1. 1. Introduction
  2. 2. Getting Started
  3. 3. Tutorial: Guessing Game
  4. 4. Syntax and Semantics
    1. 4.1. Variable Bindings
    2. 4.2. Functions
    3. 4.3. Primitive Types
    4. 4.4. Comments
    5. 4.5. if
    6. 4.6. Loops
    7. 4.7. Vectors
    8. 4.8. Ownership
    9. 4.9. References and Borrowing
    10. 4.10. Lifetimes
    11. 4.11. Mutability
    12. 4.12. Structs
    13. 4.13. Enums
    14. 4.14. Match
    15. 4.15. Patterns
    16. 4.16. Method Syntax
    17. 4.17. Strings
    18. 4.18. Generics
    19. 4.19. Traits
    20. 4.20. Drop
    21. 4.21. if let
    22. 4.22. Trait Objects
    23. 4.23. Closures
    24. 4.24. Universal Function Call Syntax
    25. 4.25. Crates and Modules
    26. 4.26. `const` and `static`
    27. 4.27. Attributes
    28. 4.28. `type` aliases
    29. 4.29. Casting between types
    30. 4.30. Associated Types
    31. 4.31. Unsized Types
    32. 4.32. Operators and Overloading
    33. 4.33. Deref coercions
    34. 4.34. Macros
    35. 4.35. Raw Pointers
    36. 4.36. `unsafe`
  5. 5. Effective Rust
    1. 5.1. The Stack and the Heap
    2. 5.2. Testing
    3. 5.3. Conditional Compilation
    4. 5.4. Documentation
    5. 5.5. Iterators
    6. 5.6. Concurrency
    7. 5.7. Error Handling
    8. 5.8. Choosing your Guarantees
    9. 5.9. FFI
    10. 5.10. Borrow and AsRef
    11. 5.11. Release Channels
    12. 5.12. Using Rust without the standard library
  6. 6. Nightly Rust
    1. 6.1. Compiler Plugins
    2. 6.2. Inline Assembly
    3. 6.3. No stdlib
    4. 6.4. Intrinsics
    5. 6.5. Lang items
    6. 6.6. Advanced linking
    7. 6.7. Benchmark Tests
    8. 6.8. Box Syntax and Patterns
    9. 6.9. Slice Patterns
    10. 6.10. Associated Constants
    11. 6.11. Custom Allocators
  7. 7. Glossary
  8. 8. Syntax Index
  9. 9. Bibliography

if let

if let allows you to combine if and let together to reduce the overhead of certain kinds of pattern matches.

For example, let’s say we have some sort of Option<T>. We want to call a function on it if it’s Some<T>, but do nothing if it’s None. That looks like this:

match option {
    Some(x) => { foo(x) },
    None => {},
}Run

We don’t have to use match here, for example, we could use if:

if option.is_some() {
    let x = option.unwrap();
    foo(x);
}Run

Neither of these options is particularly appealing. We can use if let to do the same thing in a nicer way:

if let Some(x) = option {
    foo(x);
}Run

If a pattern matches successfully, it binds any appropriate parts of the value to the identifiers in the pattern, then evaluates the expression. If the pattern doesn’t match, nothing happens.

If you want to do something else when the pattern does not match, you can use else:

if let Some(x) = option {
    foo(x);
} else {
    bar();
}Run

while let

In a similar fashion, while let can be used when you want to conditionally loop as long as a value matches a certain pattern. It turns code like this:

let mut v = vec![1, 3, 5, 7, 11];
loop {
    match v.pop() {
        Some(x) =>  println!("{}", x),
        None => break,
    }
}Run

Into code like this:

let mut v = vec![1, 3, 5, 7, 11];
while let Some(x) = v.pop() {
    println!("{}", x);
}Run