Struct std::collections::vec_deque::VecDeque [] [src]

pub struct VecDeque<T> {
    // some fields omitted
}

VecDeque is a growable ring buffer, which can be used as a double-ended queue efficiently.

The "default" usage of this type as a queue is to use push_back to add to the queue, and pop_front to remove from the queue. extend and append push onto the back in this manner, and iterating over VecDeque goes front to back.

Methods

impl<T> VecDeque<T>

fn new() -> VecDeque<T>

Creates an empty VecDeque.

fn with_capacity(n: usize) -> VecDeque<T>

Creates an empty VecDeque with space for at least n elements.

fn get(&self, index: usize) -> Option<&T>

Retrieves an element in the VecDeque by index.

Examples

fn main() { use std::collections::VecDeque; let mut buf = VecDeque::new(); buf.push_back(3); buf.push_back(4); buf.push_back(5); assert_eq!(buf.get(1), Some(&4)); }
use std::collections::VecDeque;

let mut buf = VecDeque::new();
buf.push_back(3);
buf.push_back(4);
buf.push_back(5);
assert_eq!(buf.get(1), Some(&4));

fn get_mut(&mut self, index: usize) -> Option<&mut T>

Retrieves an element in the VecDeque mutably by index.

Examples

fn main() { use std::collections::VecDeque; let mut buf = VecDeque::new(); buf.push_back(3); buf.push_back(4); buf.push_back(5); if let Some(elem) = buf.get_mut(1) { *elem = 7; } assert_eq!(buf[1], 7); }
use std::collections::VecDeque;

let mut buf = VecDeque::new();
buf.push_back(3);
buf.push_back(4);
buf.push_back(5);
if let Some(elem) = buf.get_mut(1) {
    *elem = 7;
}

assert_eq!(buf[1], 7);

fn swap(&mut self, i: usize, j: usize)

Swaps elements at indices i and j.

i and j may be equal.

Fails if there is no element with either index.

Examples

fn main() { use std::collections::VecDeque; let mut buf = VecDeque::new(); buf.push_back(3); buf.push_back(4); buf.push_back(5); buf.swap(0, 2); assert_eq!(buf[0], 5); assert_eq!(buf[2], 3); }
use std::collections::VecDeque;

let mut buf = VecDeque::new();
buf.push_back(3);
buf.push_back(4);
buf.push_back(5);
buf.swap(0, 2);
assert_eq!(buf[0], 5);
assert_eq!(buf[2], 3);

fn capacity(&self) -> usize

Returns the number of elements the VecDeque can hold without reallocating.

Examples

fn main() { use std::collections::VecDeque; let buf: VecDeque<i32> = VecDeque::with_capacity(10); assert!(buf.capacity() >= 10); }
use std::collections::VecDeque;

let buf: VecDeque<i32> = VecDeque::with_capacity(10);
assert!(buf.capacity() >= 10);

fn reserve_exact(&mut self, additional: usize)

Reserves the minimum capacity for exactly additional more elements to be inserted in the given VecDeque. Does nothing if the capacity is already sufficient.

Note that the allocator may give the collection more space than it requests. Therefore capacity can not be relied upon to be precisely minimal. Prefer reserve if future insertions are expected.

Panics

Panics if the new capacity overflows usize.

Examples

fn main() { use std::collections::VecDeque; let mut buf: VecDeque<i32> = vec![1].into_iter().collect(); buf.reserve_exact(10); assert!(buf.capacity() >= 11); }
use std::collections::VecDeque;

let mut buf: VecDeque<i32> = vec![1].into_iter().collect();
buf.reserve_exact(10);
assert!(buf.capacity() >= 11);

fn reserve(&mut self, additional: usize)

Reserves capacity for at least additional more elements to be inserted in the given VecDeque. The collection may reserve more space to avoid frequent reallocations.

Panics

Panics if the new capacity overflows usize.

Examples

fn main() { use std::collections::VecDeque; let mut buf: VecDeque<i32> = vec![1].into_iter().collect(); buf.reserve(10); assert!(buf.capacity() >= 11); }
use std::collections::VecDeque;

let mut buf: VecDeque<i32> = vec![1].into_iter().collect();
buf.reserve(10);
assert!(buf.capacity() >= 11);

fn shrink_to_fit(&mut self)

Unstable

: library is unlikely to be stabilized with the current layout and name, use std::collections instead

Shrinks the capacity of the VecDeque as much as possible.

It will drop down as close as possible to the length but the allocator may still inform the VecDeque that there is space for a few more elements.

Examples

#![feature(collections)] fn main() { use std::collections::VecDeque; let mut buf = VecDeque::with_capacity(15); buf.extend(0..4); assert_eq!(buf.capacity(), 15); buf.shrink_to_fit(); assert!(buf.capacity() >= 4); }
#![feature(collections)]

use std::collections::VecDeque;

let mut buf = VecDeque::with_capacity(15);
buf.extend(0..4);
assert_eq!(buf.capacity(), 15);
buf.shrink_to_fit();
assert!(buf.capacity() >= 4);

fn truncate(&mut self, len: usize)

Unstable

: matches collection reform specification; waiting on panic semantics

Shortens a VecDeque, dropping excess elements from the back.

If len is greater than the VecDeque's current length, this has no effect.

Examples

#![feature(deque_extras)] fn main() { use std::collections::VecDeque; let mut buf = VecDeque::new(); buf.push_back(5); buf.push_back(10); buf.push_back(15); buf.truncate(1); assert_eq!(buf.len(), 1); assert_eq!(Some(&5), buf.get(0)); }
#![feature(deque_extras)]

use std::collections::VecDeque;

let mut buf = VecDeque::new();
buf.push_back(5);
buf.push_back(10);
buf.push_back(15);
buf.truncate(1);
assert_eq!(buf.len(), 1);
assert_eq!(Some(&5), buf.get(0));

fn iter(&self) -> Iter<T>

Returns a front-to-back iterator.

Examples

fn main() { use std::collections::VecDeque; let mut buf = VecDeque::new(); buf.push_back(5); buf.push_back(3); buf.push_back(4); let b: &[_] = &[&5, &3, &4]; let c: Vec<&i32> = buf.iter().collect(); assert_eq!(&c[..], b); }
use std::collections::VecDeque;

let mut buf = VecDeque::new();
buf.push_back(5);
buf.push_back(3);
buf.push_back(4);
let b: &[_] = &[&5, &3, &4];
let c: Vec<&i32> = buf.iter().collect();
assert_eq!(&c[..], b);

fn iter_mut(&mut self) -> IterMut<T>

Returns a front-to-back iterator that returns mutable references.

Examples

fn main() { use std::collections::VecDeque; let mut buf = VecDeque::new(); buf.push_back(5); buf.push_back(3); buf.push_back(4); for num in buf.iter_mut() { *num = *num - 2; } let b: &[_] = &[&mut 3, &mut 1, &mut 2]; assert_eq!(&buf.iter_mut().collect::<Vec<&mut i32>>()[..], b); }
use std::collections::VecDeque;

let mut buf = VecDeque::new();
buf.push_back(5);
buf.push_back(3);
buf.push_back(4);
for num in buf.iter_mut() {
    *num = *num - 2;
}
let b: &[_] = &[&mut 3, &mut 1, &mut 2];
assert_eq!(&buf.iter_mut().collect::<Vec<&mut i32>>()[..], b);

fn as_slices(&self) -> (&[T], &[T])

Unstable

: matches collection reform specification, waiting for dust to settle

Returns a pair of slices which contain, in order, the contents of the VecDeque.

fn as_mut_slices(&mut self) -> (&mut [T], &mut [T])

Unstable

: matches collection reform specification, waiting for dust to settle

Returns a pair of slices which contain, in order, the contents of the VecDeque.

fn len(&self) -> usize

Returns the number of elements in the VecDeque.

Examples

fn main() { use std::collections::VecDeque; let mut v = VecDeque::new(); assert_eq!(v.len(), 0); v.push_back(1); assert_eq!(v.len(), 1); }
use std::collections::VecDeque;

let mut v = VecDeque::new();
assert_eq!(v.len(), 0);
v.push_back(1);
assert_eq!(v.len(), 1);

fn is_empty(&self) -> bool

Returns true if the buffer contains no elements

Examples

fn main() { use std::collections::VecDeque; let mut v = VecDeque::new(); assert!(v.is_empty()); v.push_front(1); assert!(!v.is_empty()); }
use std::collections::VecDeque;

let mut v = VecDeque::new();
assert!(v.is_empty());
v.push_front(1);
assert!(!v.is_empty());

fn drain(&mut self) -> Drain<T>

Unstable

: matches collection reform specification, waiting for dust to settle

Creates a draining iterator that clears the VecDeque and iterates over the removed items from start to end.

Examples

#![feature(drain)] fn main() { use std::collections::VecDeque; let mut v = VecDeque::new(); v.push_back(1); assert_eq!(v.drain().next(), Some(1)); assert!(v.is_empty()); }
#![feature(drain)]

use std::collections::VecDeque;

let mut v = VecDeque::new();
v.push_back(1);
assert_eq!(v.drain().next(), Some(1));
assert!(v.is_empty());

fn clear(&mut self)

Clears the buffer, removing all values.

Examples

fn main() { use std::collections::VecDeque; let mut v = VecDeque::new(); v.push_back(1); v.clear(); assert!(v.is_empty()); }
use std::collections::VecDeque;

let mut v = VecDeque::new();
v.push_back(1);
v.clear();
assert!(v.is_empty());

fn front(&self) -> Option<&T>

Provides a reference to the front element, or None if the sequence is empty.

Examples

fn main() { use std::collections::VecDeque; let mut d = VecDeque::new(); assert_eq!(d.front(), None); d.push_back(1); d.push_back(2); assert_eq!(d.front(), Some(&1)); }
use std::collections::VecDeque;

let mut d = VecDeque::new();
assert_eq!(d.front(), None);

d.push_back(1);
d.push_back(2);
assert_eq!(d.front(), Some(&1));

fn front_mut(&mut self) -> Option<&mut T>

Provides a mutable reference to the front element, or None if the sequence is empty.

Examples

fn main() { use std::collections::VecDeque; let mut d = VecDeque::new(); assert_eq!(d.front_mut(), None); d.push_back(1); d.push_back(2); match d.front_mut() { Some(x) => *x = 9, None => (), } assert_eq!(d.front(), Some(&9)); }
use std::collections::VecDeque;

let mut d = VecDeque::new();
assert_eq!(d.front_mut(), None);

d.push_back(1);
d.push_back(2);
match d.front_mut() {
    Some(x) => *x = 9,
    None => (),
}
assert_eq!(d.front(), Some(&9));

fn back(&self) -> Option<&T>

Provides a reference to the back element, or None if the sequence is empty.

Examples

fn main() { use std::collections::VecDeque; let mut d = VecDeque::new(); assert_eq!(d.back(), None); d.push_back(1); d.push_back(2); assert_eq!(d.back(), Some(&2)); }
use std::collections::VecDeque;

let mut d = VecDeque::new();
assert_eq!(d.back(), None);

d.push_back(1);
d.push_back(2);
assert_eq!(d.back(), Some(&2));

fn back_mut(&mut self) -> Option<&mut T>

Provides a mutable reference to the back element, or None if the sequence is empty.

Examples

fn main() { use std::collections::VecDeque; let mut d = VecDeque::new(); assert_eq!(d.back(), None); d.push_back(1); d.push_back(2); match d.back_mut() { Some(x) => *x = 9, None => (), } assert_eq!(d.back(), Some(&9)); }
use std::collections::VecDeque;

let mut d = VecDeque::new();
assert_eq!(d.back(), None);

d.push_back(1);
d.push_back(2);
match d.back_mut() {
    Some(x) => *x = 9,
    None => (),
}
assert_eq!(d.back(), Some(&9));

fn pop_front(&mut self) -> Option<T>

Removes the first element and returns it, or None if the sequence is empty.

Examples

fn main() { use std::collections::VecDeque; let mut d = VecDeque::new(); d.push_back(1); d.push_back(2); assert_eq!(d.pop_front(), Some(1)); assert_eq!(d.pop_front(), Some(2)); assert_eq!(d.pop_front(), None); }
use std::collections::VecDeque;

let mut d = VecDeque::new();
d.push_back(1);
d.push_back(2);

assert_eq!(d.pop_front(), Some(1));
assert_eq!(d.pop_front(), Some(2));
assert_eq!(d.pop_front(), None);

fn push_front(&mut self, value: T)

Inserts an element first in the sequence.

Examples

fn main() { use std::collections::VecDeque; let mut d = VecDeque::new(); d.push_front(1); d.push_front(2); assert_eq!(d.front(), Some(&2)); }
use std::collections::VecDeque;

let mut d = VecDeque::new();
d.push_front(1);
d.push_front(2);
assert_eq!(d.front(), Some(&2));

fn push_back(&mut self, value: T)

Appends an element to the back of a buffer

Examples

fn main() { use std::collections::VecDeque; let mut buf = VecDeque::new(); buf.push_back(1); buf.push_back(3); assert_eq!(3, *buf.back().unwrap()); }
use std::collections::VecDeque;

let mut buf = VecDeque::new();
buf.push_back(1);
buf.push_back(3);
assert_eq!(3, *buf.back().unwrap());

fn pop_back(&mut self) -> Option<T>

Removes the last element from a buffer and returns it, or None if it is empty.

Examples

fn main() { use std::collections::VecDeque; let mut buf = VecDeque::new(); assert_eq!(buf.pop_back(), None); buf.push_back(1); buf.push_back(3); assert_eq!(buf.pop_back(), Some(3)); }
use std::collections::VecDeque;

let mut buf = VecDeque::new();
assert_eq!(buf.pop_back(), None);
buf.push_back(1);
buf.push_back(3);
assert_eq!(buf.pop_back(), Some(3));

fn swap_back_remove(&mut self, index: usize) -> Option<T>

Unstable

: the naming of this function may be altered

Removes an element from anywhere in the VecDeque and returns it, replacing it with the last element.

This does not preserve ordering, but is O(1).

Returns None if index is out of bounds.

Examples

#![feature(deque_extras)] fn main() { use std::collections::VecDeque; let mut buf = VecDeque::new(); assert_eq!(buf.swap_back_remove(0), None); buf.push_back(1); buf.push_back(2); buf.push_back(3); assert_eq!(buf.swap_back_remove(0), Some(1)); assert_eq!(buf.len(), 2); assert_eq!(buf[0], 3); assert_eq!(buf[1], 2); }
#![feature(deque_extras)]

use std::collections::VecDeque;

let mut buf = VecDeque::new();
assert_eq!(buf.swap_back_remove(0), None);
buf.push_back(1);
buf.push_back(2);
buf.push_back(3);

assert_eq!(buf.swap_back_remove(0), Some(1));
assert_eq!(buf.len(), 2);
assert_eq!(buf[0], 3);
assert_eq!(buf[1], 2);

fn swap_front_remove(&mut self, index: usize) -> Option<T>

Unstable

: the naming of this function may be altered

Removes an element from anywhere in the VecDeque and returns it, replacing it with the first element.

This does not preserve ordering, but is O(1).

Returns None if index is out of bounds.

Examples

#![feature(deque_extras)] fn main() { use std::collections::VecDeque; let mut buf = VecDeque::new(); assert_eq!(buf.swap_front_remove(0), None); buf.push_back(1); buf.push_back(2); buf.push_back(3); assert_eq!(buf.swap_front_remove(2), Some(3)); assert_eq!(buf.len(), 2); assert_eq!(buf[0], 2); assert_eq!(buf[1], 1); }
#![feature(deque_extras)]

use std::collections::VecDeque;

let mut buf = VecDeque::new();
assert_eq!(buf.swap_front_remove(0), None);
buf.push_back(1);
buf.push_back(2);
buf.push_back(3);

assert_eq!(buf.swap_front_remove(2), Some(3));
assert_eq!(buf.len(), 2);
assert_eq!(buf[0], 2);
assert_eq!(buf[1], 1);

fn insert(&mut self, index: usize, value: T)

Unstable

: library is unlikely to be stabilized with the current layout and name, use std::collections instead

Inserts an element at index within the VecDeque. Whichever end is closer to the insertion point will be moved to make room, and all the affected elements will be moved to new positions.

Panics

Panics if index is greater than VecDeque's length

Examples

#![feature(collections)] fn main() { use std::collections::VecDeque; let mut buf = VecDeque::new(); buf.push_back(10); buf.push_back(12); buf.insert(1, 11); assert_eq!(Some(&11), buf.get(1)); }
#![feature(collections)]

use std::collections::VecDeque;

let mut buf = VecDeque::new();
buf.push_back(10);
buf.push_back(12);
buf.insert(1, 11);
assert_eq!(Some(&11), buf.get(1));

fn remove(&mut self, index: usize) -> Option<T>

Removes and returns the element at index from the VecDeque. Whichever end is closer to the removal point will be moved to make room, and all the affected elements will be moved to new positions. Returns None if index is out of bounds.

Examples

fn main() { use std::collections::VecDeque; let mut buf = VecDeque::new(); buf.push_back(1); buf.push_back(2); buf.push_back(3); assert_eq!(buf.remove(1), Some(2)); assert_eq!(buf.get(1), Some(&3)); }
use std::collections::VecDeque;

let mut buf = VecDeque::new();
buf.push_back(1);
buf.push_back(2);
buf.push_back(3);

assert_eq!(buf.remove(1), Some(2));
assert_eq!(buf.get(1), Some(&3));

fn split_off(&mut self, at: usize) -> VecDeque<T>

Unstable

: new API, waiting for dust to settle

Splits the collection into two at the given index.

Returns a newly allocated Self. self contains elements [0, at), and the returned Self contains elements [at, len).

Note that the capacity of self does not change.

Panics

Panics if at > len

Examples

#![feature(split_off)] fn main() { use std::collections::VecDeque; let mut buf: VecDeque<_> = vec![1,2,3].into_iter().collect(); let buf2 = buf.split_off(1); // buf = [1], buf2 = [2, 3] assert_eq!(buf.len(), 1); assert_eq!(buf2.len(), 2); }
#![feature(split_off)]

use std::collections::VecDeque;

let mut buf: VecDeque<_> = vec![1,2,3].into_iter().collect();
let buf2 = buf.split_off(1);
// buf = [1], buf2 = [2, 3]
assert_eq!(buf.len(), 1);
assert_eq!(buf2.len(), 2);

fn append(&mut self, other: &mut VecDeque<T>)

Unstable

: new API, waiting for dust to settle

Moves all the elements of other into Self, leaving other empty.

Panics

Panics if the new number of elements in self overflows a usize.

Examples

#![feature(append)] fn main() { use std::collections::VecDeque; let mut buf: VecDeque<_> = vec![1, 2, 3].into_iter().collect(); let mut buf2: VecDeque<_> = vec![4, 5, 6].into_iter().collect(); buf.append(&mut buf2); assert_eq!(buf.len(), 6); assert_eq!(buf2.len(), 0); }
#![feature(append)]

use std::collections::VecDeque;

let mut buf: VecDeque<_> = vec![1, 2, 3].into_iter().collect();
let mut buf2: VecDeque<_> = vec![4, 5, 6].into_iter().collect();
buf.append(&mut buf2);
assert_eq!(buf.len(), 6);
assert_eq!(buf2.len(), 0);

fn retain<F>(&mut self, f: F) where F: FnMut(&T) -> bool

Unstable

: new API, waiting for dust to settle

Retains only the elements specified by the predicate.

In other words, remove all elements e such that f(&e) returns false. This method operates in place and preserves the order of the retained elements.

Examples

#![feature(vec_deque_retain)] fn main() { use std::collections::VecDeque; let mut buf = VecDeque::new(); buf.extend(1..5); buf.retain(|&x| x%2 == 0); let v: Vec<_> = buf.into_iter().collect(); assert_eq!(&v[..], &[2, 4]); }
#![feature(vec_deque_retain)]

use std::collections::VecDeque;

let mut buf = VecDeque::new();
buf.extend(1..5);
buf.retain(|&x| x%2 == 0);

let v: Vec<_> = buf.into_iter().collect();
assert_eq!(&v[..], &[2, 4]);

impl<T> VecDeque<T> where T: Clone

fn resize(&mut self, new_len: usize, value: T)

Unstable

: matches collection reform specification; waiting on panic semantics

Modifies the VecDeque in-place so that len() is equal to new_len, either by removing excess elements or by appending copies of a value to the back.

Examples

#![feature(deque_extras)] fn main() { use std::collections::VecDeque; let mut buf = VecDeque::new(); buf.push_back(5); buf.push_back(10); buf.push_back(15); buf.resize(2, 0); buf.resize(6, 20); for (a, b) in [5, 10, 20, 20, 20, 20].iter().zip(&buf) { assert_eq!(a, b); } }
#![feature(deque_extras)]

use std::collections::VecDeque;

let mut buf = VecDeque::new();
buf.push_back(5);
buf.push_back(10);
buf.push_back(15);
buf.resize(2, 0);
buf.resize(6, 20);
for (a, b) in [5, 10, 20, 20, 20, 20].iter().zip(&buf) {
    assert_eq!(a, b);
}

Trait Implementations

impl<T> Clone for VecDeque<T> where T: Clone

fn clone(&self) -> VecDeque<T>

fn clone_from(&mut self, source: &Self)

impl<T> Drop for VecDeque<T>

fn drop(&mut self)

impl<T> Default for VecDeque<T>

fn default() -> VecDeque<T>

impl<A> PartialEq<VecDeque<A>> for VecDeque<A> where A: PartialEq<A>

fn eq(&self, other: &VecDeque<A>) -> bool

fn ne(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

impl<A> Eq for VecDeque<A> where A: Eq

impl<A> PartialOrd<VecDeque<A>> for VecDeque<A> where A: PartialOrd<A>

fn partial_cmp(&self, other: &VecDeque<A>) -> Option<Ordering>

fn lt(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

fn le(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

fn gt(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

fn ge(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

impl<A> Ord for VecDeque<A> where A: Ord

fn cmp(&self, other: &VecDeque<A>) -> Ordering

impl<A> Hash for VecDeque<A> where A: Hash

fn hash<H>(&self, state: &mut H) where H: Hasher

fn hash_slice<H>(data: &[Self], state: &mut H) where H: Hasher

impl<A> Index<usize> for VecDeque<A>

type Output = A

fn index(&self, index: usize) -> &A

impl<A> IndexMut<usize> for VecDeque<A>

fn index_mut(&mut self, index: usize) -> &mut A

impl<A> FromIterator<A> for VecDeque<A>

fn from_iter<T>(iterable: T) -> VecDeque<A> where T: IntoIterator<Item=A>

impl<T> IntoIterator for VecDeque<T>

type Item = T

type IntoIter = IntoIter<T>

fn into_iter(self) -> IntoIter<T>

impl<'a, T> IntoIterator for &'a VecDeque<T>

type Item = &'a T

type IntoIter = Iter<'a, T>

fn into_iter(self) -> Iter<'a, T>

impl<'a, T> IntoIterator for &'a mut VecDeque<T>

type Item = &'a mut T

type IntoIter = IterMut<'a, T>

fn into_iter(self) -> IterMut<'a, T>

impl<A> Extend<A> for VecDeque<A>

fn extend<T>(&mut self, iter: T) where T: IntoIterator<Item=A>

impl<'a, T> Extend<&'a T> for VecDeque<T> where T: Copy + 'a

fn extend<I>(&mut self, iter: I) where I: IntoIterator<Item=&'a T>

impl<T> Debug for VecDeque<T> where T: Debug

fn fmt(&self, f: &mut Formatter) -> Result<(), Error>