Primitive Type str []

String slices.

The str type, also called a 'string slice', is the most primitive string type. It is usually seen in its borrowed form, &str. It is also the type of string literals, &'static str.

Strings slices are always valid UTF-8.

This documentation describes a number of methods and trait implementations on the str type. For technical reasons, there is additional, separate documentation in the std::str module as well.

Examples

String literals are string slices:

fn main() { let hello = "Hello, world!"; // with an explicit type annotation let hello: &'static str = "Hello, world!"; }
let hello = "Hello, world!";

// with an explicit type annotation
let hello: &'static str = "Hello, world!";

They are 'static because they're stored directly in the final binary, and so will be valid for the 'static duration.

Representation

A &str is made up of two components: a pointer to some bytes, and a length. You can look at these with the .as_ptr() and len() methods:

fn main() { use std::slice; use std::str; let story = "Once upon a time..."; let ptr = story.as_ptr(); let len = story.len(); // story has nineteen bytes assert_eq!(19, len); // We can re-build a str out of ptr and len. This is all unsafe because // we are responsible for making sure the two components are valid: let s = unsafe { // First, we build a &[u8]... let slice = slice::from_raw_parts(ptr, len); // ... and then convert that slice into a string slice str::from_utf8(slice) }; assert_eq!(s, Ok(story)); }
use std::slice;
use std::str;

let story = "Once upon a time...";

let ptr = story.as_ptr();
let len = story.len();

// story has nineteen bytes
assert_eq!(19, len);

// We can re-build a str out of ptr and len. This is all unsafe because
// we are responsible for making sure the two components are valid:
let s = unsafe {
    // First, we build a &[u8]...
    let slice = slice::from_raw_parts(ptr, len);

    // ... and then convert that slice into a string slice
    str::from_utf8(slice)
};

assert_eq!(s, Ok(story));

Methods

impl str

Methods for string slices.

1.0.0fn len(&self) -> usize

Returns the length of self.

This length is in bytes, not chars or graphemes. In other words, it may not be what a human considers the length of the string.

Examples

Basic usage:

fn main() { let len = "foo".len(); assert_eq!(3, len); let len = "ƒoo".len(); // fancy f! assert_eq!(4, len); }
let len = "foo".len();
assert_eq!(3, len);

let len = "ƒoo".len(); // fancy f!
assert_eq!(4, len);

1.0.0fn is_empty(&self) -> bool

Returns true if this slice has a length of zero bytes.

Examples

Basic usage:

fn main() { let s = ""; assert!(s.is_empty()); let s = "not empty"; assert!(!s.is_empty()); }
let s = "";
assert!(s.is_empty());

let s = "not empty";
assert!(!s.is_empty());

1.9.0fn is_char_boundary(&self, index: usize) -> bool

Checks that index-th byte lies at the start and/or end of a UTF-8 code point sequence.

The start and end of the string (when index == self.len()) are considered to be boundaries.

Returns false if index is greater than self.len().

Examples

fn main() { let s = "Löwe 老虎 Léopard"; assert!(s.is_char_boundary(0)); // start of `老` assert!(s.is_char_boundary(6)); assert!(s.is_char_boundary(s.len())); // second byte of `ö` assert!(!s.is_char_boundary(2)); // third byte of `老` assert!(!s.is_char_boundary(8)); }
let s = "Löwe 老虎 Léopard";
assert!(s.is_char_boundary(0));
// start of `老`
assert!(s.is_char_boundary(6));
assert!(s.is_char_boundary(s.len()));

// second byte of `ö`
assert!(!s.is_char_boundary(2));

// third byte of `老`
assert!(!s.is_char_boundary(8));

1.0.0fn as_bytes(&self) -> &[u8]

Converts a string slice to a byte slice.

Examples

Basic usage:

fn main() { let bytes = "bors".as_bytes(); assert_eq!(b"bors", bytes); }
let bytes = "bors".as_bytes();
assert_eq!(b"bors", bytes);

1.0.0fn as_ptr(&self) -> *const u8

Converts a string slice to a raw pointer.

As string slices are a slice of bytes, the raw pointer points to a u8. This pointer will be pointing to the first byte of the string slice.

Examples

Basic usage:

fn main() { let s = "Hello"; let ptr = s.as_ptr(); }
let s = "Hello";
let ptr = s.as_ptr();

1.0.0unsafe fn slice_unchecked(&self, begin: usize, end: usize) -> &str

Creates a string slice from another string slice, bypassing safety checks.

This new slice goes from begin to end, including begin but excluding end.

To get a mutable string slice instead, see the slice_mut_unchecked() method.

Safety

Callers of this function are responsible that three preconditions are satisfied:

  • begin must come before end.
  • begin and end must be byte positions within the string slice.
  • begin and end must lie on UTF-8 sequence boundaries.

Examples

Basic usage:

fn main() { let s = "Löwe 老虎 Léopard"; unsafe { assert_eq!("Löwe 老虎 Léopard", s.slice_unchecked(0, 21)); } let s = "Hello, world!"; unsafe { assert_eq!("world", s.slice_unchecked(7, 12)); } }
let s = "Löwe 老虎 Léopard";

unsafe {
    assert_eq!("Löwe 老虎 Léopard", s.slice_unchecked(0, 21));
}

let s = "Hello, world!";

unsafe {
    assert_eq!("world", s.slice_unchecked(7, 12));
}

1.5.0unsafe fn slice_mut_unchecked(&mut self, begin: usize, end: usize) -> &mut str

Creates a string slice from another string slice, bypassing safety checks.

This new slice goes from begin to end, including begin but excluding end.

To get an immutable string slice instead, see the slice_unchecked() method.

Safety

Callers of this function are responsible that three preconditions are satisfied:

  • begin must come before end.
  • begin and end must be byte positions within the string slice.
  • begin and end must lie on UTF-8 sequence boundaries.

fn char_range_at(&self, start: usize) -> CharRange

Deprecated since 1.9.0

: use slicing plus chars() plus len_utf8

Given a byte position, returns the next char and its index.

Panics

If i is greater than or equal to the length of the string. If i is not the index of the beginning of a valid UTF-8 sequence.

Examples

This example manually iterates through the code points of a string; this should normally be done by .chars() or .char_indices().

#![feature(str_char)] fn main() { #![allow(deprecated)] use std::str::CharRange; let s = "中华Việt Nam"; let mut i = 0; while i < s.len() { let CharRange {ch, next} = s.char_range_at(i); println!("{}: {}", i, ch); i = next; } }
#![feature(str_char)]
#![allow(deprecated)]

use std::str::CharRange;

let s = "中华Việt Nam";
let mut i = 0;
while i < s.len() {
    let CharRange {ch, next} = s.char_range_at(i);
    println!("{}: {}", i, ch);
    i = next;
}

This outputs:

0: 中
3: 华
6: V
7: i
8: e
9:
11:
13: t
14:
15: N
16: a
17: m

fn char_range_at_reverse(&self, start: usize) -> CharRange

Deprecated since 1.9.0

: use slicing plus chars().rev() plus len_utf8

Given a byte position, returns the previous char and its position.

Note that Unicode has many features, such as combining marks, ligatures, and direction marks, that need to be taken into account to correctly reverse a string.

Returns 0 for next index if called on start index 0.

Panics

If i is greater than the length of the string. If i is not an index following a valid UTF-8 sequence.

Examples

This example manually iterates through the code points of a string; this should normally be done by .chars().rev() or .char_indices().

#![feature(str_char)] fn main() { #![allow(deprecated)] use std::str::CharRange; let s = "中华Việt Nam"; let mut i = s.len(); while i > 0 { let CharRange {ch, next} = s.char_range_at_reverse(i); println!("{}: {}", i, ch); i = next; } }
#![feature(str_char)]
#![allow(deprecated)]

use std::str::CharRange;

let s = "中华Việt Nam";
let mut i = s.len();
while i > 0 {
    let CharRange {ch, next} = s.char_range_at_reverse(i);
    println!("{}: {}", i, ch);
    i = next;
}

This outputs:

18: m
17: a
16: N
15:
14: t
13:
11:
9: e
8: i
7: V
6: 华
3: 中

fn char_at(&self, i: usize) -> char

Deprecated since 1.9.0

: use slicing plus chars()

Given a byte position, returns the char at that position.

Panics

If i is greater than or equal to the length of the string. If i is not the index of the beginning of a valid UTF-8 sequence.

Examples

#![feature(str_char)] fn main() { #![allow(deprecated)] let s = "abπc"; assert_eq!(s.char_at(1), 'b'); assert_eq!(s.char_at(2), 'π'); assert_eq!(s.char_at(4), 'c'); }
#![feature(str_char)]
#![allow(deprecated)]

let s = "abπc";
assert_eq!(s.char_at(1), 'b');
assert_eq!(s.char_at(2), 'π');
assert_eq!(s.char_at(4), 'c');

fn char_at_reverse(&self, i: usize) -> char

Deprecated since 1.9.0

: use slicing plus chars().rev()

Given a byte position, returns the char at that position, counting from the end.

Panics

If i is greater than the length of the string. If i is not an index following a valid UTF-8 sequence.

Examples

#![feature(str_char)] fn main() { #![allow(deprecated)] let s = "abπc"; assert_eq!(s.char_at_reverse(1), 'a'); assert_eq!(s.char_at_reverse(2), 'b'); assert_eq!(s.char_at_reverse(3), 'π'); }
#![feature(str_char)]
#![allow(deprecated)]

let s = "abπc";
assert_eq!(s.char_at_reverse(1), 'a');
assert_eq!(s.char_at_reverse(2), 'b');
assert_eq!(s.char_at_reverse(3), 'π');

fn slice_shift_char(&self) -> Option<(char, &str)>

Deprecated since 1.9.0

: use chars() plus Chars::as_str

Retrieves the first char from a &str and returns it.

Note that a single Unicode character (grapheme cluster) can be composed of multiple chars.

This does not allocate a new string; instead, it returns a slice that points one code point beyond the code point that was shifted.

None is returned if the slice is empty.

Examples

#![feature(str_char)] fn main() { #![allow(deprecated)] let s = "Łódź"; // \u{141}o\u{301}dz\u{301} let (c, s1) = s.slice_shift_char().unwrap(); assert_eq!(c, 'Ł'); assert_eq!(s1, "ódź"); let (c, s2) = s1.slice_shift_char().unwrap(); assert_eq!(c, 'o'); assert_eq!(s2, "\u{301}dz\u{301}"); }
#![feature(str_char)]
#![allow(deprecated)]

let s = "Łódź"; // \u{141}o\u{301}dz\u{301}
let (c, s1) = s.slice_shift_char().unwrap();

assert_eq!(c, 'Ł');
assert_eq!(s1, "ódź");

let (c, s2) = s1.slice_shift_char().unwrap();

assert_eq!(c, 'o');
assert_eq!(s2, "\u{301}dz\u{301}");

1.4.0fn split_at(&self, mid: usize) -> (&str, &str)

Divide one string slice into two at an index.

The argument, mid, should be a byte offset from the start of the string. It must also be on the boundary of a UTF-8 code point.

The two slices returned go from the start of the string slice to mid, and from mid to the end of the string slice.

To get mutable string slices instead, see the split_at_mut() method.

Panics

Panics if mid is not on a UTF-8 code point boundary, or if it is beyond the last code point of the string slice.

Examples

Basic usage:

fn main() { let s = "Per Martin-Löf"; let (first, last) = s.split_at(3); assert_eq!("Per", first); assert_eq!(" Martin-Löf", last); }
let s = "Per Martin-Löf";

let (first, last) = s.split_at(3);

assert_eq!("Per", first);
assert_eq!(" Martin-Löf", last);

1.4.0fn split_at_mut(&mut self, mid: usize) -> (&mut str, &mut str)

Divide one mutable string slice into two at an index.

The argument, mid, should be a byte offset from the start of the string. It must also be on the boundary of a UTF-8 code point.

The two slices returned go from the start of the string slice to mid, and from mid to the end of the string slice.

To get immutable string slices instead, see the split_at() method.

Panics

Panics if mid is not on a UTF-8 code point boundary, or if it is beyond the last code point of the string slice.

Examples

Basic usage:

fn main() { let s = "Per Martin-Löf"; let (first, last) = s.split_at(3); assert_eq!("Per", first); assert_eq!(" Martin-Löf", last); }
let s = "Per Martin-Löf";

let (first, last) = s.split_at(3);

assert_eq!("Per", first);
assert_eq!(" Martin-Löf", last);

1.0.0fn chars(&self) -> Chars

Returns an iterator over the chars of a string slice.

As a string slice consists of valid UTF-8, we can iterate through a string slice by char. This method returns such an iterator.

It's important to remember that char represents a Unicode Scalar Value, and may not match your idea of what a 'character' is. Iteration over grapheme clusters may be what you actually want.

Examples

Basic usage:

fn main() { let word = "goodbye"; let count = word.chars().count(); assert_eq!(7, count); let mut chars = word.chars(); assert_eq!(Some('g'), chars.next()); assert_eq!(Some('o'), chars.next()); assert_eq!(Some('o'), chars.next()); assert_eq!(Some('d'), chars.next()); assert_eq!(Some('b'), chars.next()); assert_eq!(Some('y'), chars.next()); assert_eq!(Some('e'), chars.next()); assert_eq!(None, chars.next()); }
let word = "goodbye";

let count = word.chars().count();
assert_eq!(7, count);

let mut chars = word.chars();

assert_eq!(Some('g'), chars.next());
assert_eq!(Some('o'), chars.next());
assert_eq!(Some('o'), chars.next());
assert_eq!(Some('d'), chars.next());
assert_eq!(Some('b'), chars.next());
assert_eq!(Some('y'), chars.next());
assert_eq!(Some('e'), chars.next());

assert_eq!(None, chars.next());

Remember, chars may not match your human intuition about characters:

fn main() { let y = "y̆"; let mut chars = y.chars(); assert_eq!(Some('y'), chars.next()); // not 'y̆' assert_eq!(Some('\u{0306}'), chars.next()); assert_eq!(None, chars.next()); }
let y = "y̆";

let mut chars = y.chars();

assert_eq!(Some('y'), chars.next()); // not 'y̆'
assert_eq!(Some('\u{0306}'), chars.next());

assert_eq!(None, chars.next());

1.0.0fn char_indices(&self) -> CharIndices

Returns an iterator over the chars of a string slice, and their positions.

As a string slice consists of valid UTF-8, we can iterate through a string slice by char. This method returns an iterator of both these chars, as well as their byte positions.

The iterator yields tuples. The position is first, the char is second.

Examples

Basic usage:

fn main() { let word = "goodbye"; let count = word.char_indices().count(); assert_eq!(7, count); let mut char_indices = word.char_indices(); assert_eq!(Some((0, 'g')), char_indices.next()); assert_eq!(Some((1, 'o')), char_indices.next()); assert_eq!(Some((2, 'o')), char_indices.next()); assert_eq!(Some((3, 'd')), char_indices.next()); assert_eq!(Some((4, 'b')), char_indices.next()); assert_eq!(Some((5, 'y')), char_indices.next()); assert_eq!(Some((6, 'e')), char_indices.next()); assert_eq!(None, char_indices.next()); }
let word = "goodbye";

let count = word.char_indices().count();
assert_eq!(7, count);

let mut char_indices = word.char_indices();

assert_eq!(Some((0, 'g')), char_indices.next());
assert_eq!(Some((1, 'o')), char_indices.next());
assert_eq!(Some((2, 'o')), char_indices.next());
assert_eq!(Some((3, 'd')), char_indices.next());
assert_eq!(Some((4, 'b')), char_indices.next());
assert_eq!(Some((5, 'y')), char_indices.next());
assert_eq!(Some((6, 'e')), char_indices.next());

assert_eq!(None, char_indices.next());

Remember, chars may not match your human intuition about characters:

fn main() { let y = "y̆"; let mut char_indices = y.char_indices(); assert_eq!(Some((0, 'y')), char_indices.next()); // not (0, 'y̆') assert_eq!(Some((1, '\u{0306}')), char_indices.next()); assert_eq!(None, char_indices.next()); }
let y = "y̆";

let mut char_indices = y.char_indices();

assert_eq!(Some((0, 'y')), char_indices.next()); // not (0, 'y̆')
assert_eq!(Some((1, '\u{0306}')), char_indices.next());

assert_eq!(None, char_indices.next());

1.0.0fn bytes(&self) -> Bytes

An iterator over the bytes of a string slice.

As a string slice consists of a sequence of bytes, we can iterate through a string slice by byte. This method returns such an iterator.

Examples

Basic usage:

fn main() { let mut bytes = "bors".bytes(); assert_eq!(Some(b'b'), bytes.next()); assert_eq!(Some(b'o'), bytes.next()); assert_eq!(Some(b'r'), bytes.next()); assert_eq!(Some(b's'), bytes.next()); assert_eq!(None, bytes.next()); }
let mut bytes = "bors".bytes();

assert_eq!(Some(b'b'), bytes.next());
assert_eq!(Some(b'o'), bytes.next());
assert_eq!(Some(b'r'), bytes.next());
assert_eq!(Some(b's'), bytes.next());

assert_eq!(None, bytes.next());

1.1.0fn split_whitespace(&self) -> SplitWhitespace

Split a string slice by whitespace.

The iterator returned will return string slices that are sub-slices of the original string slice, separated by any amount of whitespace.

'Whitespace' is defined according to the terms of the Unicode Derived Core Property White_Space.

Examples

Basic usage:

fn main() { let mut iter = "A few words".split_whitespace(); assert_eq!(Some("A"), iter.next()); assert_eq!(Some("few"), iter.next()); assert_eq!(Some("words"), iter.next()); assert_eq!(None, iter.next()); }
let mut iter = "A few words".split_whitespace();

assert_eq!(Some("A"), iter.next());
assert_eq!(Some("few"), iter.next());
assert_eq!(Some("words"), iter.next());

assert_eq!(None, iter.next());

All kinds of whitespace are considered:

fn main() { let mut iter = " Mary had\ta\u{2009}little \n\t lamb".split_whitespace(); assert_eq!(Some("Mary"), iter.next()); assert_eq!(Some("had"), iter.next()); assert_eq!(Some("a"), iter.next()); assert_eq!(Some("little"), iter.next()); assert_eq!(Some("lamb"), iter.next()); assert_eq!(None, iter.next()); }
let mut iter = " Mary   had\ta\u{2009}little  \n\t lamb".split_whitespace();
assert_eq!(Some("Mary"), iter.next());
assert_eq!(Some("had"), iter.next());
assert_eq!(Some("a"), iter.next());
assert_eq!(Some("little"), iter.next());
assert_eq!(Some("lamb"), iter.next());

assert_eq!(None, iter.next());

1.0.0fn lines(&self) -> Lines

An iterator over the lines of a string, as string slices.

Lines are ended with either a newline (\n) or a carriage return with a line feed (\r\n).

The final line ending is optional.

Examples

Basic usage:

fn main() { let text = "foo\r\nbar\n\nbaz\n"; let mut lines = text.lines(); assert_eq!(Some("foo"), lines.next()); assert_eq!(Some("bar"), lines.next()); assert_eq!(Some(""), lines.next()); assert_eq!(Some("baz"), lines.next()); assert_eq!(None, lines.next()); }
let text = "foo\r\nbar\n\nbaz\n";
let mut lines = text.lines();

assert_eq!(Some("foo"), lines.next());
assert_eq!(Some("bar"), lines.next());
assert_eq!(Some(""), lines.next());
assert_eq!(Some("baz"), lines.next());

assert_eq!(None, lines.next());

The final line ending isn't required:

fn main() { let text = "foo\nbar\n\r\nbaz"; let mut lines = text.lines(); assert_eq!(Some("foo"), lines.next()); assert_eq!(Some("bar"), lines.next()); assert_eq!(Some(""), lines.next()); assert_eq!(Some("baz"), lines.next()); assert_eq!(None, lines.next()); }
let text = "foo\nbar\n\r\nbaz";
let mut lines = text.lines();

assert_eq!(Some("foo"), lines.next());
assert_eq!(Some("bar"), lines.next());
assert_eq!(Some(""), lines.next());
assert_eq!(Some("baz"), lines.next());

assert_eq!(None, lines.next());

1.0.0fn lines_any(&self) -> LinesAny

Deprecated since 1.4.0

: use lines() instead now

An iterator over the lines of a string.

fn utf16_units(&self) -> EncodeUtf16

Deprecated since 1.8.0

: renamed to encode_utf16

Returns an iterator of u16 over the string encoded as UTF-16.

1.8.0fn encode_utf16(&self) -> EncodeUtf16

Returns an iterator of u16 over the string encoded as UTF-16.

1.0.0fn contains<'a, P>(&'a self, pat: P) -> bool where P: Pattern<'a>

Returns true if the given pattern matches a sub-slice of this string slice.

Returns false if it does not.

Examples

Basic usage:

fn main() { let bananas = "bananas"; assert!(bananas.contains("nana")); assert!(!bananas.contains("apples")); }
let bananas = "bananas";

assert!(bananas.contains("nana"));
assert!(!bananas.contains("apples"));

1.0.0fn starts_with<'a, P>(&'a self, pat: P) -> bool where P: Pattern<'a>

Returns true if the given pattern matches a prefix of this string slice.

Returns false if it does not.

Examples

Basic usage:

fn main() { let bananas = "bananas"; assert!(bananas.starts_with("bana")); assert!(!bananas.starts_with("nana")); }
let bananas = "bananas";

assert!(bananas.starts_with("bana"));
assert!(!bananas.starts_with("nana"));

1.0.0fn ends_with<'a, P>(&'a self, pat: P) -> bool where P: Pattern<'a>, P::Searcher: ReverseSearcher<'a>

Returns true if the given pattern matches a suffix of this string slice.

Returns false if it does not.

Examples

Basic usage:

fn main() { let bananas = "bananas"; assert!(bananas.ends_with("anas")); assert!(!bananas.ends_with("nana")); }
let bananas = "bananas";

assert!(bananas.ends_with("anas"));
assert!(!bananas.ends_with("nana"));

1.0.0fn find<'a, P>(&'a self, pat: P) -> Option<usize> where P: Pattern<'a>

Returns the byte index of the first character of this string slice that matches the pattern.

Returns None if the pattern doesn't match.

The pattern can be a &str, char, or a closure that determines if a character matches.

Examples

Simple patterns:

fn main() { let s = "Löwe 老虎 Léopard"; assert_eq!(s.find('L'), Some(0)); assert_eq!(s.find('é'), Some(14)); assert_eq!(s.find("Léopard"), Some(13)); }
let s = "Löwe 老虎 Léopard";

assert_eq!(s.find('L'), Some(0));
assert_eq!(s.find('é'), Some(14));
assert_eq!(s.find("Léopard"), Some(13));

More complex patterns with closures:

fn main() { let s = "Löwe 老虎 Léopard"; assert_eq!(s.find(char::is_whitespace), Some(5)); assert_eq!(s.find(char::is_lowercase), Some(1)); }
let s = "Löwe 老虎 Léopard";

assert_eq!(s.find(char::is_whitespace), Some(5));
assert_eq!(s.find(char::is_lowercase), Some(1));

Not finding the pattern:

fn main() { let s = "Löwe 老虎 Léopard"; let x: &[_] = &['1', '2']; assert_eq!(s.find(x), None); }
let s = "Löwe 老虎 Léopard";
let x: &[_] = &['1', '2'];

assert_eq!(s.find(x), None);

1.0.0fn rfind<'a, P>(&'a self, pat: P) -> Option<usize> where P: Pattern<'a>, P::Searcher: ReverseSearcher<'a>

Returns the byte index of the last character of this string slice that matches the pattern.

Returns None if the pattern doesn't match.

The pattern can be a &str, char, or a closure that determines if a character matches.

Examples

Simple patterns:

fn main() { let s = "Löwe 老虎 Léopard"; assert_eq!(s.rfind('L'), Some(13)); assert_eq!(s.rfind('é'), Some(14)); }
let s = "Löwe 老虎 Léopard";

assert_eq!(s.rfind('L'), Some(13));
assert_eq!(s.rfind('é'), Some(14));

More complex patterns with closures:

fn main() { let s = "Löwe 老虎 Léopard"; assert_eq!(s.rfind(char::is_whitespace), Some(12)); assert_eq!(s.rfind(char::is_lowercase), Some(20)); }
let s = "Löwe 老虎 Léopard";

assert_eq!(s.rfind(char::is_whitespace), Some(12));
assert_eq!(s.rfind(char::is_lowercase), Some(20));

Not finding the pattern:

fn main() { let s = "Löwe 老虎 Léopard"; let x: &[_] = &['1', '2']; assert_eq!(s.rfind(x), None); }
let s = "Löwe 老虎 Léopard";
let x: &[_] = &['1', '2'];

assert_eq!(s.rfind(x), None);

1.0.0fn split<'a, P>(&'a self, pat: P) -> Split<'a, P> where P: Pattern<'a>

An iterator over substrings of this string slice, separated by characters matched by a pattern.

The pattern can be a &str, char, or a closure that determines the split.

Iterator behavior

The returned iterator will be a DoubleEndedIterator if the pattern allows a reverse search and forward/reverse search yields the same elements. This is true for, eg, char but not for &str.

If the pattern allows a reverse search but its results might differ from a forward search, the rsplit() method can be used.

Examples

Simple patterns:

fn main() { let v: Vec<&str> = "Mary had a little lamb".split(' ').collect(); assert_eq!(v, ["Mary", "had", "a", "little", "lamb"]); let v: Vec<&str> = "".split('X').collect(); assert_eq!(v, [""]); let v: Vec<&str> = "lionXXtigerXleopard".split('X').collect(); assert_eq!(v, ["lion", "", "tiger", "leopard"]); let v: Vec<&str> = "lion::tiger::leopard".split("::").collect(); assert_eq!(v, ["lion", "tiger", "leopard"]); let v: Vec<&str> = "abc1def2ghi".split(char::is_numeric).collect(); assert_eq!(v, ["abc", "def", "ghi"]); let v: Vec<&str> = "lionXtigerXleopard".split(char::is_uppercase).collect(); assert_eq!(v, ["lion", "tiger", "leopard"]); }
let v: Vec<&str> = "Mary had a little lamb".split(' ').collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["Mary", "had", "a", "little", "lamb"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "".split('X').collect();
assert_eq!(v, [""]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "lionXXtigerXleopard".split('X').collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["lion", "", "tiger", "leopard"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "lion::tiger::leopard".split("::").collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["lion", "tiger", "leopard"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "abc1def2ghi".split(char::is_numeric).collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["abc", "def", "ghi"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "lionXtigerXleopard".split(char::is_uppercase).collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["lion", "tiger", "leopard"]);

A more complex pattern, using a closure:

fn main() { let v: Vec<&str> = "abc1defXghi".split(|c| c == '1' || c == 'X').collect(); assert_eq!(v, ["abc", "def", "ghi"]); }
let v: Vec<&str> = "abc1defXghi".split(|c| c == '1' || c == 'X').collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["abc", "def", "ghi"]);

If a string contains multiple contiguous separators, you will end up with empty strings in the output:

fn main() { let x = "||||a||b|c".to_string(); let d: Vec<_> = x.split('|').collect(); assert_eq!(d, &["", "", "", "", "a", "", "b", "c"]); }
let x = "||||a||b|c".to_string();
let d: Vec<_> = x.split('|').collect();

assert_eq!(d, &["", "", "", "", "a", "", "b", "c"]);

This can lead to possibly surprising behavior when whitespace is used as the separator. This code is correct:

fn main() { let x = " a b c".to_string(); let d: Vec<_> = x.split(' ').collect(); assert_eq!(d, &["", "", "", "", "a", "", "b", "c"]); }
let x = "    a  b c".to_string();
let d: Vec<_> = x.split(' ').collect();

assert_eq!(d, &["", "", "", "", "a", "", "b", "c"]);

It does not give you:

fn main() { assert_eq!(d, &["a", "b", "c"]); }
assert_eq!(d, &["a", "b", "c"]);

Use split_whitespace() for this behavior.

1.0.0fn rsplit<'a, P>(&'a self, pat: P) -> RSplit<'a, P> where P: Pattern<'a>, P::Searcher: ReverseSearcher<'a>

An iterator over substrings of the given string slice, separated by characters matched by a pattern and yielded in reverse order.

The pattern can be a &str, char, or a closure that determines the split.

Iterator behavior

The returned iterator requires that the pattern supports a reverse search, and it will be a DoubleEndedIterator if a forward/reverse search yields the same elements.

For iterating from the front, the split() method can be used.

Examples

Simple patterns:

fn main() { let v: Vec<&str> = "Mary had a little lamb".rsplit(' ').collect(); assert_eq!(v, ["lamb", "little", "a", "had", "Mary"]); let v: Vec<&str> = "".rsplit('X').collect(); assert_eq!(v, [""]); let v: Vec<&str> = "lionXXtigerXleopard".rsplit('X').collect(); assert_eq!(v, ["leopard", "tiger", "", "lion"]); let v: Vec<&str> = "lion::tiger::leopard".rsplit("::").collect(); assert_eq!(v, ["leopard", "tiger", "lion"]); }
let v: Vec<&str> = "Mary had a little lamb".rsplit(' ').collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["lamb", "little", "a", "had", "Mary"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "".rsplit('X').collect();
assert_eq!(v, [""]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "lionXXtigerXleopard".rsplit('X').collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["leopard", "tiger", "", "lion"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "lion::tiger::leopard".rsplit("::").collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["leopard", "tiger", "lion"]);

A more complex pattern, using a closure:

fn main() { let v: Vec<&str> = "abc1defXghi".rsplit(|c| c == '1' || c == 'X').collect(); assert_eq!(v, ["ghi", "def", "abc"]); }
let v: Vec<&str> = "abc1defXghi".rsplit(|c| c == '1' || c == 'X').collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["ghi", "def", "abc"]);

1.0.0fn split_terminator<'a, P>(&'a self, pat: P) -> SplitTerminator<'a, P> where P: Pattern<'a>

An iterator over substrings of the given string slice, separated by characters matched by a pattern.

The pattern can be a &str, char, or a closure that determines the split.

Equivalent to split(), except that the trailing substring is skipped if empty.

This method can be used for string data that is terminated, rather than separated by a pattern.

Iterator behavior

The returned iterator will be a DoubleEndedIterator if the pattern allows a reverse search and forward/reverse search yields the same elements. This is true for, eg, char but not for &str.

If the pattern allows a reverse search but its results might differ from a forward search, the rsplit_terminator() method can be used.

Examples

Basic usage:

fn main() { let v: Vec<&str> = "A.B.".split_terminator('.').collect(); assert_eq!(v, ["A", "B"]); let v: Vec<&str> = "A..B..".split_terminator(".").collect(); assert_eq!(v, ["A", "", "B", ""]); }
let v: Vec<&str> = "A.B.".split_terminator('.').collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["A", "B"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "A..B..".split_terminator(".").collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["A", "", "B", ""]);

1.0.0fn rsplit_terminator<'a, P>(&'a self, pat: P) -> RSplitTerminator<'a, P> where P: Pattern<'a>, P::Searcher: ReverseSearcher<'a>

An iterator over substrings of self, separated by characters matched by a pattern and yielded in reverse order.

The pattern can be a simple &str, char, or a closure that determines the split. Additional libraries might provide more complex patterns like regular expressions.

Equivalent to split(), except that the trailing substring is skipped if empty.

This method can be used for string data that is terminated, rather than separated by a pattern.

Iterator behavior

The returned iterator requires that the pattern supports a reverse search, and it will be double ended if a forward/reverse search yields the same elements.

For iterating from the front, the split_terminator() method can be used.

Examples

fn main() { let v: Vec<&str> = "A.B.".rsplit_terminator('.').collect(); assert_eq!(v, ["B", "A"]); let v: Vec<&str> = "A..B..".rsplit_terminator(".").collect(); assert_eq!(v, ["", "B", "", "A"]); }
let v: Vec<&str> = "A.B.".rsplit_terminator('.').collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["B", "A"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "A..B..".rsplit_terminator(".").collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["", "B", "", "A"]);

1.0.0fn splitn<'a, P>(&'a self, count: usize, pat: P) -> SplitN<'a, P> where P: Pattern<'a>

An iterator over substrings of the given string slice, separated by a pattern, restricted to returning at most count items.

The last element returned, if any, will contain the remainder of the string slice.

The pattern can be a &str, char, or a closure that determines the split.

Iterator behavior

The returned iterator will not be double ended, because it is not efficient to support.

If the pattern allows a reverse search, the rsplitn() method can be used.

Examples

Simple patterns:

fn main() { let v: Vec<&str> = "Mary had a little lambda".splitn(3, ' ').collect(); assert_eq!(v, ["Mary", "had", "a little lambda"]); let v: Vec<&str> = "lionXXtigerXleopard".splitn(3, "X").collect(); assert_eq!(v, ["lion", "", "tigerXleopard"]); let v: Vec<&str> = "abcXdef".splitn(1, 'X').collect(); assert_eq!(v, ["abcXdef"]); let v: Vec<&str> = "".splitn(1, 'X').collect(); assert_eq!(v, [""]); }
let v: Vec<&str> = "Mary had a little lambda".splitn(3, ' ').collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["Mary", "had", "a little lambda"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "lionXXtigerXleopard".splitn(3, "X").collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["lion", "", "tigerXleopard"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "abcXdef".splitn(1, 'X').collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["abcXdef"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "".splitn(1, 'X').collect();
assert_eq!(v, [""]);

A more complex pattern, using a closure:

fn main() { let v: Vec<&str> = "abc1defXghi".splitn(2, |c| c == '1' || c == 'X').collect(); assert_eq!(v, ["abc", "defXghi"]); }
let v: Vec<&str> = "abc1defXghi".splitn(2, |c| c == '1' || c == 'X').collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["abc", "defXghi"]);

1.0.0fn rsplitn<'a, P>(&'a self, count: usize, pat: P) -> RSplitN<'a, P> where P: Pattern<'a>, P::Searcher: ReverseSearcher<'a>

An iterator over substrings of this string slice, separated by a pattern, starting from the end of the string, restricted to returning at most count items.

The last element returned, if any, will contain the remainder of the string slice.

The pattern can be a &str, char, or a closure that determines the split.

Iterator behavior

The returned iterator will not be double ended, because it is not efficient to support.

For splitting from the front, the splitn() method can be used.

Examples

Simple patterns:

fn main() { let v: Vec<&str> = "Mary had a little lamb".rsplitn(3, ' ').collect(); assert_eq!(v, ["lamb", "little", "Mary had a"]); let v: Vec<&str> = "lionXXtigerXleopard".rsplitn(3, 'X').collect(); assert_eq!(v, ["leopard", "tiger", "lionX"]); let v: Vec<&str> = "lion::tiger::leopard".rsplitn(2, "::").collect(); assert_eq!(v, ["leopard", "lion::tiger"]); }
let v: Vec<&str> = "Mary had a little lamb".rsplitn(3, ' ').collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["lamb", "little", "Mary had a"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "lionXXtigerXleopard".rsplitn(3, 'X').collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["leopard", "tiger", "lionX"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "lion::tiger::leopard".rsplitn(2, "::").collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["leopard", "lion::tiger"]);

A more complex pattern, using a closure:

fn main() { let v: Vec<&str> = "abc1defXghi".rsplitn(2, |c| c == '1' || c == 'X').collect(); assert_eq!(v, ["ghi", "abc1def"]); }
let v: Vec<&str> = "abc1defXghi".rsplitn(2, |c| c == '1' || c == 'X').collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["ghi", "abc1def"]);

1.2.0fn matches<'a, P>(&'a self, pat: P) -> Matches<'a, P> where P: Pattern<'a>

An iterator over the matches of a pattern within the given string slice.

The pattern can be a &str, char, or a closure that determines if a character matches.

Iterator behavior

The returned iterator will be a DoubleEndedIterator if the pattern allows a reverse search and forward/reverse search yields the same elements. This is true for, eg, char but not for &str.

If the pattern allows a reverse search but its results might differ from a forward search, the rmatches() method can be used.

Examples

Basic usage:

fn main() { let v: Vec<&str> = "abcXXXabcYYYabc".matches("abc").collect(); assert_eq!(v, ["abc", "abc", "abc"]); let v: Vec<&str> = "1abc2abc3".matches(char::is_numeric).collect(); assert_eq!(v, ["1", "2", "3"]); }
let v: Vec<&str> = "abcXXXabcYYYabc".matches("abc").collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["abc", "abc", "abc"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "1abc2abc3".matches(char::is_numeric).collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["1", "2", "3"]);

1.2.0fn rmatches<'a, P>(&'a self, pat: P) -> RMatches<'a, P> where P: Pattern<'a>, P::Searcher: ReverseSearcher<'a>

An iterator over the matches of a pattern within this string slice, yielded in reverse order.

The pattern can be a &str, char, or a closure that determines if a character matches.

Iterator behavior

The returned iterator requires that the pattern supports a reverse search, and it will be a DoubleEndedIterator if a forward/reverse search yields the same elements.

For iterating from the front, the matches() method can be used.

Examples

Basic usage:

fn main() { let v: Vec<&str> = "abcXXXabcYYYabc".rmatches("abc").collect(); assert_eq!(v, ["abc", "abc", "abc"]); let v: Vec<&str> = "1abc2abc3".rmatches(char::is_numeric).collect(); assert_eq!(v, ["3", "2", "1"]); }
let v: Vec<&str> = "abcXXXabcYYYabc".rmatches("abc").collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["abc", "abc", "abc"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "1abc2abc3".rmatches(char::is_numeric).collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["3", "2", "1"]);

1.5.0fn match_indices<'a, P>(&'a self, pat: P) -> MatchIndices<'a, P> where P: Pattern<'a>

An iterator over the disjoint matches of a pattern within this string slice as well as the index that the match starts at.

For matches of pat within self that overlap, only the indices corresponding to the first match are returned.

The pattern can be a &str, char, or a closure that determines if a character matches.

Iterator behavior

The returned iterator will be a DoubleEndedIterator if the pattern allows a reverse search and forward/reverse search yields the same elements. This is true for, eg, char but not for &str.

If the pattern allows a reverse search but its results might differ from a forward search, the rmatch_indices() method can be used.

Examples

Basic usage:

fn main() { let v: Vec<_> = "abcXXXabcYYYabc".match_indices("abc").collect(); assert_eq!(v, [(0, "abc"), (6, "abc"), (12, "abc")]); let v: Vec<_> = "1abcabc2".match_indices("abc").collect(); assert_eq!(v, [(1, "abc"), (4, "abc")]); let v: Vec<_> = "ababa".match_indices("aba").collect(); assert_eq!(v, [(0, "aba")]); // only the first `aba` }
let v: Vec<_> = "abcXXXabcYYYabc".match_indices("abc").collect();
assert_eq!(v, [(0, "abc"), (6, "abc"), (12, "abc")]);

let v: Vec<_> = "1abcabc2".match_indices("abc").collect();
assert_eq!(v, [(1, "abc"), (4, "abc")]);

let v: Vec<_> = "ababa".match_indices("aba").collect();
assert_eq!(v, [(0, "aba")]); // only the first `aba`

1.5.0fn rmatch_indices<'a, P>(&'a self, pat: P) -> RMatchIndices<'a, P> where P: Pattern<'a>, P::Searcher: ReverseSearcher<'a>

An iterator over the disjoint matches of a pattern within self, yielded in reverse order along with the index of the match.

For matches of pat within self that overlap, only the indices corresponding to the last match are returned.

The pattern can be a &str, char, or a closure that determines if a character matches.

Iterator behavior

The returned iterator requires that the pattern supports a reverse search, and it will be a DoubleEndedIterator if a forward/reverse search yields the same elements.

For iterating from the front, the match_indices() method can be used.

Examples

Basic usage:

fn main() { let v: Vec<_> = "abcXXXabcYYYabc".rmatch_indices("abc").collect(); assert_eq!(v, [(12, "abc"), (6, "abc"), (0, "abc")]); let v: Vec<_> = "1abcabc2".rmatch_indices("abc").collect(); assert_eq!(v, [(4, "abc"), (1, "abc")]); let v: Vec<_> = "ababa".rmatch_indices("aba").collect(); assert_eq!(v, [(2, "aba")]); // only the last `aba` }
let v: Vec<_> = "abcXXXabcYYYabc".rmatch_indices("abc").collect();
assert_eq!(v, [(12, "abc"), (6, "abc"), (0, "abc")]);

let v: Vec<_> = "1abcabc2".rmatch_indices("abc").collect();
assert_eq!(v, [(4, "abc"), (1, "abc")]);

let v: Vec<_> = "ababa".rmatch_indices("aba").collect();
assert_eq!(v, [(2, "aba")]); // only the last `aba`

1.0.0fn trim(&self) -> &str

Returns a string slice with leading and trailing whitespace removed.

'Whitespace' is defined according to the terms of the Unicode Derived Core Property White_Space.

Examples

Basic usage:

fn main() { let s = " Hello\tworld\t"; assert_eq!("Hello\tworld", s.trim()); }
let s = " Hello\tworld\t";

assert_eq!("Hello\tworld", s.trim());

1.0.0fn trim_left(&self) -> &str

Returns a string slice with leading whitespace removed.

'Whitespace' is defined according to the terms of the Unicode Derived Core Property White_Space.

Text directionality

A string is a sequence of bytes. 'Left' in this context means the first position of that byte string; for a language like Arabic or Hebrew which are 'right to left' rather than 'left to right', this will be the right side, not the left.

Examples

Basic usage:

fn main() { let s = " Hello\tworld\t"; assert_eq!("Hello\tworld\t", s.trim_left()); }
let s = " Hello\tworld\t";

assert_eq!("Hello\tworld\t", s.trim_left());

Directionality:

fn main() { let s = " English"; assert!(Some('E') == s.trim_left().chars().next()); let s = " עברית"; assert!(Some('ע') == s.trim_left().chars().next()); }
let s = "  English";
assert!(Some('E') == s.trim_left().chars().next());

let s = "  עברית";
assert!(Some('ע') == s.trim_left().chars().next());

1.0.0fn trim_right(&self) -> &str

Returns a string slice with trailing whitespace removed.

'Whitespace' is defined according to the terms of the Unicode Derived Core Property White_Space.

Text directionality

A string is a sequence of bytes. 'Right' in this context means the last position of that byte string; for a language like Arabic or Hebrew which are 'right to left' rather than 'left to right', this will be the left side, not the right.

Examples

Basic usage:

fn main() { let s = " Hello\tworld\t"; assert_eq!(" Hello\tworld", s.trim_right()); }
let s = " Hello\tworld\t";

assert_eq!(" Hello\tworld", s.trim_right());

Directionality:

fn main() { let s = "English "; assert!(Some('h') == s.trim_right().chars().rev().next()); let s = "עברית "; assert!(Some('ת') == s.trim_right().chars().rev().next()); }
let s = "English  ";
assert!(Some('h') == s.trim_right().chars().rev().next());

let s = "עברית  ";
assert!(Some('ת') == s.trim_right().chars().rev().next());

1.0.0fn trim_matches<'a, P>(&'a self, pat: P) -> &'a str where P: Pattern<'a>, P::Searcher: DoubleEndedSearcher<'a>

Returns a string slice with all prefixes and suffixes that match a pattern repeatedly removed.

The pattern can be a &str, char, or a closure that determines if a character matches.

Examples

Simple patterns:

fn main() { assert_eq!("11foo1bar11".trim_matches('1'), "foo1bar"); assert_eq!("123foo1bar123".trim_matches(char::is_numeric), "foo1bar"); let x: &[_] = &['1', '2']; assert_eq!("12foo1bar12".trim_matches(x), "foo1bar"); }
assert_eq!("11foo1bar11".trim_matches('1'), "foo1bar");
assert_eq!("123foo1bar123".trim_matches(char::is_numeric), "foo1bar");

let x: &[_] = &['1', '2'];
assert_eq!("12foo1bar12".trim_matches(x), "foo1bar");

A more complex pattern, using a closure:

fn main() { assert_eq!("1foo1barXX".trim_matches(|c| c == '1' || c == 'X'), "foo1bar"); }
assert_eq!("1foo1barXX".trim_matches(|c| c == '1' || c == 'X'), "foo1bar");

1.0.0fn trim_left_matches<'a, P>(&'a self, pat: P) -> &'a str where P: Pattern<'a>

Returns a string slice with all prefixes that match a pattern repeatedly removed.

The pattern can be a &str, char, or a closure that determines if a character matches.

Text directionality

A string is a sequence of bytes. 'Left' in this context means the first position of that byte string; for a language like Arabic or Hebrew which are 'right to left' rather than 'left to right', this will be the right side, not the left.

Examples

Basic usage:

fn main() { assert_eq!("11foo1bar11".trim_left_matches('1'), "foo1bar11"); assert_eq!("123foo1bar123".trim_left_matches(char::is_numeric), "foo1bar123"); let x: &[_] = &['1', '2']; assert_eq!("12foo1bar12".trim_left_matches(x), "foo1bar12"); }
assert_eq!("11foo1bar11".trim_left_matches('1'), "foo1bar11");
assert_eq!("123foo1bar123".trim_left_matches(char::is_numeric), "foo1bar123");

let x: &[_] = &['1', '2'];
assert_eq!("12foo1bar12".trim_left_matches(x), "foo1bar12");

1.0.0fn trim_right_matches<'a, P>(&'a self, pat: P) -> &'a str where P: Pattern<'a>, P::Searcher: ReverseSearcher<'a>

Returns a string slice with all suffixes that match a pattern repeatedly removed.

The pattern can be a &str, char, or a closure that determines if a character matches.

Text directionality

A string is a sequence of bytes. 'Right' in this context means the last position of that byte string; for a language like Arabic or Hebrew which are 'right to left' rather than 'left to right', this will be the left side, not the right.

Examples

Simple patterns:

fn main() { assert_eq!("11foo1bar11".trim_right_matches('1'), "11foo1bar"); assert_eq!("123foo1bar123".trim_right_matches(char::is_numeric), "123foo1bar"); let x: &[_] = &['1', '2']; assert_eq!("12foo1bar12".trim_right_matches(x), "12foo1bar"); }
assert_eq!("11foo1bar11".trim_right_matches('1'), "11foo1bar");
assert_eq!("123foo1bar123".trim_right_matches(char::is_numeric), "123foo1bar");

let x: &[_] = &['1', '2'];
assert_eq!("12foo1bar12".trim_right_matches(x), "12foo1bar");

A more complex pattern, using a closure:

fn main() { assert_eq!("1fooX".trim_left_matches(|c| c == '1' || c == 'X'), "fooX"); }
assert_eq!("1fooX".trim_left_matches(|c| c == '1' || c == 'X'), "fooX");

1.0.0fn parse<F>(&self) -> Result<F, F::Err> where F: FromStr

Parses this string slice into another type.

Because parse() is so general, it can cause problems with type inference. As such, parse() is one of the few times you'll see the syntax affectionately known as the 'turbofish': ::<>. This helps the inference algorithm understand specifically which type you're trying to parse into.

parse() can parse any type that implements the FromStr trait.

Errors

Will return Err if it's not possible to parse this string slice into the desired type.

Example

Basic usage

fn main() { let four: u32 = "4".parse().unwrap(); assert_eq!(4, four); }
let four: u32 = "4".parse().unwrap();

assert_eq!(4, four);

Using the 'turbofish' instead of annotating four:

fn main() { let four = "4".parse::<u32>(); assert_eq!(Ok(4), four); }
let four = "4".parse::<u32>();

assert_eq!(Ok(4), four);

Failing to parse:

fn main() { let nope = "j".parse::<u32>(); assert!(nope.is_err()); }
let nope = "j".parse::<u32>();

assert!(nope.is_err());

1.0.0fn replace<'a, P>(&'a self, from: P, to: &str) -> String where P: Pattern<'a>

Replaces all matches of a pattern with another string.

replace creates a new String, and copies the data from this string slice into it. While doing so, it attempts to find matches of a pattern. If it finds any, it replaces them with the replacement string slice.

Examples

Basic usage:

fn main() { let s = "this is old"; assert_eq!("this is new", s.replace("old", "new")); }
let s = "this is old";

assert_eq!("this is new", s.replace("old", "new"));

When the pattern doesn't match:

fn main() { let s = "this is old"; assert_eq!(s, s.replace("cookie monster", "little lamb")); }
let s = "this is old";
assert_eq!(s, s.replace("cookie monster", "little lamb"));

1.2.0fn to_lowercase(&self) -> String

Returns the lowercase equivalent of this string slice, as a new String.

'Lowercase' is defined according to the terms of the Unicode Derived Core Property Lowercase.

Examples

Basic usage:

fn main() { let s = "HELLO"; assert_eq!("hello", s.to_lowercase()); }
let s = "HELLO";

assert_eq!("hello", s.to_lowercase());

A tricky example, with sigma:

fn main() { let sigma = "Σ"; assert_eq!("σ", sigma.to_lowercase()); // but at the end of a word, it's ς, not σ: let odysseus = "ὈΔΥΣΣΕΎΣ"; assert_eq!("ὀδυσσεύς", odysseus.to_lowercase()); }
let sigma = "Σ";

assert_eq!("σ", sigma.to_lowercase());

// but at the end of a word, it's ς, not σ:
let odysseus = "ὈΔΥΣΣΕΎΣ";

assert_eq!("ὀδυσσεύς", odysseus.to_lowercase());

Languages without case are not changed:

fn main() { let new_year = "农历新年"; assert_eq!(new_year, new_year.to_lowercase()); }
let new_year = "农历新年";

assert_eq!(new_year, new_year.to_lowercase());

1.2.0fn to_uppercase(&self) -> String

Returns the uppercase equivalent of this string slice, as a new String.

'Uppercase' is defined according to the terms of the Unicode Derived Core Property Uppercase.

Examples

Basic usage:

fn main() { let s = "hello"; assert_eq!("HELLO", s.to_uppercase()); }
let s = "hello";

assert_eq!("HELLO", s.to_uppercase());

Scripts without case are not changed:

fn main() { let new_year = "农历新年"; assert_eq!(new_year, new_year.to_uppercase()); }
let new_year = "农历新年";

assert_eq!(new_year, new_year.to_uppercase());

fn escape_default(&self) -> String

Unstable (str_escape #27791)

: return type may change to be an iterator

Escapes each char in s with char::escape_default.

fn escape_unicode(&self) -> String

Unstable (str_escape #27791)

: return type may change to be an iterator

Escapes each char in s with char::escape_unicode.

1.4.0fn into_string(self: Box<str>) -> String

Converts a Box<str> into a String without copying or allocating.

Examples

Basic usage:

fn main() { let string = String::from("birthday gift"); let boxed_str = string.clone().into_boxed_str(); assert_eq!(boxed_str.into_string(), string); }
let string = String::from("birthday gift");
let boxed_str = string.clone().into_boxed_str();

assert_eq!(boxed_str.into_string(), string);

Trait Implementations

impl Display for str1.0.0

fn fmt(&self, f: &mut Formatter) -> Result<(), Error>

impl Debug for str1.0.0

fn fmt(&self, f: &mut Formatter) -> Result<(), Error>

impl Hash for str1.0.0

fn hash<H>(&self, state: &mut H) where H: Hasher

1.3.0fn hash_slice<H>(data: &[Self], state: &mut H) where H: Hasher

impl<'a> Default for &'a str1.0.0

fn default() -> &'a str

impl AsRef<[u8]> for str1.0.0

fn as_ref(&self) -> &[u8]

impl IndexMut<RangeToInclusive<usize>> for str

fn index_mut(&mut self, index: RangeToInclusive<usize>) -> &mut str

impl IndexMut<RangeInclusive<usize>> for str

fn index_mut(&mut self, index: RangeInclusive<usize>) -> &mut str

impl Index<RangeToInclusive<usize>> for str

type Output = str

fn index(&self, index: RangeToInclusive<usize>) -> &str

impl Index<RangeInclusive<usize>> for str

type Output = str

fn index(&self, index: RangeInclusive<usize>) -> &str

impl IndexMut<RangeFull> for str1.2.0

Implements mutable substring slicing with syntax &mut self[..].

Returns a mutable slice of the whole string. This operation can never panic.

Equivalent to &mut self[0 .. len].

fn index_mut(&mut self, _index: RangeFull) -> &mut str

impl Index<RangeFull> for str1.0.0

Implements substring slicing with syntax &self[..].

Returns a slice of the whole string. This operation can never panic.

Equivalent to &self[0 .. len].

type Output = str

fn index(&self, _index: RangeFull) -> &str

impl IndexMut<RangeFrom<usize>> for str1.2.0

Implements mutable substring slicing with syntax &mut self[begin ..].

Returns a mutable slice of the string from byte offset begin to the end of the string.

Equivalent to &mut self[begin .. len].

fn index_mut(&mut self, index: RangeFrom<usize>) -> &mut str

impl Index<RangeFrom<usize>> for str1.0.0

Implements substring slicing with syntax &self[begin ..].

Returns a slice of the string from byte offset begin to the end of the string.

Equivalent to &self[begin .. len].

type Output = str

fn index(&self, index: RangeFrom<usize>) -> &str

impl IndexMut<RangeTo<usize>> for str1.2.0

Implements mutable substring slicing with syntax &mut self[.. end].

Returns a mutable slice of the string from the beginning to byte offset end.

Equivalent to &mut self[0 .. end].

fn index_mut(&mut self, index: RangeTo<usize>) -> &mut str

impl Index<RangeTo<usize>> for str1.0.0

Implements substring slicing with syntax &self[.. end].

Returns a slice of the string from the beginning to byte offset end.

Equivalent to &self[0 .. end].

type Output = str

fn index(&self, index: RangeTo<usize>) -> &str

impl IndexMut<Range<usize>> for str1.2.0

Implements mutable substring slicing with syntax &mut self[begin .. end].

Returns a mutable slice of the given string from the byte range [begin..end).

This operation is O(1).

Panics

Panics if begin or end does not point to the starting byte offset of a character (as defined by is_char_boundary). Requires that begin <= end and end <= len where len is the length of the string.

fn index_mut(&mut self, index: Range<usize>) -> &mut str

impl Index<Range<usize>> for str1.0.0

Implements substring slicing with syntax &self[begin .. end].

Returns a slice of the given string from the byte range [begin..end).

This operation is O(1).

Panics

Panics if begin or end does not point to the starting byte offset of a character (as defined by is_char_boundary). Requires that begin <= end and end <= len where len is the length of the string.

Examples

fn main() { let s = "Löwe 老虎 Léopard"; assert_eq!(&s[0 .. 1], "L"); assert_eq!(&s[1 .. 9], "öwe 老"); // these will panic: // byte 2 lies within `ö`: // &s[2 ..3]; // byte 8 lies within `老` // &s[1 .. 8]; // byte 100 is outside the string // &s[3 .. 100]; }
let s = "Löwe 老虎 Léopard";
assert_eq!(&s[0 .. 1], "L");

assert_eq!(&s[1 .. 9], "öwe 老");

// these will panic:
// byte 2 lies within `ö`:
// &s[2 ..3];

// byte 8 lies within `老`
// &s[1 .. 8];

// byte 100 is outside the string
// &s[3 .. 100];

type Output = str

fn index(&self, index: Range<usize>) -> &str

impl PartialOrd<str> for str1.0.0

fn partial_cmp(&self, other: &str) -> Option<Ordering>

1.0.0fn lt(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

1.0.0fn le(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

1.0.0fn gt(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

1.0.0fn ge(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

impl Eq for str1.0.0

impl PartialEq<str> for str1.0.0

fn eq(&self, other: &str) -> bool

fn ne(&self, other: &str) -> bool

impl Ord for str1.0.0

fn cmp(&self, other: &str) -> Ordering

impl<'a, 'b> Pattern<'a> for &'b str

Non-allocating substring search.

Will handle the pattern "" as returning empty matches at each character boundary.

type Searcher = StrSearcher<'a, 'b>

fn into_searcher(self, haystack: &'a str) -> StrSearcher<'a, 'b>

fn is_prefix_of(self, haystack: &'a str) -> bool

fn is_suffix_of(self, haystack: &'a str) -> bool

fn is_contained_in(self, haystack: &'a str) -> bool

impl Repr<Slice<u8>> for str

fn repr(&self) -> T

impl AsRef<str> for str1.0.0

fn as_ref(&self) -> &str

impl ToString for str1.9.0

fn to_string(&self) -> String

impl<'a, 'b> PartialEq<Cow<'a, str>> for &'b str1.0.0

fn eq(&self, other: &Cow<'a, str>) -> bool

fn ne(&self, other: &Cow<'a, str>) -> bool

impl<'a, 'b> PartialEq<Cow<'a, str>> for str1.0.0

fn eq(&self, other: &Cow<'a, str>) -> bool

fn ne(&self, other: &Cow<'a, str>) -> bool

impl<'a, 'b> PartialEq<String> for &'a str1.0.0

fn eq(&self, other: &String) -> bool

fn ne(&self, other: &String) -> bool

impl<'a, 'b> PartialEq<String> for str1.0.0

fn eq(&self, other: &String) -> bool

fn ne(&self, other: &String) -> bool

impl ToOwned for str1.0.0

type Owned = String

fn to_owned(&self) -> String

impl UnicodeStr for str

fn split_whitespace(&self) -> SplitWhitespace

fn is_whitespace(&self) -> bool

fn is_alphanumeric(&self) -> bool

fn trim(&self) -> &str

fn trim_left(&self) -> &str

fn trim_right(&self) -> &str

impl AsciiExt for str1.0.0

type Owned = String

fn is_ascii(&self) -> bool

fn to_ascii_uppercase(&self) -> String

fn to_ascii_lowercase(&self) -> String

fn eq_ignore_ascii_case(&self, other: &str) -> bool

fn make_ascii_uppercase(&mut self)

fn make_ascii_lowercase(&mut self)

impl PartialEq<OsString> for str1.0.0

fn eq(&self, other: &OsString) -> bool

1.0.0fn ne(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

impl PartialEq<OsStr> for str1.0.0

fn eq(&self, other: &OsStr) -> bool

1.0.0fn ne(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

impl AsRef<OsStr> for str1.0.0

fn as_ref(&self) -> &OsStr

impl ToSocketAddrs for str1.0.0

type Iter = IntoIter<SocketAddr>

fn to_socket_addrs(&self) -> Result<IntoIter<SocketAddr>>

impl AsRef<Path> for str1.0.0

fn as_ref(&self) -> &Path