cargo-tree(1)

NAME

cargo-tree - Display a tree visualization of a dependency graph

SYNOPSIS

cargo tree [options]

DESCRIPTION

This command will display a tree of dependencies to the terminal. An example of a simple project that depends on the "rand" package:

myproject v0.1.0 (/myproject)
└── rand v0.7.3
    ├── getrandom v0.1.14
    │   ├── cfg-if v0.1.10
    │   └── libc v0.2.68
    ├── libc v0.2.68 (*)
    ├── rand_chacha v0.2.2
    │   ├── ppv-lite86 v0.2.6
    │   └── rand_core v0.5.1
    │       └── getrandom v0.1.14 (*)
    └── rand_core v0.5.1 (*)
[build-dependencies]
└── cc v1.0.50

Packages marked with (*) have been "de-duplicated". The dependencies for the package have already been shown elsewhere in the graph, and so are not repeated. Use the --no-dedupe option to repeat the duplicates.

The -e flag can be used to select the dependency kinds to display. The "features" kind changes the output to display the features enabled by each dependency. For example, cargo tree -e features:

myproject v0.1.0 (/myproject)
└── log feature "serde"
    └── log v0.4.8
        ├── serde v1.0.106
        └── cfg-if feature "default"
            └── cfg-if v0.1.10

In this tree, myproject depends on log with the serde feature. log in turn depends on cfg-if with "default" features. When using -e features it can be helpful to use -i flag to show how the features flow into a package. See the examples below for more detail.

OPTIONS

Tree Options

-i spec
--invert spec
Show the reverse dependencies for the given package. This flag will invert the tree and display the packages that depend on the given package.

Note that in a workspace, by default it will only display the package's reverse dependencies inside the tree of the workspace member in the current directory. The --workspace flag can be used to extend it so that it will show the package's reverse dependencies across the entire workspace. The -p flag can be used to display the package's reverse dependencies only with the subtree of the package given to -p.

--prune spec
Prune the given package from the display of the dependency tree.
--depth depth
Maximum display depth of the dependency tree. A depth of 1 displays the direct dependencies, for example.
--no-dedupe
Do not de-duplicate repeated dependencies. Usually, when a package has already displayed its dependencies, further occurrences will not re-display its dependencies, and will include a (*) to indicate it has already been shown. This flag will cause those duplicates to be repeated.
-d
--duplicates
Show only dependencies which come in multiple versions (implies --invert). When used with the -p flag, only shows duplicates within the subtree of the given package.

It can be beneficial for build times and executable sizes to avoid building that same package multiple times. This flag can help identify the offending packages. You can then investigate if the package that depends on the duplicate with the older version can be updated to the newer version so that only one instance is built.

-e kinds
--edges kinds
The dependency kinds to display. Takes a comma separated list of values:

  • all — Show all edge kinds.
  • normal — Show normal dependencies.
  • build — Show build dependencies.
  • dev — Show development dependencies.
  • features — Show features enabled by each dependency. If this is the only kind given, then it will automatically include the other dependency kinds.
  • no-normal — Do not include normal dependencies.
  • no-build — Do not include build dependencies.
  • no-dev — Do not include development dependencies.
  • no-proc-macro — Do not include procedural macro dependencies.

The normal, build, dev, and all dependency kinds cannot be mixed with no-normal, no-build, or no-dev dependency kinds.

The default is normal,build,dev.

--target triple
Filter dependencies matching the given target-triple. The default is the host platform. Use the value all to include all targets.

Tree Formatting Options

--charset charset
Chooses the character set to use for the tree. Valid values are "utf8" or "ascii". Default is "utf8".
-f format
--format format
Set the format string for each package. The default is "{p}".

This is an arbitrary string which will be used to display each package. The following strings will be replaced with the corresponding value:

  • {p} — The package name.
  • {l} — The package license.
  • {r} — The package repository URL.
  • {f} — Comma-separated list of package features that are enabled.
--prefix prefix
Sets how each line is displayed. The prefix value can be one of:

  • indent (default) — Shows each line indented as a tree.
  • depth — Show as a list, with the numeric depth printed before each entry.
  • none — Show as a flat list.

Package Selection

By default, when no package selection options are given, the packages selected depend on the selected manifest file (based on the current working directory if --manifest-path is not given). If the manifest is the root of a workspace then the workspaces default members are selected, otherwise only the package defined by the manifest will be selected.

The default members of a workspace can be set explicitly with the workspace.default-members key in the root manifest. If this is not set, a virtual workspace will include all workspace members (equivalent to passing --workspace), and a non-virtual workspace will include only the root crate itself.

-p spec...
--package spec...
Display only the specified packages. See cargo-pkgid(1) for the SPEC format. This flag may be specified multiple times and supports common Unix glob patterns like *, ? and []. However, to avoid your shell accidentally expanding glob patterns before Cargo handles them, you must use single quotes or double quotes around each pattern.
--workspace
Display all members in the workspace.
--exclude SPEC...
Exclude the specified packages. Must be used in conjunction with the --workspace flag. This flag may be specified multiple times and supports common Unix glob patterns like *, ? and []. However, to avoid your shell accidentally expanding glob patterns before Cargo handles them, you must use single quotes or double quotes around each pattern.

Manifest Options

--manifest-path path
Path to the Cargo.toml file. By default, Cargo searches for the Cargo.toml file in the current directory or any parent directory.
--frozen
--locked
Either of these flags requires that the Cargo.lock file is up-to-date. If the lock file is missing, or it needs to be updated, Cargo will exit with an error. The --frozen flag also prevents Cargo from attempting to access the network to determine if it is out-of-date.

These may be used in environments where you want to assert that the Cargo.lock file is up-to-date (such as a CI build) or want to avoid network access.

--offline
Prevents Cargo from accessing the network for any reason. Without this flag, Cargo will stop with an error if it needs to access the network and the network is not available. With this flag, Cargo will attempt to proceed without the network if possible.

Beware that this may result in different dependency resolution than online mode. Cargo will restrict itself to crates that are downloaded locally, even if there might be a newer version as indicated in the local copy of the index. See the cargo-fetch(1) command to download dependencies before going offline.

May also be specified with the net.offline config value.

Feature Selection

The feature flags allow you to control which features are enabled. When no feature options are given, the default feature is activated for every selected package.

See the features documentation for more details.

--features features
Space or comma separated list of features to activate. Features of workspace members may be enabled with package-name/feature-name syntax. This flag may be specified multiple times, which enables all specified features.
--all-features
Activate all available features of all selected packages.
--no-default-features
Do not activate the default feature of the selected packages.

Display Options

-v
--verbose
Use verbose output. May be specified twice for "very verbose" output which includes extra output such as dependency warnings and build script output. May also be specified with the term.verbose config value.
-q
--quiet
No output printed to stdout.
--color when
Control when colored output is used. Valid values:

  • auto (default): Automatically detect if color support is available on the terminal.
  • always: Always display colors.
  • never: Never display colors.

May also be specified with the term.color config value.

Common Options

+toolchain
If Cargo has been installed with rustup, and the first argument to cargo begins with +, it will be interpreted as a rustup toolchain name (such as +stable or +nightly). See the rustup documentation for more information about how toolchain overrides work.
-h
--help
Prints help information.
-Z flag
Unstable (nightly-only) flags to Cargo. Run cargo -Z help for details.

ENVIRONMENT

See the reference for details on environment variables that Cargo reads.

EXIT STATUS

  • 0: Cargo succeeded.
  • 101: Cargo failed to complete.

EXAMPLES

  1. Display the tree for the package in the current directory:

    cargo tree
    
  2. Display all the packages that depend on the syn package:

    cargo tree -i syn
    
  3. Show the features enabled on each package:

    cargo tree --format "{p} {f}"
    
  4. Show all packages that are built multiple times. This can happen if multiple semver-incompatible versions appear in the tree (like 1.0.0 and 2.0.0).

    cargo tree -d
    
  5. Explain why features are enabled for the syn package:

    cargo tree -e features -i syn
    

    The -e features flag is used to show features. The -i flag is used to invert the graph so that it displays the packages that depend on syn. An example of what this would display:

    syn v1.0.17
    ├── syn feature "clone-impls"
    │   └── syn feature "default"
    │       └── rustversion v1.0.2
    │           └── rustversion feature "default"
    │               └── myproject v0.1.0 (/myproject)
    │                   └── myproject feature "default" (command-line)
    ├── syn feature "default" (*)
    ├── syn feature "derive"
    │   └── syn feature "default" (*)
    ├── syn feature "full"
    │   └── rustversion v1.0.2 (*)
    ├── syn feature "parsing"
    │   └── syn feature "default" (*)
    ├── syn feature "printing"
    │   └── syn feature "default" (*)
    ├── syn feature "proc-macro"
    │   └── syn feature "default" (*)
    └── syn feature "quote"
        ├── syn feature "printing" (*)
        └── syn feature "proc-macro" (*)
    

    To read this graph, you can follow the chain for each feature from the root to see why it is included. For example, the "full" feature is added by the rustversion crate which is included from myproject (with the default features), and myproject is the package selected on the command-line. All of the other syn features are added by the "default" feature ("quote" is added by "printing" and "proc-macro", both of which are default features).

    If you're having difficulty cross-referencing the de-duplicated (*) entries, try with the --no-dedupe flag to get the full output.

SEE ALSO

cargo(1), cargo-metadata(1)