // duplicates that will be unhelpful to the end-user. But
    // obviously it never weeds out ALL errors.
    fn process_errors(
        &self,
        errors: &[RegionResolutionError<'tcx>],
    ) -> Vec<RegionResolutionError<'tcx>> {
        debug!("process_errors()");

        // We want to avoid reporting generic-bound failures if we can
        // avoid it: these have a very high rate of being unhelpful in
        // practice. This is because they are basically secondary
        // checks that test the state of the region graph after the
        // rest of inference is done, and the other kinds of errors
        // indicate that the region constraint graph is internally
        // inconsistent, so these test results are likely to be
        // meaningless.
        //
        // Therefore, we filter them out of the list unless they are
        // the only thing in the list.

        let is_bound_failure = |e: &RegionResolutionError<'tcx>| match *e {
            RegionResolutionError::GenericBoundFailure(..) => true,
            RegionResolutionError::ConcreteFailure(..)
            | RegionResolutionError::SubSupConflict(..)
            | RegionResolutionError::UpperBoundUniverseConflict(..) => false,
        };

        let mut errors = if errors.iter().all(|e| is_bound_failure(e)) {
            errors.to_owned()
        } else {
            errors.iter().filter(|&e| !is_bound_failure(e)).cloned().collect()
        };

        // sort the errors by span, for better error message stability.
        errors.sort_by_key(|u| match *u {
            RegionResolutionError::ConcreteFailure(ref sro, _, _) => sro.span(),
            RegionResolutionError::GenericBoundFailure(ref sro, _, _) => sro.span(),
            RegionResolutionError::SubSupConflict(_, ref rvo, _, _, _, _, _) => rvo.span(),
            RegionResolutionError::UpperBoundUniverseConflict(_, ref rvo, _, _, _) => rvo.span(),
        });
        errors
    }

    /// Adds a note if the types come from similarly named crates
    fn check_and_note_conflicting_crates(&self, err: &mut Diagnostic, terr: TypeError<'tcx>) {
        use hir::def_id::CrateNum;
        use rustc_hir::definitions::DisambiguatedDefPathData;
        use ty::print::Printer;
        use ty::subst::GenericArg;

        struct AbsolutePathPrinter<'tcx> {
            tcx: TyCtxt<'tcx>,
        }

        struct NonTrivialPath;

        impl<'tcx> Printer<'tcx> for AbsolutePathPrinter<'tcx> {
            type Error = NonTrivialPath;

            type Path = Vec<String>;
            type Region = !;
            type Type = !;
            type DynExistential = !;
            type Const = !;

            fn tcx<'a>(&'a self) -> TyCtxt<'tcx> {
                self.tcx
            }

            fn print_region(self, _region: ty::Region<'_>) -> Result<Self::Region, Self::Error> {
                Err(NonTrivialPath)
            }

            fn print_type(self, _ty: Ty<'tcx>) -> Result<Self::Type, Self::Error> {
                Err(NonTrivialPath)
            }

            fn print_dyn_existential(
                self,
                _predicates: &'tcx ty::List<ty::PolyExistentialPredicate<'tcx>>,
            ) -> Result<Self::DynExistential, Self::Error> {
                Err(NonTrivialPath)
            }

            fn print_const(self, _ct: ty::Const<'tcx>) -> Result<Self::Const, Self::Error> {
                Err(NonTrivialPath)
            }

            fn path_crate(self, cnum: CrateNum) -> Result<Self::Path, Self::Error> {
                Ok(vec![self.tcx.crate_name(cnum).to_string()])
            }
            fn path_qualified(
                self,
                _self_ty: Ty<'tcx>,
                _trait_ref: Option<ty::TraitRef<'tcx>>,
            ) -> Result<Self::Path, Self::Error> {
                Err(NonTrivialPath)
            }

            fn path_append_impl(
                self,
                _print_prefix: impl FnOnce(Self) -> Result<Self::Path, Self::Error>,
                _disambiguated_data: &DisambiguatedDefPathData,
                _self_ty: Ty<'tcx>,
                _trait_ref: Option<ty::TraitRef<'tcx>>,
            ) -> Result<Self::Path, Self::Error> {
                Err(NonTrivialPath)
            }
            fn path_append(
                self,
                print_prefix: impl FnOnce(Self) -> Result<Self::Path, Self::Error>,
                disambiguated_data: &DisambiguatedDefPathData,
            ) -> Result<Self::Path, Self::Error> {
                let mut path = print_prefix(self)?;
                path.push(disambiguated_data.to_string());
                Ok(path)
            }
            fn path_generic_args(
                self,
                print_prefix: impl FnOnce(Self) -> Result<Self::Path, Self::Error>,
                _args: &[GenericArg<'tcx>],
            ) -> Result<Self::Path, Self::Error> {
                print_prefix(self)
            }
        }

        let report_path_match = |err: &mut Diagnostic, did1: DefId, did2: DefId| {
            // Only report definitions from different crates. If both definitions
            // are from a local module we could have false positives, e.g.
            // let _ = [{struct Foo; Foo}, {struct Foo; Foo}];
            if did1.krate != did2.krate {
                let abs_path =
                    |def_id| AbsolutePathPrinter { tcx: self.tcx }.print_def_path(def_id, &[]);

                // We compare strings because DefPath can be different
                // for imported and non-imported crates
                let same_path = || -> Result<_, NonTrivialPath> {
                    Ok(self.tcx.def_path_str(did1) == self.tcx.def_path_str(did2)
                        || abs_path(did1)? == abs_path(did2)?)
                };
                if same_path().unwrap_or(false) {
                    let crate_name = self.tcx.crate_name(did1.krate);
                    let msg = if did1.is_local() || did2.is_local() {
                        format!(
                            "the crate `{crate_name}` is compiled multiple times, possibly with different configurations"
                        )
                    } else {
                        format!(
                            "perhaps two different versions of crate `{crate_name}` are being used?"
                        )
                    };
                    err.note(msg);
                }
            }
        };
        match terr {
            TypeError::Sorts(ref exp_found) => {
                // if they are both "path types", there's a chance of ambiguity
                // due to different versions of the same crate
                if let (&ty::Adt(exp_adt, _), &ty::Adt(found_adt, _)) =
                    (exp_found.expected.kind(), exp_found.found.kind())
                {
                    report_path_match(err, exp_adt.did(), found_adt.did());
                }
            }
            TypeError::Traits(ref exp_found) => {
                report_path_match(err, exp_found.expected, exp_found.found);
            }
            _ => (), // FIXME(#22750) handle traits and stuff
        }
    }

    fn note_error_origin(
        &self,
        err: &mut Diagnostic,
        cause: &ObligationCause<'tcx>,
        exp_found: Option<ty::error::ExpectedFound<Ty<'tcx>>>,
        terr: TypeError<'tcx>,
    ) {
        match *cause.code() {
            ObligationCauseCode::Pattern { origin_expr: true, span: Some(span), root_ty } => {
                let ty = self.resolve_vars_if_possible(root_ty);
                if !matches!(ty.kind(), ty::Infer(ty::InferTy::TyVar(_) | ty::InferTy::FreshTy(_)))
                {
                    // don't show type `_`
                    if span.desugaring_kind() == Some(DesugaringKind::ForLoop)
                        && let ty::Adt(def, substs) = ty.kind()
                        && Some(def.did()) == self.tcx.get_diagnostic_item(sym::Option)
                    {
                        err.span_label(span, format!("this is an iterator with items of type `{}`", substs.type_at(0)));
                    } else {
                    err.span_label(span, format!("this expression has type `{}`", ty));
                }
                }
                if let Some(ty::error::ExpectedFound { found, .. }) = exp_found
                    && ty.is_box() && ty.boxed_ty() == found
                    && let Ok(snippet) = self.tcx.sess.source_map().span_to_snippet(span)
                {
                    err.span_suggestion(
                        span,
                        "consider dereferencing the boxed value",
                        format!("*{}", snippet),
                        Applicability::MachineApplicable,
                    );
                }
            }
            ObligationCauseCode::Pattern { origin_expr: false, span: Some(span), .. } => {
                err.span_label(span, "expected due to this");
            }
            ObligationCauseCode::MatchExpressionArm(box MatchExpressionArmCause {
                arm_block_id,
                arm_span,
                arm_ty,
                prior_arm_block_id,
                prior_arm_span,
                prior_arm_ty,
                source,
                ref prior_arms,
                scrut_hir_id,
                opt_suggest_box_span,
                scrut_span,
                ..
            }) => match source {
                hir::MatchSource::TryDesugar => {
                    if let Some(ty::error::ExpectedFound { expected, .. }) = exp_found {
                        let scrut_expr = self.tcx.hir().expect_expr(scrut_hir_id);
                        let scrut_ty = if let hir::ExprKind::Call(_, args) = &scrut_expr.kind {
                            let arg_expr = args.first().expect("try desugaring call w/out arg");
                            self.typeck_results.as_ref().and_then(|typeck_results| {
                                typeck_results.expr_ty_opt(arg_expr)
                            })
                        } else {
                            bug!("try desugaring w/out call expr as scrutinee");
                        };

                        match scrut_ty {
                            Some(ty) if expected == ty => {
                                let source_map = self.tcx.sess.source_map();
                                err.span_suggestion(
                                    source_map.end_point(cause.span),
                                    "try removing this `?`",
                                    "",
                                    Applicability::MachineApplicable,
                                );
                            }
                            _ => {}
                        }
                    }
                }
                _ => {
                    // `prior_arm_ty` can be `!`, `expected` will have better info when present.
                    let t = self.resolve_vars_if_possible(match exp_found {
                        Some(ty::error::ExpectedFound { expected, .. }) => expected,
                        _ => prior_arm_ty,
                    });
                    let source_map = self.tcx.sess.source_map();
                    let mut any_multiline_arm = source_map.is_multiline(arm_span);
                    if prior_arms.len() <= 4 {
                        for sp in prior_arms {
                            any_multiline_arm |= source_map.is_multiline(*sp);
                            err.span_label(*sp, format!("this is found to be of type `{}`", t));
                        }
                    } else if let Some(sp) = prior_arms.last() {
                        any_multiline_arm |= source_map.is_multiline(*sp);
                        err.span_label(
                            *sp,
                            format!("this and all prior arms are found to be of type `{}`", t),
                        );
                    }
                    let outer = if any_multiline_arm || !source_map.is_multiline(cause.span) {
                        // Cover just `match` and the scrutinee expression, not
                        // the entire match body, to reduce diagram noise.
                        cause.span.shrink_to_lo().to(scrut_span)
                    } else {
                        cause.span
                    };
                    let msg = "`match` arms have incompatible types";
                    err.span_label(outer, msg);
                    if let Some(subdiag) = self.suggest_remove_semi_or_return_binding(
                        prior_arm_block_id,
                        prior_arm_ty,
                        prior_arm_span,
                        arm_block_id,
                        arm_ty,
                        arm_span,
                    ) {
                        err.subdiagnostic(subdiag);
                    }
                    if let Some(ret_sp) = opt_suggest_box_span {
                        // Get return type span and point to it.
                        self.suggest_boxing_for_return_impl_trait(
                            err,
                            ret_sp,
                            prior_arms.iter().chain(std::iter::once(&arm_span)).map(|s| *s),
                        );
                    }
                }
            },
            ObligationCauseCode::IfExpression(box IfExpressionCause {
                then_id,
                else_id,
                then_ty,
                else_ty,
                outer_span,
                opt_suggest_box_span,
            }) => {
                let then_span = self.find_block_span_from_hir_id(then_id);
                let else_span = self.find_block_span_from_hir_id(else_id);
                err.span_label(then_span, "expected because of this");
                if let Some(sp) = outer_span {
                    err.span_label(sp, "`if` and `else` have incompatible types");
                }
                if let Some(subdiag) = self.suggest_remove_semi_or_return_binding(
                    Some(then_id),
                    then_ty,
                    then_span,
                    Some(else_id),
                    else_ty,
                    else_span,
                ) {
                    err.subdiagnostic(subdiag);
                }
                if let Some(ret_sp) = opt_suggest_box_span {
                    self.suggest_boxing_for_return_impl_trait(
                        err,
                        ret_sp,
                        [then_span, else_span].into_iter(),
                    );
                }
            }
            ObligationCauseCode::LetElse => {
                err.help("try adding a diverging expression, such as `return` or `panic!(..)`");
                err.help("...or use `match` instead of `let...else`");
            }
            _ => {
                if let ObligationCauseCode::BindingObligation(_, span)
                | ObligationCauseCode::ExprBindingObligation(_, span, ..)
                = cause.code().peel_derives()
                    && let TypeError::RegionsPlaceholderMismatch = terr
                {
                    err.span_note( * span,
                    "the lifetime requirement is introduced here");
                }
            }
        }
    }

    /// Given that `other_ty` is the same as a type argument for `name` in `sub`, populate `value`
    /// highlighting `name` and every type argument that isn't at `pos` (which is `other_ty`), and
    /// populate `other_value` with `other_ty`.
    ///
    /// ```text
    /// Foo<Bar<Qux>>
    /// ^^^^--------^ this is highlighted
    /// |   |
    /// |   this type argument is exactly the same as the other type, not highlighted
    /// this is highlighted
    /// Bar<Qux>
    /// -------- this type is the same as a type argument in the other type, not highlighted
    /// ```
    fn highlight_outer(
        &self,
        value: &mut DiagnosticStyledString,
        other_value: &mut DiagnosticStyledString,
        name: String,
        sub: ty::subst::SubstsRef<'tcx>,
        pos: usize,
        other_ty: Ty<'tcx>,
    ) {
        // `value` and `other_value` hold two incomplete type representation for display.
        // `name` is the path of both types being compared. `sub`
        value.push_highlighted(name);
        let len = sub.len();
        if len > 0 {
            value.push_highlighted("<");
        }

        // Output the lifetimes for the first type
        let lifetimes = sub
            .regions()
            .map(|lifetime| {
                let s = lifetime.to_string();
                if s.is_empty() { "'_".to_string() } else { s }
            })
            .collect::<Vec<_>>()
            .join(", ");
        if !lifetimes.is_empty() {
            if sub.regions().count() < len {
                value.push_normal(lifetimes + ", ");
            } else {
                value.push_normal(lifetimes);
            }
        }

        // Highlight all the type arguments that aren't at `pos` and compare the type argument at
        // `pos` and `other_ty`.
        for (i, type_arg) in sub.types().enumerate() {
            if i == pos {
                let values = self.cmp(type_arg, other_ty);
                value.0.extend((values.0).0);
                other_value.0.extend((values.1).0);
            } else {
                value.push_highlighted(type_arg.to_string());
            }

            if len > 0 && i != len - 1 {
                value.push_normal(", ");
            }
        }
        if len > 0 {
            value.push_highlighted(">");
        }
    }

    /// If `other_ty` is the same as a type argument present in `sub`, highlight `path` in `t1_out`,
    /// as that is the difference to the other type.
    ///
    /// For the following code:
    ///
    /// ```ignore (illustrative)
    /// let x: Foo<Bar<Qux>> = foo::<Bar<Qux>>();
    /// ```
    ///
    /// The type error output will behave in the following way:
    ///
    /// ```text
    /// Foo<Bar<Qux>>
    /// ^^^^--------^ this is highlighted
    /// |   |
    /// |   this type argument is exactly the same as the other type, not highlighted
    /// this is highlighted
    /// Bar<Qux>
    /// -------- this type is the same as a type argument in the other type, not highlighted
    /// ```
    fn cmp_type_arg(
        &self,
        mut t1_out: &mut DiagnosticStyledString,
        mut t2_out: &mut DiagnosticStyledString,
        path: String,
        sub: &'tcx [ty::GenericArg<'tcx>],
        other_path: String,
        other_ty: Ty<'tcx>,
    ) -> Option<()> {
        // FIXME/HACK: Go back to `SubstsRef` to use its inherent methods,
        // ideally that shouldn't be necessary.
        let sub = self.tcx.mk_substs(sub);
        for (i, ta) in sub.types().enumerate() {
            if ta == other_ty {
                self.highlight_outer(&mut t1_out, &mut t2_out, path, sub, i, other_ty);
                return Some(());
            }
            if let ty::Adt(def, _) = ta.kind() {
                let path_ = self.tcx.def_path_str(def.did());
                if path_ == other_path {
                    self.highlight_outer(&mut t1_out, &mut t2_out, path, sub, i, other_ty);
                    return Some(());
                }
            }
        }
        None
    }

    /// Adds a `,` to the type representation only if it is appropriate.
    fn push_comma(
        &self,
        value: &mut DiagnosticStyledString,
        other_value: &mut DiagnosticStyledString,
        len: usize,
        pos: usize,
    ) {
        if len > 0 && pos != len - 1 {
            value.push_normal(", ");
            other_value.push_normal(", ");
        }
    }

    /// Given two `fn` signatures highlight only sub-parts that are different.
    fn cmp_fn_sig(
        &self,
        sig1: &ty::PolyFnSig<'tcx>,
        sig2: &ty::PolyFnSig<'tcx>,
    ) -> (DiagnosticStyledString, DiagnosticStyledString) {
        let sig1 = &(self.normalize_fn_sig)(*sig1);
        let sig2 = &(self.normalize_fn_sig)(*sig2);

        let get_lifetimes = |sig| {
            use rustc_hir::def::Namespace;
            let (_, sig, reg) = ty::print::FmtPrinter::new(self.tcx, Namespace::TypeNS)
                .name_all_regions(sig)
                .unwrap();
            let lts: Vec<String> = reg.into_values().map(|kind| kind.to_string()).collect();
            (if lts.is_empty() { String::new() } else { format!("for<{}> ", lts.join(", ")) }, sig)
        };

        let (lt1, sig1) = get_lifetimes(sig1);
        let (lt2, sig2) = get_lifetimes(sig2);

        // unsafe extern "C" for<'a> fn(&'a T) -> &'a T
        let mut values = (
            DiagnosticStyledString::normal("".to_string()),
            DiagnosticStyledString::normal("".to_string()),
        );

        // unsafe extern "C" for<'a> fn(&'a T) -> &'a T
        // ^^^^^^
        values.0.push(sig1.unsafety.prefix_str(), sig1.unsafety != sig2.unsafety);
        values.1.push(sig2.unsafety.prefix_str(), sig1.unsafety != sig2.unsafety);

        // unsafe extern "C" for<'a> fn(&'a T) -> &'a T
        //        ^^^^^^^^^^
        if sig1.abi != abi::Abi::Rust {
            values.0.push(format!("extern {} ", sig1.abi), sig1.abi != sig2.abi);
        }
        if sig2.abi != abi::Abi::Rust {
            values.1.push(format!("extern {} ", sig2.abi), sig1.abi != sig2.abi);
        }

        // unsafe extern "C" for<'a> fn(&'a T) -> &'a T
        //                   ^^^^^^^^
        let lifetime_diff = lt1 != lt2;
        values.0.push(lt1, lifetime_diff);
        values.1.push(lt2, lifetime_diff);

        // unsafe extern "C" for<'a> fn(&'a T) -> &'a T
        //                           ^^^
        values.0.push_normal("fn(");
        values.1.push_normal("fn(");

        // unsafe extern "C" for<'a> fn(&'a T) -> &'a T
        //                              ^^^^^
        let len1 = sig1.inputs().len();
        let len2 = sig2.inputs().len();
        if len1 == len2 {
            for (i, (l, r)) in iter::zip(sig1.inputs(), sig2.inputs()).enumerate() {
                let (x1, x2) = self.cmp(*l, *r);
                (values.0).0.extend(x1.0);
                (values.1).0.extend(x2.0);
                self.push_comma(&mut values.0, &mut values.1, len1, i);
            }
        } else {
            for (i, l) in sig1.inputs().iter().enumerate() {
                values.0.push_highlighted(l.to_string());
                if i != len1 - 1 {
                    values.0.push_highlighted(", ");
                }
            }
            for (i, r) in sig2.inputs().iter().enumerate() {
                values.1.push_highlighted(r.to_string());
                if i != len2 - 1 {
                    values.1.push_highlighted(", ");
                }
            }
        }

        if sig1.c_variadic {
            if len1 > 0 {
                values.0.push_normal(", ");
            }
            values.0.push("...", !sig2.c_variadic);
        }
        if sig2.c_variadic {
            if len2 > 0 {
                values.1.push_normal(", ");
            }
            values.1.push("...", !sig1.c_variadic);
        }

        // unsafe extern "C" for<'a> fn(&'a T) -> &'a T
        //                                   ^
        values.0.push_normal(")");
        values.1.push_normal(")");

        // unsafe extern "C" for<'a> fn(&'a T) -> &'a T
        //                                     ^^^^^^^^
        let output1 = sig1.output();
        let output2 = sig2.output();
        let (x1, x2) = self.cmp(output1, output2);
        if !output1.is_unit() {
            values.0.push_normal(" -> ");
            (values.0).0.extend(x1.0);
        }
        if !output2.is_unit() {
            values.1.push_normal(" -> ");
            (values.1).0.extend(x2.0);
        }
        values
    }

    /// Compares two given types, eliding parts that are the same between them and highlighting
    /// relevant differences, and return two representation of those types for highlighted printing.
    pub fn cmp(
        &self,
        t1: Ty<'tcx>,
        t2: Ty<'tcx>,
    ) -> (DiagnosticStyledString, DiagnosticStyledString) {
        debug!("cmp(t1={}, t1.kind={:?}, t2={}, t2.kind={:?})", t1, t1.kind(), t2, t2.kind());

        // helper functions
        fn equals<'tcx>(a: Ty<'tcx>, b: Ty<'tcx>) -> bool {
            match (a.kind(), b.kind()) {
                (a, b) if *a == *b => true,
                (&ty::Int(_), &ty::Infer(ty::InferTy::IntVar(_)))
                | (
                    &ty::Infer(ty::InferTy::IntVar(_)),
                    &ty::Int(_) | &ty::Infer(ty::InferTy::IntVar(_)),
                )
                | (&ty::Float(_), &ty::Infer(ty::InferTy::FloatVar(_)))
                | (
                    &ty::Infer(ty::InferTy::FloatVar(_)),
                    &ty::Float(_) | &ty::Infer(ty::InferTy::FloatVar(_)),
                ) => true,
                _ => false,
            }
        }

        fn push_ty_ref<'tcx>(
            region: ty::Region<'tcx>,
            ty: Ty<'tcx>,
            mutbl: hir::Mutability,
            s: &mut DiagnosticStyledString,
        ) {
            let mut r = region.to_string();
            if r == "'_" {
                r.clear();
            } else {
                r.push(' ');
            }
            s.push_highlighted(format!("&{}{}", r, mutbl.prefix_str()));
            s.push_normal(ty.to_string());
        }

        // process starts here
        match (t1.kind(), t2.kind()) {
            (&ty::Adt(def1, sub1), &ty::Adt(def2, sub2)) => {
                let did1 = def1.did();
                let did2 = def2.did();
                let sub_no_defaults_1 =
                    self.tcx.generics_of(did1).own_substs_no_defaults(self.tcx, sub1);
                let sub_no_defaults_2 =
                    self.tcx.generics_of(did2).own_substs_no_defaults(self.tcx, sub2);
                let mut values = (DiagnosticStyledString::new(), DiagnosticStyledString::new());
                let path1 = self.tcx.def_path_str(did1);
                let path2 = self.tcx.def_path_str(did2);
                if did1 == did2 {
                    // Easy case. Replace same types with `_` to shorten the output and highlight
                    // the differing ones.
                    //     let x: Foo<Bar, Qux> = y::<Foo<Quz, Qux>>();
                    //     Foo<Bar, _>
                    //     Foo<Quz, _>
                    //         ---  ^ type argument elided
                    //         |
                    //         highlighted in output
                    values.0.push_normal(path1);
                    values.1.push_normal(path2);

                    // Avoid printing out default generic parameters that are common to both
                    // types.
                    let len1 = sub_no_defaults_1.len();
                    let len2 = sub_no_defaults_2.len();
                    let common_len = cmp::min(len1, len2);
                    let remainder1: Vec<_> = sub1.types().skip(common_len).collect();
                    let remainder2: Vec<_> = sub2.types().skip(common_len).collect();
                    let common_default_params =
                        iter::zip(remainder1.iter().rev(), remainder2.iter().rev())
                            .filter(|(a, b)| a == b)
                            .count();
                    let len = sub1.len() - common_default_params;
                    let consts_offset = len - sub1.consts().count();

                    // Only draw `<...>` if there are lifetime/type arguments.
                    if len > 0 {
                        values.0.push_normal("<");
                        values.1.push_normal("<");
                    }

                    fn lifetime_display(lifetime: Region<'_>) -> String {
                        let s = lifetime.to_string();
                        if s.is_empty() { "'_".to_string() } else { s }
                    }
                    // At one point we'd like to elide all lifetimes here, they are irrelevant for
                    // all diagnostics that use this output
                    //
                    //     Foo<'x, '_, Bar>
                    //     Foo<'y, '_, Qux>
                    //         ^^  ^^  --- type arguments are not elided
                    //         |   |
                    //         |   elided as they were the same
                    //         not elided, they were different, but irrelevant
                    //
                    // For bound lifetimes, keep the names of the lifetimes,
                    // even if they are the same so that it's clear what's happening
                    // if we have something like
                    //
                    // for<'r, 's> fn(Inv<'r>, Inv<'s>)
                    // for<'r> fn(Inv<'r>, Inv<'r>)
                    let lifetimes = sub1.regions().zip(sub2.regions());
                    for (i, lifetimes) in lifetimes.enumerate() {
                        let l1 = lifetime_display(lifetimes.0);
                        let l2 = lifetime_display(lifetimes.1);
                        if lifetimes.0 != lifetimes.1 {
                            values.0.push_highlighted(l1);
                            values.1.push_highlighted(l2);
                        } else if lifetimes.0.is_late_bound() {
                            values.0.push_normal(l1);
                            values.1.push_normal(l2);
                        } else {
                            values.0.push_normal("'_");
                            values.1.push_normal("'_");
                        }
                        self.push_comma(&mut values.0, &mut values.1, len, i);
                    }

                    // We're comparing two types with the same path, so we compare the type
                    // arguments for both. If they are the same, do not highlight and elide from the
                    // output.
                    //     Foo<_, Bar>
                    //     Foo<_, Qux>
                    //         ^ elided type as this type argument was the same in both sides
                    let type_arguments = sub1.types().zip(sub2.types());
                    let regions_len = sub1.regions().count();
                    let num_display_types = consts_offset - regions_len;
                    for (i, (ta1, ta2)) in type_arguments.take(num_display_types).enumerate() {
                        let i = i + regions_len;
                        if ta1 == ta2 && !self.tcx.sess.verbose() {
                            values.0.push_normal("_");
                            values.1.push_normal("_");
                        } else {
                            let (x1, x2) = self.cmp(ta1, ta2);
                            (values.0).0.extend(x1.0);
                            (values.1).0.extend(x2.0);
                        }
                        self.push_comma(&mut values.0, &mut values.1, len, i);
                    }

                    // Do the same for const arguments, if they are equal, do not highlight and
                    // elide them from the output.
                    let const_arguments = sub1.consts().zip(sub2.consts());
                    for (i, (ca1, ca2)) in const_arguments.enumerate() {
                        let i = i + consts_offset;
                        if ca1 == ca2 && !self.tcx.sess.verbose() {
                            values.0.push_normal("_");
                            values.1.push_normal("_");
                        } else {
                            values.0.push_highlighted(ca1.to_string());
                            values.1.push_highlighted(ca2.to_string());
                        }
                        self.push_comma(&mut values.0, &mut values.1, len, i);
                    }

                    // Close the type argument bracket.
                    // Only draw `<...>` if there are lifetime/type arguments.
                    if len > 0 {
                        values.0.push_normal(">");
                        values.1.push_normal(">");
                    }
                    values
                } else {
                    // Check for case:
                    //     let x: Foo<Bar<Qux> = foo::<Bar<Qux>>();
                    //     Foo<Bar<Qux>
                    //         ------- this type argument is exactly the same as the other type
                    //     Bar<Qux>
                    if self
                        .cmp_type_arg(
                            &mut values.0,
                            &mut values.1,
                            path1.clone(),
                            sub_no_defaults_1,
                            path2.clone(),
                            t2,
                        )
                        .is_some()
                    {
                        return values;
                    }
                    // Check for case:
                    //     let x: Bar<Qux> = y:<Foo<Bar<Qux>>>();
                    //     Bar<Qux>
                    //     Foo<Bar<Qux>>
                    //         ------- this type argument is exactly the same as the other type
                    if self
                        .cmp_type_arg(
                            &mut values.1,
                            &mut values.0,
                            path2,
                            sub_no_defaults_2,
                            path1,
                            t1,
                        )
                        .is_some()
                    {
                        return values;
                    }

                    // We can't find anything in common, highlight relevant part of type path.
                    //     let x: foo::bar::Baz<Qux> = y:<foo::bar::Bar<Zar>>();
                    //     foo::bar::Baz<Qux>
                    //     foo::bar::Bar<Zar>
                    //               -------- this part of the path is different

                    let t1_str = t1.to_string();
                    let t2_str = t2.to_string();
                    let min_len = t1_str.len().min(t2_str.len());

                    const SEPARATOR: &str = "::";
                    let separator_len = SEPARATOR.len();
                    let split_idx: usize =
                        iter::zip(t1_str.split(SEPARATOR), t2_str.split(SEPARATOR))
                            .take_while(|(mod1_str, mod2_str)| mod1_str == mod2_str)
                            .map(|(mod_str, _)| mod_str.len() + separator_len)
                            .sum();

                    debug!(?separator_len, ?split_idx, ?min_len, "cmp");

                    if split_idx >= min_len {
                        // paths are identical, highlight everything
                        (
                            DiagnosticStyledString::highlighted(t1_str),
                            DiagnosticStyledString::highlighted(t2_str),
                        )
                    } else {
                        let (common, uniq1) = t1_str.split_at(split_idx);
                        let (_, uniq2) = t2_str.split_at(split_idx);
                        debug!(?common, ?uniq1, ?uniq2, "cmp");

                        values.0.push_normal(common);
                        values.0.push_highlighted(uniq1);
                        values.1.push_normal(common);
                        values.1.push_highlighted(uniq2);

                        values
                    }
                }
            }

            // When finding T != &T, highlight only the borrow
            (&ty::Ref(r1, ref_ty1, mutbl1), _) if equals(ref_ty1, t2) => {
                let mut values = (DiagnosticStyledString::new(), DiagnosticStyledString::new());
                push_ty_ref(r1, ref_ty1, mutbl1, &mut values.0);
                values.1.push_normal(t2.to_string());
                values
            }
            (_, &ty::Ref(r2, ref_ty2, mutbl2)) if equals(t1, ref_ty2) => {
                let mut values = (DiagnosticStyledString::new(), DiagnosticStyledString::new());
                values.0.push_normal(t1.to_string());
                push_ty_ref(r2, ref_ty2, mutbl2, &mut values.1);
                values
            }

            // When encountering &T != &mut T, highlight only the borrow
            (&ty::Ref(r1, ref_ty1, mutbl1), &ty::Ref(r2, ref_ty2, mutbl2))
                if equals(ref_ty1, ref_ty2) =>
            {
                let mut values = (DiagnosticStyledString::new(), DiagnosticStyledString::new());
                push_ty_ref(r1, ref_ty1, mutbl1, &mut values.0);
                push_ty_ref(r2, ref_ty2, mutbl2, &mut values.1);
                values
            }

            // When encountering tuples of the same size, highlight only the differing types
            (&ty::Tuple(substs1), &ty::Tuple(substs2)) if substs1.len() == substs2.len() => {
                let mut values =
                    (DiagnosticStyledString::normal("("), DiagnosticStyledString::normal("("));
                let len = substs1.len();
                for (i, (left, right)) in substs1.iter().zip(substs2).enumerate() {
                    let (x1, x2) = self.cmp(left, right);
                    (values.0).0.extend(x1.0);
                    (values.1).0.extend(x2.0);
                    self.push_comma(&mut values.0, &mut values.1, len, i);
                }
                if len == 1 {
                    // Keep the output for single element tuples as `(ty,)`.
                    values.0.push_normal(",");
                    values.1.push_normal(",");
                }
                values.0.push_normal(")");
                values.1.push_normal(")");
                values
            }

            (ty::FnDef(did1, substs1), ty::FnDef(did2, substs2)) => {
                let sig1 = self.tcx.fn_sig(*did1).subst(self.tcx, substs1);
                let sig2 = self.tcx.fn_sig(*did2).subst(self.tcx, substs2);
                let mut values = self.cmp_fn_sig(&sig1, &sig2);
                let path1 = format!(" {{{}}}", self.tcx.def_path_str_with_substs(*did1, substs1));
                let path2 = format!(" {{{}}}", self.tcx.def_path_str_with_substs(*did2, substs2));
                let same_path = path1 == path2;
                values.0.push(path1, !same_path);
                values.1.push(path2, !same_path);
                values
            }

            (ty::FnDef(did1, substs1), ty::FnPtr(sig2)) => {
                let sig1 = self.tcx.fn_sig(*did1).subst(self.tcx, substs1);
                let mut values = self.cmp_fn_sig(&sig1, sig2);
                values.0.push_highlighted(format!(
                    " {{{}}}",
                    self.tcx.def_path_str_with_substs(*did1, substs1)
                ));
                values
            }

            (ty::FnPtr(sig1), ty::FnDef(did2, substs2)) => {
                let sig2 = self.tcx.fn_sig(*did2).subst(self.tcx, substs2);
                let mut values = self.cmp_fn_sig(sig1, &sig2);
                values.1.push_normal(format!(
                    " {{{}}}",
                    self.tcx.def_path_str_with_substs(*did2, substs2)
                ));
                values
            }

            (ty::FnPtr(sig1), ty::FnPtr(sig2)) => self.cmp_fn_sig(sig1, sig2),

            _ => {
                if t1 == t2 && !self.tcx.sess.verbose() {
                    // The two types are the same, elide and don't highlight.
                    (DiagnosticStyledString::normal("_"), DiagnosticStyledString::normal("_"))
                } else {
                    // We couldn't find anything in common, highlight everything.
                    (
                        DiagnosticStyledString::highlighted(t1.to_string()),
                        DiagnosticStyledString::highlighted(t2.to_string()),
                    )
                }
            }
        }
    }

    /// Extend a type error with extra labels pointing at "non-trivial" types, like closures and
    /// the return type of `async fn`s.
    ///
    /// `secondary_span` gives the caller the opportunity to expand `diag` with a `span_label`.
    ///
    /// `swap_secondary_and_primary` is used to make projection errors in particular nicer by using
    /// the message in `secondary_span` as the primary label, and apply the message that would
    /// otherwise be used for the primary label on the `secondary_span` `Span`. This applies on
    /// E0271, like `tests/ui/issues/issue-39970.stderr`.
    #[instrument(
        level = "debug",
        skip(self, diag, secondary_span, swap_secondary_and_primary, prefer_label)
    )]
    pub fn note_type_err(
        &self,
        diag: &mut Diagnostic,
        cause: &ObligationCause<'tcx>,
        secondary_span: Option<(Span, Cow<'static, str>)>,
        mut values: Option<ValuePairs<'tcx>>,
        terr: TypeError<'tcx>,
        swap_secondary_and_primary: bool,
        prefer_label: bool,
    ) {
        let span = cause.span();

        // For some types of errors, expected-found does not make
        // sense, so just ignore the values we were given.
        if let TypeError::CyclicTy(_) = terr {
            values = None;
        }
        struct OpaqueTypesVisitor<'tcx> {
            types: FxIndexMap<TyCategory, FxIndexSet<Span>>,
            expected: FxIndexMap<TyCategory, FxIndexSet<Span>>,
            found: FxIndexMap<TyCategory, FxIndexSet<Span>>,
            ignore_span: Span,
            tcx: TyCtxt<'tcx>,
        }

        impl<'tcx> OpaqueTypesVisitor<'tcx> {
            fn visit_expected_found(
                tcx: TyCtxt<'tcx>,
                expected: impl TypeVisitable<TyCtxt<'tcx>>,
                found: impl TypeVisitable<TyCtxt<'tcx>>,
                ignore_span: Span,
            ) -> Self {
                let mut types_visitor = OpaqueTypesVisitor {
                    types: Default::default(),
                    expected: Default::default(),
                    found: Default::default(),
                    ignore_span,
                    tcx,
                };
                // The visitor puts all the relevant encountered types in `self.types`, but in
                // here we want to visit two separate types with no relation to each other, so we
                // move the results from `types` to `expected` or `found` as appropriate.
                expected.visit_with(&mut types_visitor);
                std::mem::swap(&mut types_visitor.expected, &mut types_visitor.types);
                found.visit_with(&mut types_visitor);
                std::mem::swap(&mut types_visitor.found, &mut types_visitor.types);
                types_visitor
            }

            fn report(&self, err: &mut Diagnostic) {
                self.add_labels_for_types(err, "expected", &self.expected);
                self.add_labels_for_types(err, "found", &self.found);
            }

            fn add_labels_for_types(
                &self,
                err: &mut Diagnostic,
                target: &str,
                types: &FxIndexMap<TyCategory, FxIndexSet<Span>>,
            ) {
                for (key, values) in types.iter() {
                    let count = values.len();
                    let kind = key.descr();
                    for &sp in values {
                        err.span_label(
                            sp,
                            format!(
                                "{}{} {}{}",
                                if count == 1 { "the " } else { "one of the " },
                                target,
                                kind,
                                pluralize!(count),
                            ),
                        );
                    }
                }
            }
        }

        impl<'tcx> ty::visit::TypeVisitor<TyCtxt<'tcx>> for OpaqueTypesVisitor<'tcx> {
            fn visit_ty(&mut self, t: Ty<'tcx>) -> ControlFlow<Self::BreakTy> {
                if let Some((kind, def_id)) = TyCategory::from_ty(self.tcx, t) {
                    let span = self.tcx.def_span(def_id);
                    // Avoid cluttering the output when the "found" and error span overlap:
                    //
                    // error[E0308]: mismatched types
                    //   --> $DIR/issue-20862.rs:2:5
                    //    |
                    // LL |     |y| x + y
                    //    |     ^^^^^^^^^
                    //    |     |
                    //    |     the found closure
                    //    |     expected `()`, found closure
                    //    |
                    //    = note: expected unit type `()`
                    //                 found closure `[closure@$DIR/issue-20862.rs:2:5: 2:14 x:_]`
                    //
                    // Also ignore opaque `Future`s that come from async fns.
                    if !self.ignore_span.overlaps(span)
                        && !span.is_desugaring(DesugaringKind::Async)
                    {
                        self.types.entry(kind).or_default().insert(span);
                    }
                }
                t.super_visit_with(self)
            }
        }

        debug!("note_type_err(diag={:?})", diag);
        enum Mismatch<'a> {
            Variable(ty::error::ExpectedFound<Ty<'a>>),
            Fixed(&'static str),
        }
        let (expected_found, exp_found, is_simple_error, values) = match values {
            None => (None, Mismatch::Fixed("type"), false, None),
            Some(values) => {
                let values = self.resolve_vars_if_possible(values);
                let (is_simple_error, exp_found) = match values {
                    ValuePairs::Terms(infer::ExpectedFound { expected, found }) => {
                        match (expected.unpack(), found.unpack()) {
                            (ty::TermKind::Ty(expected), ty::TermKind::Ty(found)) => {
                                let is_simple_err =
                                    expected.is_simple_text() && found.is_simple_text();
                                OpaqueTypesVisitor::visit_expected_found(
                                    self.tcx, expected, found, span,
                                )
                                .report(diag);

                                (
                                    is_simple_err,
                                    Mismatch::Variable(infer::ExpectedFound { expected, found }),
                                )
                            }
                            (ty::TermKind::Const(_), ty::TermKind::Const(_)) => {
                                (false, Mismatch::Fixed("constant"))
                            }
                            _ => (false, Mismatch::Fixed("type")),
                        }
                    }
                    ValuePairs::Sigs(infer::ExpectedFound { expected, found }) => {
                        OpaqueTypesVisitor::visit_expected_found(self.tcx, expected, found, span)
                            .report(diag);
                        (false, Mismatch::Fixed("signature"))
                    }
                    ValuePairs::TraitRefs(_) | ValuePairs::PolyTraitRefs(_) => {
                        (false, Mismatch::Fixed("trait"))
                    }
                    ValuePairs::Aliases(infer::ExpectedFound { expected, .. }) => {
                        (false, Mismatch::Fixed(self.tcx.def_descr(expected.def_id)))
                    }
                    ValuePairs::Regions(_) => (false, Mismatch::Fixed("lifetime")),
                };
                let Some(vals) = self.values_str(values) else {
                    // Derived error. Cancel the emitter.
                    // NOTE(eddyb) this was `.cancel()`, but `diag`
                    // is borrowed, so we can't fully defuse it.
                    diag.downgrade_to_delayed_bug();
                    return;
                };
                (Some(vals), exp_found, is_simple_error, Some(values))
            }
        };

        let mut label_or_note = |span: Span, msg: Cow<'static, str>| {
            if (prefer_label && is_simple_error) || &[span] == diag.span.primary_spans() {
                diag.span_label(span, msg);
            } else {
                diag.span_note(span, msg);
            }
        };
        if let Some((sp, msg)) = secondary_span {
            if swap_secondary_and_primary {
                let terr = if let Some(infer::ValuePairs::Terms(infer::ExpectedFound {
                    expected,
                    ..
                })) = values
                {
                    Cow::from(format!("expected this to be `{}`", expected))
                } else {
                    terr.to_string(self.tcx)
                };
                label_or_note(sp, terr);
                label_or_note(span, msg);
            } else {
                label_or_note(span, terr.to_string(self.tcx));
                label_or_note(sp, msg);
            }
        } else {
            if let Some(values) = values
                && let Some((e, f)) = values.ty()
                && let TypeError::ArgumentSorts(..) | TypeError::Sorts(_) = terr
            {
                let e = self.tcx.erase_regions(e);
                let f = self.tcx.erase_regions(f);
                let expected = with_forced_trimmed_paths!(e.sort_string(self.tcx));
                let found = with_forced_trimmed_paths!(f.sort_string(self.tcx));
                if expected == found {
                    label_or_note(span, terr.to_string(self.tcx));
                } else {
                    label_or_note(span, Cow::from(format!("expected {expected}, found {found}")));
                }
            } else {
                label_or_note(span, terr.to_string(self.tcx));
            }
        }

        if let Some((expected, found, exp_p, found_p)) = expected_found {
            let (expected_label, found_label, exp_found) = match exp_found {
                Mismatch::Variable(ef) => (
                    ef.expected.prefix_string(self.tcx),
                    ef.found.prefix_string(self.tcx),
                    Some(ef),
                ),
                Mismatch::Fixed(s) => (s.into(), s.into(), None),
            };

            enum Similar<'tcx> {
                Adts { expected: ty::AdtDef<'tcx>, found: ty::AdtDef<'tcx> },
                PrimitiveFound { expected: ty::AdtDef<'tcx>, found: Ty<'tcx> },
                PrimitiveExpected { expected: Ty<'tcx>, found: ty::AdtDef<'tcx> },
            }

            let similarity = |ExpectedFound { expected, found }: ExpectedFound<Ty<'tcx>>| {
                if let ty::Adt(expected, _) = expected.kind() && let Some(primitive) = found.primitive_symbol() {
                    let path = self.tcx.def_path(expected.did()).data;
                    let name = path.last().unwrap().data.get_opt_name();
                    if name == Some(primitive) {
                        return Some(Similar::PrimitiveFound { expected: *expected, found });
                    }
                } else if let Some(primitive) = expected.primitive_symbol() && let ty::Adt(found, _) = found.kind() {
                    let path = self.tcx.def_path(found.did()).data;
                    let name = path.last().unwrap().data.get_opt_name();
                    if name == Some(primitive) {
                        return Some(Similar::PrimitiveExpected { expected, found: *found });
                    }
                } else if let ty::Adt(expected, _) = expected.kind() && let ty::Adt(found, _) = found.kind() {
                    if !expected.did().is_local() && expected.did().krate == found.did().krate {
                        // Most likely types from different versions of the same crate
                        // are in play, in which case this message isn't so helpful.
                        // A "perhaps two different versions..." error is already emitted for that.
                        return None;
                    }
                    let f_path = self.tcx.def_path(found.did()).data;
                    let e_path = self.tcx.def_path(expected.did()).data;

                    if let (Some(e_last), Some(f_last)) = (e_path.last(), f_path.last()) && e_last ==  f_last {
                        return Some(Similar::Adts{expected: *expected, found: *found});
                    }
                }
                None
            };

            match terr {
                // If two types mismatch but have similar names, mention that specifically.
                TypeError::Sorts(values) if let Some(s) = similarity(values) => {
                    let diagnose_primitive =
                        |prim: Ty<'tcx>,
                         shadow: Ty<'tcx>,
                         defid: DefId,
                         diagnostic: &mut Diagnostic| {
                            let name = shadow.sort_string(self.tcx);
                            diagnostic.note(format!(
                            "{prim} and {name} have similar names, but are actually distinct types"
                        ));
                            diagnostic
                                .note(format!("{prim} is a primitive defined by the language"));
                            let def_span = self.tcx.def_span(defid);
                            let msg = if defid.is_local() {
                                format!("{name} is defined in the current crate")
                            } else {
                                let crate_name = self.tcx.crate_name(defid.krate);
                                format!("{name} is defined in crate `{crate_name}`")
                            };
                            diagnostic.span_note(def_span, msg);
                        };

                    let diagnose_adts =
                        |expected_adt : ty::AdtDef<'tcx>,
                         found_adt: ty::AdtDef<'tcx>,
                         diagnostic: &mut Diagnostic| {
                            let found_name = values.found.sort_string(self.tcx);
                            let expected_name = values.expected.sort_string(self.tcx);

                            let found_defid = found_adt.did();
                            let expected_defid = expected_adt.did();

                            diagnostic.note(format!("{found_name} and {expected_name} have similar names, but are actually distinct types"));
                            for (defid, name) in
                                [(found_defid, found_name), (expected_defid, expected_name)]
                            {
                                let def_span = self.tcx.def_span(defid);

                                let msg = if found_defid.is_local() && expected_defid.is_local() {
                                    let module = self
                                        .tcx
                                        .parent_module_from_def_id(defid.expect_local())
                                        .to_def_id();
                                    let module_name = self.tcx.def_path(module).to_string_no_crate_verbose();
                                    format!("{name} is defined in module `crate{module_name}` of the current crate")
                                } else if defid.is_local() {
                                    format!("{name} is defined in the current crate")
                                } else {
                                    let crate_name = self.tcx.crate_name(defid.krate);
                                    format!("{name} is defined in crate `{crate_name}`")
                                };
                                diagnostic.span_note(def_span, msg);
                            }
                        };

                    match s {
                        Similar::Adts{expected, found} => {
                            diagnose_adts(expected, found, diag)
                        }
                        Similar::PrimitiveFound{expected, found: prim} => {
                            diagnose_primitive(prim, values.expected, expected.did(), diag)
                        }
                        Similar::PrimitiveExpected{expected: prim, found} => {
                            diagnose_primitive(prim, values.found, found.did(), diag)
                        }
                    }
                }
                TypeError::Sorts(values) => {
                    let extra = expected == found;
                    let sort_string = |ty: Ty<'tcx>, path: Option<PathBuf>| {
                        let mut s = match (extra, ty.kind()) {
                            (true, ty::Alias(ty::Opaque, ty::AliasTy { def_id, .. })) => {
                                let sm = self.tcx.sess.source_map();
                                let pos = sm.lookup_char_pos(self.tcx.def_span(*def_id).lo());
                                format!(
                                    " (opaque type at <{}:{}:{}>)",
                                    sm.filename_for_diagnostics(&pos.file.name),
                                    pos.line,
                                    pos.col.to_usize() + 1,
                                )
                            }
                            (true, ty::Alias(ty::Projection, proj))
                                if self.tcx.is_impl_trait_in_trait(proj.def_id) =>
                            {
                                let sm = self.tcx.sess.source_map();
                                let pos = sm.lookup_char_pos(self.tcx.def_span(proj.def_id).lo());
                                format!(
                                    " (trait associated opaque type at <{}:{}:{}>)",
                                    sm.filename_for_diagnostics(&pos.file.name),
                                    pos.line,
                                    pos.col.to_usize() + 1,
                                )
                            }
                            (true, _) => format!(" ({})", ty.sort_string(self.tcx)),
                            (false, _) => "".to_string(),
                        };
                        if let Some(path) = path {
                            s.push_str(&format!(
                                "\nthe full type name has been written to '{}'",
                                path.display(),
                            ));
                        }
                        s
                    };
                    if !(values.expected.is_simple_text() && values.found.is_simple_text())
                        || (exp_found.is_some_and(|ef| {
                            // This happens when the type error is a subset of the expectation,
                            // like when you have two references but one is `usize` and the other
                            // is `f32`. In those cases we still want to show the `note`. If the
                            // value from `ef` is `Infer(_)`, then we ignore it.
                            if !ef.expected.is_ty_or_numeric_infer() {
                                ef.expected != values.expected
                            } else if !ef.found.is_ty_or_numeric_infer() {
                                ef.found != values.found
                            } else {
                                false
                            }
                        }))
                    {
                        if let Some(ExpectedFound { found: found_ty, .. }) = exp_found {
                            // `Future` is a special opaque type that the compiler
                            // will try to hide in some case such as `async fn`, so
                            // to make an error more use friendly we will
                            // avoid to suggest a mismatch type with a
                            // type that the user usually are not using
                            // directly such as `impl Future<Output = u8>`.
                            if !self.tcx.ty_is_opaque_future(found_ty) {
                                diag.note_expected_found_extra(
                                    &expected_label,
                                    expected,
                                    &found_label,
                                    found,
                                    &sort_string(values.expected, exp_p),
                                    &sort_string(values.found, found_p),
                                );
                            }
                        }
                    }
                }
                _ => {
                    debug!(
                        "note_type_err: exp_found={:?}, expected={:?} found={:?}",
                        exp_found, expected, found
                    );
                    if !is_simple_error || terr.must_include_note() {
                        diag.note_expected_found(&expected_label, expected, &found_label, found);
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        let exp_found = match exp_found {
            Mismatch::Variable(exp_found) => Some(exp_found),
            Mismatch::Fixed(_) => None,
        };
        let exp_found = match terr {
            // `terr` has more accurate type information than `exp_found` in match expressions.
            ty::error::TypeError::Sorts(terr)
                if exp_found.is_some_and(|ef| terr.found == ef.found) =>
            {
                Some(terr)
            }
            _ => exp_found,
        };
        debug!("exp_found {:?} terr {:?} cause.code {:?}", exp_found, terr, cause.code());
        if let Some(exp_found) = exp_found {
            let should_suggest_fixes =
                if let ObligationCauseCode::Pattern { root_ty, .. } = cause.code() {
                    // Skip if the root_ty of the pattern is not the same as the expected_ty.
                    // If these types aren't equal then we've probably peeled off a layer of arrays.
                    self.same_type_modulo_infer(*root_ty, exp_found.expected)
                } else {
                    true
                };

            if should_suggest_fixes {
                self.suggest_tuple_pattern(cause, &exp_found, diag);
                self.suggest_as_ref_where_appropriate(span, &exp_found, diag);
                self.suggest_accessing_field_where_appropriate(cause, &exp_found, diag);
                self.suggest_await_on_expect_found(cause, span, &exp_found, diag);
                self.suggest_function_pointers(cause, span, &exp_found, diag);
            }
        }

        self.check_and_note_conflicting_crates(diag, terr);

        self.note_and_explain_type_err(diag, terr, cause, span, cause.body_id.to_def_id());
        if let Some(exp_found) = exp_found
            && let exp_found = TypeError::Sorts(exp_found)
            && exp_found != terr
        {
            self.note_and_explain_type_err(
                diag,
                exp_found,
                cause,
                span,
                cause.body_id.to_def_id(),
            );
        }

        if let Some(ValuePairs::PolyTraitRefs(exp_found)) = values
            && let ty::Closure(def_id, _) = exp_found.expected.skip_binder().self_ty().kind()
            && let Some(def_id) = def_id.as_local()
            && terr.involves_regions()
        {
            let span = self.tcx.def_span(def_id);
            diag.span_note(span, "this closure does not fulfill the lifetime requirements");
            self.suggest_for_all_lifetime_closure(span, self.tcx.hir().get_by_def_id(def_id), &exp_found, diag);
        }

        // It reads better to have the error origin as the final
        // thing.
        self.note_error_origin(diag, cause, exp_found, terr);

        debug!(?diag);
    }

    pub fn type_error_additional_suggestions(
        &self,
        trace: &TypeTrace<'tcx>,
        terr: TypeError<'tcx>,
    ) -> Vec<TypeErrorAdditionalDiags> {
        use crate::traits::ObligationCauseCode::MatchExpressionArm;
        let mut suggestions = Vec::new();
        let span = trace.cause.span();
        let values = self.resolve_vars_if_possible(trace.values);
        if let Some((expected, found)) = values.ty() {
            match (expected.kind(), found.kind()) {
                (ty::Tuple(_), ty::Tuple(_)) => {}
                // If a tuple of length one was expected and the found expression has
                // parentheses around it, perhaps the user meant to write `(expr,)` to
                // build a tuple (issue #86100)
                (ty::Tuple(fields), _) => {
                    suggestions.extend(self.suggest_wrap_to_build_a_tuple( span, found, fields))
                }
                // If a byte was expected and the found expression is a char literal
                // containing a single ASCII character, perhaps the user meant to write `b'c'` to
                // specify a byte literal
                (ty::Uint(ty::UintTy::U8), ty::Char) => {
                    if let Ok(code) = self.tcx.sess().source_map().span_to_snippet(span)
                        && let Some(code) = code.strip_prefix('\'').and_then(|s| s.strip_suffix('\''))
                        && !code.starts_with("\\u") // forbid all Unicode escapes
                        && code.chars().next().is_some_and(|c| c.is_ascii()) // forbids literal Unicode characters beyond ASCII
                    {
                        suggestions.push(TypeErrorAdditionalDiags::MeantByteLiteral { span, code: escape_literal(code) })
                    }
                }
                // If a character was expected and the found expression is a string literal
                // containing a single character, perhaps the user meant to write `'c'` to
                // specify a character literal (issue #92479)
                (ty::Char, ty::Ref(_, r, _)) if r.is_str() => {
                    if let Ok(code) = self.tcx.sess().source_map().span_to_snippet(span)
                        && let Some(code) = code.strip_prefix('"').and_then(|s| s.strip_suffix('"'))
                        && code.chars().count() == 1
                    {
                        suggestions.push(TypeErrorAdditionalDiags::MeantCharLiteral { span, code: escape_literal(code) })
                    }
                }
                // If a string was expected and the found expression is a character literal,
                // perhaps the user meant to write `"s"` to specify a string literal.
                (ty::Ref(_, r, _), ty::Char) if r.is_str() => {
                    if let Ok(code) = self.tcx.sess().source_map().span_to_snippet(span) {
                        if let Some(code) =
                            code.strip_prefix('\'').and_then(|s| s.strip_suffix('\''))
                        {
                            suggestions.push(TypeErrorAdditionalDiags::MeantStrLiteral { span, code: escape_literal(code) })
                        }
                    }
                }
                // For code `if Some(..) = expr `, the type mismatch may be expected `bool` but found `()`,
                // we try to suggest to add the missing `let` for `if let Some(..) = expr`
                (ty::Bool, ty::Tuple(list)) => if list.len() == 0 {
                    suggestions.extend(self.suggest_let_for_letchains(&trace.cause, span));
                }
                (ty::Array(_, _), ty::Array(_, _)) => suggestions.extend(self.suggest_specify_actual_length(terr, trace, span)),
                _ => {}
            }
        }
        let code = trace.cause.code();
        if let &MatchExpressionArm(box MatchExpressionArmCause { source, .. }) = code
                    && let hir::MatchSource::TryDesugar = source
                    && let Some((expected_ty, found_ty, _, _)) = self.values_str(trace.values)
                {
                    suggestions.push(TypeErrorAdditionalDiags::TryCannotConvert { found: found_ty.content(), expected: expected_ty.content() });
                }
        suggestions
    }

    fn suggest_specify_actual_length(
        &self,
        terr: TypeError<'_>,
        trace: &TypeTrace<'_>,
        span: Span,
    ) -> Option<TypeErrorAdditionalDiags> {
        let hir = self.tcx.hir();
        let TypeError::FixedArraySize(sz) = terr else {
            return None;
        };
        let tykind = match hir.find_by_def_id(trace.cause.body_id) {
            Some(hir::Node::Item(hir::Item { kind: hir::ItemKind::Fn(_, _, body_id), .. })) => {
                let body = hir.body(*body_id);
                struct LetVisitor<'v> {
                    span: Span,
                    result: Option<&'v hir::Ty<'v>>,
                }
                impl<'v> Visitor<'v> for LetVisitor<'v> {
                    fn visit_stmt(&mut self, s: &'v hir::Stmt<'v>) {
                        if self.result.is_some() {
                            return;
                        }
                        // Find a local statement where the initializer has
                        // the same span as the error and the type is specified.
                        if let hir::Stmt {
                            kind: hir::StmtKind::Local(hir::Local {
                                init: Some(hir::Expr {
                                    span: init_span,
                                    ..
                                }),
                                ty: Some(array_ty),
                                ..
                            }),
                            ..
                        } = s
                        && init_span == &self.span {
                            self.result = Some(*array_ty);
                        }
                    }
                }
                let mut visitor = LetVisitor { span, result: None };
                visitor.visit_body(body);
                visitor.result.map(|r| &r.peel_refs().kind)
            }
            Some(hir::Node::Item(hir::Item { kind: hir::ItemKind::Const(ty, _), .. })) => {
                Some(&ty.peel_refs().kind)
            }
            _ => None,
        };
        if let Some(tykind) = tykind
            && let hir::TyKind::Array(_, length) = tykind
            && let hir::ArrayLen::Body(hir::AnonConst { hir_id, .. }) = length
            && let Some(span) = self.tcx.hir().opt_span(*hir_id)
        {
            Some(TypeErrorAdditionalDiags::ConsiderSpecifyingLength { span, length: sz.found })
        } else {
            None
        }
    }

    pub fn report_and_explain_type_error(
        &self,
        trace: TypeTrace<'tcx>,
        terr: TypeError<'tcx>,
    ) -> DiagnosticBuilder<'tcx, ErrorGuaranteed> {
        debug!("report_and_explain_type_error(trace={:?}, terr={:?})", trace, terr);

        let span = trace.cause.span();
        let failure_code = trace.cause.as_failure_code_diag(
            terr,
            span,
            self.type_error_additional_suggestions(&trace, terr),
        );
        let mut diag = self.tcx.sess.create_err(failure_code);
        self.note_type_err(&mut diag, &trace.cause, None, Some(trace.values), terr, false, false);
        diag
    }

    fn suggest_wrap_to_build_a_tuple(
        &self,
        span: Span,
        found: Ty<'tcx>,
        expected_fields: &List<Ty<'tcx>>,
    ) -> Option<TypeErrorAdditionalDiags> {
        let [expected_tup_elem] = expected_fields[..] else { return None};

        if !self.same_type_modulo_infer(expected_tup_elem, found) {
            return None;
        }

        let Ok(code) = self.tcx.sess().source_map().span_to_snippet(span)
            else { return None };

        let sugg = if code.starts_with('(') && code.ends_with(')') {
            let before_close = span.hi() - BytePos::from_u32(1);
            TypeErrorAdditionalDiags::TupleOnlyComma {
                span: span.with_hi(before_close).shrink_to_hi(),
            }
        } else {
            TypeErrorAdditionalDiags::TupleAlsoParentheses {
                span_low: span.shrink_to_lo(),
                span_high: span.shrink_to_hi(),
            }
        };
        Some(sugg)
    }

    fn values_str(
        &self,
        values: ValuePairs<'tcx>,
    ) -> Option<(DiagnosticStyledString, DiagnosticStyledString, Option<PathBuf>, Option<PathBuf>)>
    {
        match values {
            infer::Regions(exp_found) => self.expected_found_str(exp_found),
            infer::Terms(exp_found) => self.expected_found_str_term(exp_found),
            infer::Aliases(exp_found) => self.expected_found_str(exp_found),
            infer::TraitRefs(exp_found) => {
                let pretty_exp_found = ty::error::ExpectedFound {
                    expected: exp_found.expected.print_only_trait_path(),
                    found: exp_found.found.print_only_trait_path(),
                };
                match self.expected_found_str(pretty_exp_found) {
                    Some((expected, found, _, _)) if expected == found => {
                        self.expected_found_str(exp_found)
                    }
                    ret => ret,
                }
            }
            infer::PolyTraitRefs(exp_found) => {
                let pretty_exp_found = ty::error::ExpectedFound {
                    expected: exp_found.expected.print_only_trait_path(),
                    found: exp_found.found.print_only_trait_path(),
                };
                match self.expected_found_str(pretty_exp_found) {
                    Some((expected, found, _, _)) if expected == found => {
                        self.expected_found_str(exp_found)
                    }
                    ret => ret,
                }
            }
            infer::Sigs(exp_found) => {
                let exp_found = self.resolve_vars_if_possible(exp_found);
                if exp_found.references_error() {
                    return None;
                }
                let (exp, fnd) = self.cmp_fn_sig(
                    &ty::Binder::dummy(exp_found.expected),
                    &ty::Binder::dummy(exp_found.found),
                );
                Some((exp, fnd, None, None))
            }
        }
    }

    fn expected_found_str_term(
        &self,
        exp_found: ty::error::ExpectedFound<ty::Term<'tcx>>,
    ) -> Option<(DiagnosticStyledString, DiagnosticStyledString, Option<PathBuf>, Option<PathBuf>)>
    {
        let exp_found = self.resolve_vars_if_possible(exp_found);
        if exp_found.references_error() {
            return None;
        }

        Some(match (exp_found.expected.unpack(), exp_found.found.unpack()) {
            (ty::TermKind::Ty(expected), ty::TermKind::Ty(found)) => {
                let (mut exp, mut fnd) = self.cmp(expected, found);
                // Use the terminal width as the basis to determine when to compress the printed
                // out type, but give ourselves some leeway to avoid ending up creating a file for
                // a type that is somewhat shorter than the path we'd write to.
                let len = self.tcx.sess().diagnostic_width() + 40;
                let exp_s = exp.content();
                let fnd_s = fnd.content();
                let mut exp_p = None;
                let mut fnd_p = None;
                if exp_s.len() > len {
                    let (exp_s, exp_path) = self.tcx.short_ty_string(expected);
                    exp = DiagnosticStyledString::highlighted(exp_s);
                    exp_p = exp_path;
                }
                if fnd_s.len() > len {
                    let (fnd_s, fnd_path) = self.tcx.short_ty_string(found);
                    fnd = DiagnosticStyledString::highlighted(fnd_s);
                    fnd_p = fnd_path;
                }
                (exp, fnd, exp_p, fnd_p)
            }
            _ => (
                DiagnosticStyledString::highlighted(exp_found.expected.to_string()),
                DiagnosticStyledString::highlighted(exp_found.found.to_string()),
                None,
                None,
            ),
        })
    }

    /// Returns a string of the form "expected `{}`, found `{}`".
    fn expected_found_str<T: fmt::Display + TypeFoldable<TyCtxt<'tcx>>>(
        &self,
        exp_found: ty::error::ExpectedFound<T>,
    ) -> Option<(DiagnosticStyledString, DiagnosticStyledString, Option<PathBuf>, Option<PathBuf>)>
    {
        let exp_found = self.resolve_vars_if_possible(exp_found);
        if exp_found.references_error() {
            return None;
        }

        Some((
            DiagnosticStyledString::highlighted(exp_found.expected.to_string()),
            DiagnosticStyledString::highlighted(exp_found.found.to_string()),
            None,
            None,
        ))
    }

    pub fn report_generic_bound_failure(
        &self,
        generic_param_scope: LocalDefId,
        span: Span,
        origin: Option<SubregionOrigin<'tcx>>,
        bound_kind: GenericKind<'tcx>,
        sub: Region<'tcx>,
    ) {
        self.construct_generic_bound_failure(generic_param_scope, span, origin, bound_kind, sub)
            .emit();
    }

    pub fn construct_generic_bound_failure(
        &self,
        generic_param_scope: LocalDefId,
        span: Span,
        origin: Option<SubregionOrigin<'tcx>>,
        bound_kind: GenericKind<'tcx>,
        sub: Region<'tcx>,
    ) -> DiagnosticBuilder<'tcx, ErrorGuaranteed> {
        // Attempt to obtain the span of the parameter so we can
        // suggest adding an explicit lifetime bound to it.
        let generics = self.tcx.generics_of(generic_param_scope);
        // type_param_span is (span, has_bounds)
        let mut is_synthetic = false;
        let mut ast_generics = None;
        let type_param_span = match bound_kind {
            GenericKind::Param(ref param) => {
                // Account for the case where `param` corresponds to `Self`,
                // which doesn't have the expected type argument.
                if !(generics.has_self && param.index == 0) {
                    let type_param = generics.type_param(param, self.tcx);
                    is_synthetic = type_param.kind.is_synthetic();
                    type_param.def_id.as_local().map(|def_id| {
                        // Get the `hir::Param` to verify whether it already has any bounds.
                        // We do this to avoid suggesting code that ends up as `T: 'a'b`,
                        // instead we suggest `T: 'a + 'b` in that case.
                        let hir_id = self.tcx.hir().local_def_id_to_hir_id(def_id);
                        ast_generics = self.tcx.hir().get_generics(hir_id.owner.def_id);
                        let bounds =
                            ast_generics.and_then(|g| g.bounds_span_for_suggestions(def_id));
                        // `sp` only covers `T`, change it so that it covers
                        // `T:` when appropriate
                        if let Some(span) = bounds {
                            (span, true)
                        } else {
                            let sp = self.tcx.def_span(def_id);
                            (sp.shrink_to_hi(), false)
                        }
                    })
                } else {
                    None
                }
            }
            _ => None,
        };

        let new_lt = {
            let mut possible = (b'a'..=b'z').map(|c| format!("'{}", c as char));
            let lts_names =
                iter::successors(Some(generics), |g| g.parent.map(|p| self.tcx.generics_of(p)))
                    .flat_map(|g| &g.params)
                    .filter(|p| matches!(p.kind, ty::GenericParamDefKind::Lifetime))
                    .map(|p| p.name.as_str())
                    .collect::<Vec<_>>();
            possible
                .find(|candidate| !lts_names.contains(&&candidate[..]))
                .unwrap_or("'lt".to_string())
        };

        let mut add_lt_suggs: Vec<Option<_>> = vec![];
        if is_synthetic {
            if let Some(ast_generics) = ast_generics {
                let named_lifetime_param_exist = ast_generics.params.iter().any(|p| {
                    matches!(
                        p.kind,
                        hir::GenericParamKind::Lifetime { kind: hir::LifetimeParamKind::Explicit }
                    )
                });
                if named_lifetime_param_exist && let [param, ..] = ast_generics.params
                {
                    add_lt_suggs.push(Some((
                        self.tcx.def_span(param.def_id).shrink_to_lo(),
                        format!("{new_lt}, "),
                    )));
                } else {
                    add_lt_suggs
                        .push(Some((ast_generics.span.shrink_to_hi(), format!("<{new_lt}>"))));
                }
            }
        } else {
            if let [param, ..] = &generics.params[..] && let Some(def_id) = param.def_id.as_local()
            {
                add_lt_suggs
                    .push(Some((self.tcx.def_span(def_id).shrink_to_lo(), format!("{new_lt}, "))));
            }
        }

        if let Some(ast_generics) = ast_generics {
            for p in ast_generics.params {
                if p.is_elided_lifetime() {
                    if self
                        .tcx
                        .sess
                        .source_map()
                        .span_to_prev_source(p.span.shrink_to_hi())
                        .ok()
                        .is_some_and(|s| *s.as_bytes().last().unwrap() == b'&')
                    {
                        add_lt_suggs
                            .push(Some(
                                (
                                    p.span.shrink_to_hi(),
                                    if let Ok(snip) = self.tcx.sess.source_map().span_to_next_source(p.span)
                                        && snip.starts_with(' ')
                                    {
                                        format!("{new_lt}")
                                    } else {
                                        format!("{new_lt} ")
                                    }
                                )
                            ));
                    } else {
                        add_lt_suggs.push(Some((p.span.shrink_to_hi(), format!("<{new_lt}>"))));
                    }
                }
            }
        }

        let labeled_user_string = match bound_kind {
            GenericKind::Param(ref p) => format!("the parameter type `{}`", p),
            GenericKind::Alias(ref p) => match p.kind(self.tcx) {
                ty::AliasKind::Projection | ty::AliasKind::Inherent => {
                    format!("the associated type `{}`", p)
                }
                ty::AliasKind::Opaque => format!("the opaque type `{}`", p),
            },
        };

        if let Some(SubregionOrigin::CompareImplItemObligation {
            span,
            impl_item_def_id,
            trait_item_def_id,
        }) = origin
        {
            return self.report_extra_impl_obligation(
                span,
                impl_item_def_id,
                trait_item_def_id,
                &format!("`{}: {}`", bound_kind, sub),
            );
        }

        fn binding_suggestion<'tcx, S: fmt::Display>(
            err: &mut Diagnostic,
            type_param_span: Option<(Span, bool)>,
            bound_kind: GenericKind<'tcx>,
            sub: S,
            add_lt_suggs: Vec<Option<(Span, String)>>,
        ) {
            let msg = "consider adding an explicit lifetime bound";
            if let Some((sp, has_lifetimes)) = type_param_span {
                let suggestion =
                    if has_lifetimes { format!(" + {}", sub) } else { format!(": {}", sub) };
                let mut suggestions = vec![(sp, suggestion)];
                for add_lt_sugg in add_lt_suggs.into_iter().flatten() {
                    suggestions.push(add_lt_sugg);
                }
                err.multipart_suggestion_verbose(
                    format!("{msg}..."),
                    suggestions,
                    Applicability::MaybeIncorrect, // Issue #41966
                );
            } else {
                let consider = format!("{} `{}: {}`...", msg, bound_kind, sub);
                err.help(consider);
            }
        }

        let new_binding_suggestion =
            |err: &mut Diagnostic, type_param_span: Option<(Span, bool)>| {
                let msg = "consider introducing an explicit lifetime bound";
                if let Some((sp, has_lifetimes)) = type_param_span {
                    let suggestion = if has_lifetimes {
                        format!(" + {}", new_lt)
                    } else {
                        format!(": {}", new_lt)
                    };
                    let mut sugg =
                        vec![(sp, suggestion), (span.shrink_to_hi(), format!(" + {}", new_lt))];
                    for lt in add_lt_suggs.clone().into_iter().flatten() {
                        sugg.push(lt);
                        sugg.rotate_right(1);
                    }
                    // `MaybeIncorrect` due to issue #41966.
                    err.multipart_suggestion(msg, sugg, Applicability::MaybeIncorrect);
                }
            };

        #[derive(Debug)]
        enum SubOrigin<'hir> {
            GAT(&'hir hir::Generics<'hir>),
            Impl,
            Trait,
            Fn,
            Unknown,
        }
        let sub_origin = 'origin: {
            match *sub {
                ty::ReEarlyBound(ty::EarlyBoundRegion { def_id, .. }) => {
                    let node = self.tcx.hir().get_if_local(def_id).unwrap();
                    match node {
                        Node::GenericParam(param) => {
                            for h in self.tcx.hir().parent_iter(param.hir_id) {
                                break 'origin match h.1 {
                                    Node::ImplItem(hir::ImplItem {
                                        kind: hir::ImplItemKind::Type(..),
                                        generics,
                                        ..
                                    })
                                    | Node::TraitItem(hir::TraitItem {
                                        kind: hir::TraitItemKind::Type(..),
                                        generics,
                                        ..
                                    }) => SubOrigin::GAT(generics),
                                    Node::ImplItem(hir::ImplItem {
                                        kind: hir::ImplItemKind::Fn(..),
                                        ..
                                    })
                                    | Node::TraitItem(hir::TraitItem {
                                        kind: hir::TraitItemKind::Fn(..),
                                        ..
                                    })
                                    | Node::Item(hir::Item {
                                        kind: hir::ItemKind::Fn(..), ..
                                    }) => SubOrigin::Fn,
                                    Node::Item(hir::Item {
                                        kind: hir::ItemKind::Trait(..),
                                        ..
                                    }) => SubOrigin::Trait,
                                    Node::Item(hir::Item {
                                        kind: hir::ItemKind::Impl(..), ..
                                    }) => SubOrigin::Impl,
                                    _ => continue,
                                };
                            }
                        }
                        _ => {}
                    }
                }
                _ => {}
            }
            SubOrigin::Unknown
        };
        debug!(?sub_origin);

        let mut err = match (*sub, sub_origin) {
            // In the case of GATs, we have to be careful. If we a type parameter `T` on an impl,
            // but a lifetime `'a` on an associated type, then we might need to suggest adding
            // `where T: 'a`. Importantly, this is on the GAT span, not on the `T` declaration.
            (ty::ReEarlyBound(ty::EarlyBoundRegion { name: _, .. }), SubOrigin::GAT(generics)) => {
                // Does the required lifetime have a nice name we can print?
                let mut err = struct_span_err!(
                    self.tcx.sess,
                    span,
                    E0309,
                    "{} may not live long enough",
                    labeled_user_string
                );
                let pred = format!("{}: {}", bound_kind, sub);
                let suggestion = format!("{} {}", generics.add_where_or_trailing_comma(), pred,);
                err.span_suggestion(
                    generics.tail_span_for_predicate_suggestion(),
                    "consider adding a where clause",
                    suggestion,
                    Applicability::MaybeIncorrect,
                );
                err
            }
            (
                ty::ReEarlyBound(ty::EarlyBoundRegion { name, .. })
                | ty::ReFree(ty::FreeRegion { bound_region: ty::BrNamed(_, name), .. }),
                _,
            ) if name != kw::UnderscoreLifetime => {
                // Does the required lifetime have a nice name we can print?
                let mut err = struct_span_err!(
                    self.tcx.sess,
                    span,
                    E0309,
                    "{} may not live long enough",
                    labeled_user_string
                );
                // Explicitly use the name instead of `sub`'s `Display` impl. The `Display` impl
                // for the bound is not suitable for suggestions when `-Zverbose` is set because it
                // uses `Debug` output, so we handle it specially here so that suggestions are
                // always correct.
                binding_suggestion(&mut err, type_param_span, bound_kind, name, vec![]);
                err
            }

            (ty::ReStatic, _) => {
                // Does the required lifetime have a nice name we can print?
                let mut err = struct_span_err!(
                    self.tcx.sess,
                    span,
                    E0310,
                    "{} may not live long enough",
                    labeled_user_string
                );
                binding_suggestion(&mut err, type_param_span, bound_kind, "'static", vec![]);
                err
            }

            _ => {
                // If not, be less specific.
                let mut err = struct_span_err!(
                    self.tcx.sess,
                    span,
                    E0311,
                    "{} may not live long enough",
                    labeled_user_string
                );
                note_and_explain_region(
                    self.tcx,
                    &mut err,
                    &format!("{} must be valid for ", labeled_user_string),
                    sub,
                    "...",
                    None,
                );
                if let Some(infer::RelateParamBound(_, t, _)) = origin {
                    let return_impl_trait =
                        self.tcx.return_type_impl_trait(generic_param_scope).is_some();
                    let t = self.resolve_vars_if_possible(t);
                    match t.kind() {
                        // We've got:
                        // fn get_later<G, T>(g: G, dest: &mut T) -> impl FnOnce() + '_
                        // suggest:
                        // fn get_later<'a, G: 'a, T>(g: G, dest: &mut T) -> impl FnOnce() + '_ + 'a
                        ty::Closure(..) | ty::Alias(ty::Opaque, ..) if return_impl_trait => {
                            new_binding_suggestion(&mut err, type_param_span);
                        }
                        _ => {
                            binding_suggestion(
                                &mut err,
                                type_param_span,
                                bound_kind,
                                new_lt,
                                add_lt_suggs,
                            );
                        }
                    }
                }
                err
            }
        };

        if let Some(origin) = origin {
            self.note_region_origin(&mut err, &origin);
        }
        err
    }

    fn report_sub_sup_conflict(
        &self,
        var_origin: RegionVariableOrigin,
        sub_origin: SubregionOrigin<'tcx>,
        sub_region: Region<'tcx>,
        sup_origin: SubregionOrigin<'tcx>,
        sup_region: Region<'tcx>,
    ) {
        let mut err = self.report_inference_failure(var_origin);

        note_and_explain_region(
            self.tcx,
            &mut err,
            "first, the lifetime cannot outlive ",
            sup_region,
            "...",
            None,
        );

        debug!("report_sub_sup_conflict: var_origin={:?}", var_origin);
        debug!("report_sub_sup_conflict: sub_region={:?}", sub_region);
        debug!("report_sub_sup_conflict: sub_origin={:?}", sub_origin);
        debug!("report_sub_sup_conflict: sup_region={:?}", sup_region);
        debug!("report_sub_sup_conflict: sup_origin={:?}", sup_origin);

        if let infer::Subtype(ref sup_trace) = sup_origin
            && let infer::Subtype(ref sub_trace) = sub_origin
            && let Some((sup_expected, sup_found, _, _)) = self.values_str(sup_trace.values)
            && let Some((sub_expected, sub_found, _, _)) = self.values_str(sub_trace.values)
            && sub_expected == sup_expected
            && sub_found == sup_found
        {
            note_and_explain_region(
                self.tcx,
                &mut err,
                "...but the lifetime must also be valid for ",
                sub_region,
                "...",
                None,
            );
            err.span_note(
                sup_trace.cause.span,
                format!("...so that the {}", sup_trace.cause.as_requirement_str()),
            );

            err.note_expected_found(&"", sup_expected, &"", sup_found);
            if sub_region.is_error() | sup_region.is_error() {
                err.delay_as_bug();
            } else {
                err.emit();
            }
            return;
        }

        self.note_region_origin(&mut err, &sup_origin);

        note_and_explain_region(
            self.tcx,
            &mut err,
            "but, the lifetime must be valid for ",
            sub_region,
            "...",
            None,
        );

        self.note_region_origin(&mut err, &sub_origin);
        if sub_region.is_error() | sup_region.is_error() {
            err.delay_as_bug();
        } else {
            err.emit();
        }
    }

    /// Determine whether an error associated with the given span and definition
    /// should be treated as being caused by the implicit `From` conversion
    /// within `?` desugaring.
    pub fn is_try_conversion(&self, span: Span, trait_def_id: DefId) -> bool {
        span.is_desugaring(DesugaringKind::QuestionMark)
            && self.tcx.is_diagnostic_item(sym::From, trait_def_id)
    }

    /// Structurally compares two types, modulo any inference variables.
    ///
    /// Returns `true` if two types are equal, or if one type is an inference variable compatible
    /// with the other type. A TyVar inference type is compatible with any type, and an IntVar or
    /// FloatVar inference type are compatible with themselves or their concrete types (Int and
    /// Float types, respectively). When comparing two ADTs, these rules apply recursively.
    pub fn same_type_modulo_infer<T: relate::Relate<'tcx>>(&self, a: T, b: T) -> bool {
        let (a, b) = self.resolve_vars_if_possible((a, b));
        SameTypeModuloInfer(self).relate(a, b).is_ok()
    }
}

struct SameTypeModuloInfer<'a, 'tcx>(&'a InferCtxt<'tcx>);

impl<'tcx> TypeRelation<'tcx> for SameTypeModuloInfer<'_, 'tcx> {
    fn tcx(&self) -> TyCtxt<'tcx> {
        self.0.tcx
    }

    fn param_env(&self) -> ty::ParamEnv<'tcx> {
        // Unused, only for consts which we treat as always equal
        ty::ParamEnv::empty()
    }

    fn tag(&self) -> &'static str {
        "SameTypeModuloInfer"
    }

    fn a_is_expected(&self) -> bool {
        true
    }

    fn relate_with_variance<T: relate::Relate<'tcx>>(
        &mut self,
        _variance: ty::Variance,
        _info: ty::VarianceDiagInfo<'tcx>,
        a: T,
        b: T,
    ) -> relate::RelateResult<'tcx, T> {
        self.relate(a, b)
    }

    fn tys(&mut self, a: Ty<'tcx>, b: Ty<'tcx>) -> RelateResult<'tcx, Ty<'tcx>> {
        match (a.kind(), b.kind()) {
            (ty::Int(_) | ty::Uint(_), ty::Infer(ty::InferTy::IntVar(_)))
            | (
                ty::Infer(ty::InferTy::IntVar(_)),
                ty::Int(_) | ty::Uint(_) | ty::Infer(ty::InferTy::IntVar(_)),
            )
            | (ty::Float(_), ty::Infer(ty::InferTy::FloatVar(_)))
            | (
                ty::Infer(ty::InferTy::FloatVar(_)),
                ty::Float(_) | ty::Infer(ty::InferTy::FloatVar(_)),
            )
            | (ty::Infer(ty::InferTy::TyVar(_)), _)
            | (_, ty::Infer(ty::InferTy::TyVar(_))) => Ok(a),
            (ty::Infer(_), _) | (_, ty::Infer(_)) => Err(TypeError::Mismatch),
            _ => relate::structurally_relate_tys(self, a, b),
        }
    }

    fn regions(
        &mut self,
        a: ty::Region<'tcx>,
        b: ty::Region<'tcx>,
    ) -> RelateResult<'tcx, ty::Region<'tcx>> {
        if (a.is_var() && b.is_free_or_static())
            || (b.is_var() && a.is_free_or_static())
            || (a.is_var() && b.is_var())
            || a == b
        {
            Ok(a)
        } else {
            Err(TypeError::Mismatch)
        }
    }

    fn binders<T>(
        &mut self,
        a: ty::Binder<'tcx, T>,
        b: ty::Binder<'tcx, T>,
    ) -> relate::RelateResult<'tcx, ty::Binder<'tcx, T>>
    where
        T: relate::Relate<'tcx>,
    {
        Ok(a.rebind(self.relate(a.skip_binder(), b.skip_binder())?))
    }

    fn consts(
        &mut self,
        a: ty::Const<'tcx>,
        _b: ty::Const<'tcx>,
    ) -> relate::RelateResult<'tcx, ty::Const<'tcx>> {
        // FIXME(compiler-errors): This could at least do some first-order
        // relation
        Ok(a)
    }
}

impl<'tcx> InferCtxt<'tcx> {
    fn report_inference_failure(
        &self,
        var_origin: RegionVariableOrigin,
    ) -> DiagnosticBuilder<'tcx, ErrorGuaranteed> {
        let br_string = |br: ty::BoundRegionKind| {
            let mut s = match br {
                ty::BrNamed(_, name) => name.to_string(),
                _ => String::new(),
            };
            if !s.is_empty() {
                s.push(' ');
            }
            s
        };
        let var_description = match var_origin {
            infer::MiscVariable(_) => String::new(),
            infer::PatternRegion(_) => " for pattern".to_string(),
            infer::AddrOfRegion(_) => " for borrow expression".to_string(),
            infer::Autoref(_) => " for autoref".to_string(),
            infer::Coercion(_) => " for automatic coercion".to_string(),
            infer::LateBoundRegion(_, br, infer::FnCall) => {
                format!(" for lifetime parameter {}in function call", br_string(br))
            }
            infer::LateBoundRegion(_, br, infer::HigherRankedType) => {
                format!(" for lifetime parameter {}in generic type", br_string(br))
            }
            infer::LateBoundRegion(_, br, infer::AssocTypeProjection(def_id)) => format!(
                " for lifetime parameter {}in trait containing associated type `{}`",
                br_string(br),
                self.tcx.associated_item(def_id).name
            ),
            infer::EarlyBoundRegion(_, name) => format!(" for lifetime parameter `{}`", name),
            infer::UpvarRegion(ref upvar_id, _) => {
                let var_name = self.tcx.hir().name(upvar_id.var_path.hir_id);
                format!(" for capture of `{}` by closure", var_name)
            }
            infer::Nll(..) => bug!("NLL variable found in lexical phase"),
        };

        struct_span_err!(
            self.tcx.sess,
            var_origin.span(),
            E0495,
            "cannot infer an appropriate lifetime{} due to conflicting requirements",
            var_description
        )
    }
}

pub enum FailureCode {
    Error0317,
    Error0580,
    Error0308,
    Error0644,
}

pub trait ObligationCauseExt<'tcx> {
    fn as_failure_code(&self, terr: TypeError<'tcx>) -> FailureCode;

    fn as_failure_code_diag(
        &self,
        terr: TypeError<'tcx>,
        span: Span,
        subdiags: Vec<TypeErrorAdditionalDiags>,
    ) -> ObligationCauseFailureCode;
    fn as_requirement_str(&self) -> &'static str;
}

impl<'tcx> ObligationCauseExt<'tcx> for ObligationCause<'tcx> {
    fn as_failure_code(&self, terr: TypeError<'tcx>) -> FailureCode {
        use self::FailureCode::*;
        use crate::traits::ObligationCauseCode::*;
        match self.code() {
            IfExpressionWithNoElse => Error0317,
            MainFunctionType => Error0580,
            CompareImplItemObligation { .. }
            | MatchExpressionArm(_)
            | IfExpression { .. }
            | LetElse
            | StartFunctionType
            | IntrinsicType
            | MethodReceiver => Error0308,

            // In the case where we have no more specific thing to
            // say, also take a look at the error code, maybe we can
            // tailor to that.
            _ => match terr {
                TypeError::CyclicTy(ty) if ty.is_closure() || ty.is_generator() => Error0644,
                TypeError::IntrinsicCast => Error0308,
                _ => Error0308,
            },
        }
    }
    fn as_failure_code_diag(
        &self,
        terr: TypeError<'tcx>,
        span: Span,
        subdiags: Vec<TypeErrorAdditionalDiags>,
    ) -> ObligationCauseFailureCode {
        use crate::traits::ObligationCauseCode::*;
        match self.code() {
            CompareImplItemObligation { kind: ty::AssocKind::Fn, .. } => {
                ObligationCauseFailureCode::MethodCompat { span, subdiags }
            }
            CompareImplItemObligation { kind: ty::AssocKind::Type, .. } => {
                ObligationCauseFailureCode::TypeCompat { span, subdiags }
            }
            CompareImplItemObligation { kind: ty::AssocKind::Const, .. } => {
                ObligationCauseFailureCode::ConstCompat { span, subdiags }
            }
            MatchExpressionArm(box MatchExpressionArmCause { source, .. }) => match source {
                hir::MatchSource::TryDesugar => {
                    ObligationCauseFailureCode::TryCompat { span, subdiags }
                }
                _ => ObligationCauseFailureCode::MatchCompat { span, subdiags },
            },
            IfExpression { .. } => ObligationCauseFailureCode::IfElseDifferent { span, subdiags },
            IfExpressionWithNoElse => ObligationCauseFailureCode::NoElse { span },
            LetElse => ObligationCauseFailureCode::NoDiverge { span, subdiags },
            MainFunctionType => ObligationCauseFailureCode::FnMainCorrectType { span },
            StartFunctionType => ObligationCauseFailureCode::FnStartCorrectType { span, subdiags },
            IntrinsicType => ObligationCauseFailureCode::IntrinsicCorrectType { span, subdiags },
            MethodReceiver => ObligationCauseFailureCode::MethodCorrectType { span, subdiags },

            // In the case where we have no more specific thing to
            // say, also take a look at the error code, maybe we can
            // tailor to that.
            _ => match terr {
                TypeError::CyclicTy(ty) if ty.is_closure() || ty.is_generator() => {
                    ObligationCauseFailureCode::ClosureSelfref { span }
                }
                TypeError::IntrinsicCast => {
                    ObligationCauseFailureCode::CantCoerce { span, subdiags }
                }
                _ => ObligationCauseFailureCode::Generic { span, subdiags },
            },
        }
    }

    fn as_requirement_str(&self) -> &'static str {
        use crate::traits::ObligationCauseCode::*;
        match self.code() {
            CompareImplItemObligation { kind: ty::AssocKind::Fn, .. } => {
                "method type is compatible with trait"
            }
            CompareImplItemObligation { kind: ty::AssocKind::Type, .. } => {
                "associated type is compatible with trait"
            }
            CompareImplItemObligation { kind: ty::AssocKind::Const, .. } => {
                "const is compatible with trait"
            }
            ExprAssignable => "expression is assignable",
            IfExpression { .. } => "`if` and `else` have incompatible types",
            IfExpressionWithNoElse => "`if` missing an `else` returns `()`",
            MainFunctionType => "`main` function has the correct type",
            StartFunctionType => "`#[start]` function has the correct type",
            IntrinsicType => "intrinsic has the correct type",
            MethodReceiver => "method receiver has the correct type",
            _ => "types are compatible",
        }
    }
}

/// Newtype to allow implementing IntoDiagnosticArg
pub struct ObligationCauseAsDiagArg<'tcx>(pub ObligationCause<'tcx>);

impl IntoDiagnosticArg for ObligationCauseAsDiagArg<'_> {
    fn into_diagnostic_arg(self) -> rustc_errors::DiagnosticArgValue<'static> {
        use crate::traits::ObligationCauseCode::*;
        let kind = match self.0.code() {
            CompareImplItemObligation { kind: ty::AssocKind::Fn, .. } => "method_compat",
            CompareImplItemObligation { kind: ty::AssocKind::Type, .. } => "type_compat",
            CompareImplItemObligation { kind: ty::AssocKind::Const, .. } => "const_compat",
            ExprAssignable => "expr_assignable",
            IfExpression { .. } => "if_else_different",
            IfExpressionWithNoElse => "no_else",
            MainFunctionType => "fn_main_correct_type",
            StartFunctionType => "fn_start_correct_type",
            IntrinsicType => "intrinsic_correct_type",
            MethodReceiver => "method_correct_type",
            _ => "other",
        }
        .into();
        rustc_errors::DiagnosticArgValue::Str(kind)
    }
}

/// This is a bare signal of what kind of type we're dealing with. `ty::TyKind` tracks
/// extra information about each type, but we only care about the category.
#[derive(Clone, Copy, PartialEq, Eq, Hash)]
pub enum TyCategory {
    Closure,
    Opaque,
    OpaqueFuture,
    Generator(hir::GeneratorKind),
    Foreign,
}

impl TyCategory {
    fn descr(&self) -> &'static str {
        match self {
            Self::Closure => "closure",
            Self::Opaque => "opaque type",
            Self::OpaqueFuture => "future",
            Self::Generator(gk) => gk.descr(),
            Self::Foreign => "foreign type",
        }
    }

    pub fn from_ty(tcx: TyCtxt<'_>, ty: Ty<'_>) -> Option<(Self, DefId)> {
        match *ty.kind() {
            ty::Closure(def_id, _) => Some((Self::Closure, def_id)),
            ty::Alias(ty::Opaque, ty::AliasTy { def_id, .. }) => {
                let kind =
                    if tcx.ty_is_opaque_future(ty) { Self::OpaqueFuture } else { Self::Opaque };
                Some((kind, def_id))
            }
            ty::Generator(def_id, ..) => {
                Some((Self::Generator(tcx.generator_kind(def_id).unwrap()), def_id))
            }
            ty::Foreign(def_id) => Some((Self::Foreign, def_id)),
            _ => None,
        }
    }
}

impl<'tcx> InferCtxt<'tcx> {
    /// Given a [`hir::Block`], get the span of its last expression or
    /// statement, peeling off any inner blocks.
    pub fn find_block_span(&self, block: &'tcx hir::Block<'tcx>) -> Span {
        let block = block.innermost_block();
        if let Some(expr) = &block.expr {
            expr.span
        } else if let Some(stmt) = block.stmts.last() {
            // possibly incorrect trailing `;` in the else arm
            stmt.span
        } else {
            // empty block; point at its entirety
            block.span
        }
    }

    /// Given a [`hir::HirId`] for a block, get the span of its last expression
    /// or statement, peeling off any inner blocks.
    pub fn find_block_span_from_hir_id(&self, hir_id: hir::HirId) -> Span {
        match self.tcx.hir().get(hir_id) {
            hir::Node::Block(blk) => self.find_block_span(blk),
            // The parser was in a weird state if either of these happen, but
            // it's better not to panic.
            hir::Node::Expr(e) => e.span,
            _ => rustc_span::DUMMY_SP,
        }
    }
}